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1.  Hepatocyte growth factor gene therapy accelerates regeneration in cirrhotic mouse livers after hepatectomy 
Gut  2003;52(5):694-700.
Background: Impaired regeneration and dysfunction of the cirrhotic liver following partial hepatectomy (PHx) are the most serious risk factors for postoperative liver failure.
Aims: Using naked hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plasmid by the electroporation (EP) in vivo method, we investigated HGF for its role and mechanism of proliferation and restoration of liver mass in cirrhotic mice following PHx.
Animals: Eight week old female mice were used.
Methods: HGF plasmid 50 μg was injected intramuscularly and transferred by EP in vivo once a week for three weeks. After establishment of carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis, mice underwent PHx. The HGF treated group was given naked HGF plasmid four days before PHx, and additional HGF was given once a week until they were killed, while a control group was given only empty plasmid. Mice were killed 2, 4, 10, and 14 days after PHx. Morphological and functional restoration of the liver were examined, as well as activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mRNA levels of HGF activator (HGFA).
Results: The HGF treated group demonstrated a continuous threefold increase in HGF levels in plasma. Therapy with HGF in cirrhotic PHx resulted in effective liver regeneration via restoration of HGFA and activation of MAPK p44/p42, accelerated normalisation of liver function, and increased collagen degradation.
Conclusions: HGF gene therapy by in vivo EP may be useful for hepatic resection in cirrhotic livers by stimulating liver proliferative and collagenolytic capacities, as well as accelerating functional recovery.
PMCID: PMC1773642  PMID: 12692055
electroporation; hepatocyte growth factor; cirrhosis; gene therapy
2.  Auditory evoked neuromagnetic response in cerebrovascular diseases: a preliminary study 
OBJECTIVES—Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measures aspects of the function of the auditory cortex of the human brain with high spatial resolution. The objective was to determine whether MEG also accurately identifies the auditory cortex of the brain in patients with ischaemic stroke.
METHODS—The auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) was examined after stimuli of 1 kHz tone bursts in 24 stroke patients without apparent infarcts in the auditory cortex, and compared the topography of sources of 50 ms (P50m) and 100 ms latency deflections (N100m), the most prominent components of middle and long latency AEFs, with that of 12 normal subjects. Cerebral haemodynamics in and around the auditory cortex were evaluated using PET.
RESULTS—In nine of 24 stroke patients, the accurate magnetic sources of P50m or N100m were not identified. The distribution of P50m sources varied more widely than N100m. Eight of these nine patients had severe stenotic lesions in the carotid or middle cerebral arterial trunks. Patients with abnormal P50m responses had decreased supratemporal and hemispheric blood flow compared with patients with normal P50m responses.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that large vessel disease with disturbed cerebral haemodynamics in and near the auditory cortex tend to affect AEFs, especially the middle latency components. This is the first combined study of MEG and PET to show a significant correlation between AEF responses in stroke patients and their PET indices.


PMCID: PMC2170114  PMID: 9647309
3.  Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-dopa uptake: difference in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism. 
Striatal blood flow, glucose metabolism and 18F-Dopa uptake were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) in eight non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and eight with atypical Parkinsonism. Patients with atypical Parkinsonism had no specific cause for the Parkinsonian symptoms and were clinically different from Parkinson's disease with lack of resting tremor and a poor response to dopaminergic drugs. Decreased 18F-Dopa uptake in the putamen was observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism compared with normal controls. 18F-Dopa uptake in the head of the caudate was also significantly reduced in both conditions but relatively less in Parkinson's disease. Decreased blood flow and glucose metabolism in the striatum associated with a global cerebral decrease were also observed in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with controls, while they were preserved in patients with Parkinson's disease, indicating affected neurons not only in the striatum but also in the cerebrum in patients with atypical Parkinsonism compared with patients with Parkinson's disease. The differences in the caudate 18F-Dopa uptake, and blood flow and glucose metabolism in the cerebrum including the striatum between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism assessed by PET may be due to the differences in the pathophysiological mechanism between Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism.
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PMCID: PMC1014575  PMID: 1744644
4.  Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia: a positron emission tomography study. 
In four patients who experienced transient global amnesia (TGA), clinical features and neuroradiological findings including positron emission tomography (PET) were studied within three months of the episodes, and compared with those in seven cases with cerebral transient ischaemic attacks (TIA). None of TGA patients had a previous history or significant risk factors for the cerebrovascular diseases. Their electroencephalogram, brain CT and angiogram for the head and neck were almost normal. PET study showed better preserved cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in each area of the brain in patients with TGA compared with those with TIA in whom focal reductions of flow and metabolism were evident. These observations suggest that TGA is caused by reversible circulatory and/or metabolic disturbance, of which mechanism might be different from that in TIA.
Images
PMCID: PMC1032177  PMID: 2786552
5.  Positron emission tomography in cases of chorea with different underlying diseases. 
Local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRglc) was measured with positron emission tomography using the 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose method in five patients with chorea due to different underlying diseases. Hypometabolism was observed in the striatum bilaterally in patients with Huntington's disease, choreoacanthocytosis, sporadic progressive chorea and dementia, and pseudo-Huntington form of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA). The patient with hemichorea showed hypometabolism in the striatum on the contralateral side to the chorea. The patient with pseudo-Huntington form of DRPLA showed a diffusely decreased LCMRglc in other structures including the cerebral cortex, thalamus and cerebellum. These findings indicated that dysfunction of the striatum is relevant to the genesis of chorea in all these patients, even though the extent of dysfunction in other structures is different in each case.
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PMCID: PMC1032451  PMID: 2960785

Results 1-5 (5)