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1.  Associated bone mineral density and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Background
Osteoporosis is an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Worse systemic inflammation and reduced exercise capacity have been reported in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), implying that OSA may be an independent factor for osteoporosis in COPD patients.
Methods
A total of 66 patients with bone mineral density (BMD) and polysomnography results from a previous COPD cohort (January 2008 to January 2013) were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics such as medication, pulmonary function, BMD, and results of polysomnography were analyzed.
Results
The BMD in those with OSA was significantly lower than in those without OSA (−1.99±1.63 versus −1.27±1.14, P=0.045). In univariate analysis, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, percentage of predicted value, incremental shuttle walk test, apnea–hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were significantly associated with BMD. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the ODI was still an independent factor for BMD. In addition, smaller total lung capacity is significantly associated with higher ODI and lower BMD, which implies that lower BMD might cause severer OSA via decreased total lung capacity.
Conclusion
OSA may be an independent factor for BMD in patients with COPD, which implies a possible vicious cycle takes place in these patients.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S72099
PMCID: PMC4321657
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; osteoporosis; total lung capacity
2.  CD14+S100A9+ Monocytic Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells and Their Clinical Relevance in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Rationale: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous family of myeloid cells that suppress T-cell immunity in tumor-bearing hosts. Their clinical relevance remains unclear.
Objectives: To identify subtypes of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their clinical relevance.
Methods: CD11b+CD14− and CD11b+CD14+ cells, determined and phenotyped by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC were correlated with clinical data. T-cell activation in response to CD3/CD28 costimulation was determined by carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining and ELISA analysis of IFN-γ. The percentage of CD11b+CD14+S100A9+ cells in PBMCs was correlated with and tested as a predictor for treatment response in a cohort of patients prospectively receiving first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Measurements and Main Results: Patients with NSCLC had a significantly higher ratio of CD11b+CD14+ cells than healthy subjects, which was correlated with poor performance status and poor response to chemotherapy. The depletion of these cells in the PBMC reversed the suppression of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Isolated CD11b+CD14+ cells suppressed CD8+ T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, and the former effect was attenuated by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride, arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA), and blocking antibodies for IL-4Rα+ and IL-10. CD11b+CD14+ cells were monocyte-like, expressing CD33+, CD15−/low, IL-4Rα+, and S100A9+ and producing iNOS, arginase, and several cytokines. The ratio of S100A9+ cells positively correlated with the suppressive ability of the CD11b+CD14+ cells, was associated with poor response to chemotherapy, and predicted shorter progression-free survival.
Conclusions: CD14+S100A9+ inflammatory monocytes in patients with NSCLC are a distinct subset of MDSCs, which suppress T cells by arginase, iNOS, and the IL-13/IL-4Rα axis. The amount of these inflammatory monocytes is associated with poor response to chemotherapy.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01204307).
doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0636OC
PMCID: PMC4132576  PMID: 22955317
non–small cell lung cancer; myeloid-derived suppressor cell; S100A9; cancer immunity
3.  Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2014;14:142.
Background
Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients.
Methods
To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines.
Results
Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group.
Conclusions
A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019)
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-14-142
PMCID: PMC4236722  PMID: 25175787
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Pulmonary rehabilitation; Mobile phone; Biomarker; Interleukin-8
4.  NF-κB repressing factor downregulates basal expression and mycobacterium tuberculosis induced IP-10 and IL-8 synthesis via interference with NF-κB in monocytes 
Background
Our previous study showed NF-κB repressing factor (NKRF) downregulates IP-10 and IL-8 synthesis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and alveolar macrophages of TB patients with high bacterial loads. However, the mechanism underlying the repressive effect of NKRF is not fully understood.
Results
The levels of IP-10, IL-8 and NKRF were significantly up-regulated in THP-1 cells treated with heated mycobacterium tuberculosis (H. TB). NKRF inhibited NF-κB-mediated IP-10 and IL-8 synthesis and release induced by H. TB. The repressive effect of NKRF is mediated via interference with NF-κB (p65) binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment to promoter sites of IP-10 and IL-8.
Conclusions
We have elucidated that direct contact with MTb induces IP-10, IL-8 and a concomitant increase in NKRF in THP-1 cells. The up-regulated NKRF serves as an endogenous repressor for IP-10 and IL-8 synthesis to hinder host from robust response to MTb infection.
doi:10.1186/s12929-014-0071-5
PMCID: PMC4237804  PMID: 25135111
Tuberculosis; IP-10; IL-8; NF-κB repressing factor
5.  Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Low- and High-Concentration Isoniazid-Monoresistant Tuberculosis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86316.
Background
Isoniazid (INH) resistance is now the most common type of tuberculosis (TB) infection resistance worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.
Methods
One hundred and thirty-four patients with culture-confirmed INH-monoresistant TB during 2006 January to 2007 December were retrospectively enrolled. INH resistance was classified as either low-concentration or high-concentration resistance according to the critical concentrations of 0.2 µg/mL or 1 µg/mL of INH, respectively. The patients’ clinical outcomes, treatment regimens, and treatment duration were analyzed.
Results
The treatment success rates between low- and high-concentration INH-resistant TB were similar (81.8% vs. 86.7%). The treatment regimens and treatment duration were similar between both groups. Only a minor percentage of the patients in both groups received 6-month treatment regimens (low vs. high concentration resistance, 9.1% vs. 13.3%; respectively, p = 0.447) The most common reason for treatment duration longer than 6 months was pyrazinamide given for less than 6 months, followed by a delay in clinical response to treatment. Multivariable analysis showed that prior tuberculosis treatment (Odds ratio, 2.82, 95% C.I., 1.02–7.77, p = 0.045) was the only independent risk factor for unsuccessful treatment outcome.
Conclusion
Different levels of INH resistance did not affect the treatment outcomes of patients with INH-monoresistant tuberculosis. Prolonged Rifampin-containing regimens may achieve those good outcomes in patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086316
PMCID: PMC3899226  PMID: 24466020
6.  Chronic cough and obstructive sleep apnoea in a sleep laboratory-based pulmonary practice 
Background
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has recently been identified as a possible aetiology for chronic cough. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of chronic cough between patients with and without OSA and the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in resolving chronic cough.
Methods
Patients referred to the sleep laboratory from January 2012 to June 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical data, treatment course and resolution of chronic cough were analysed. Specifically, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD), upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, apnoea-hypopnoea index and the impact of CPAP treatment on chronic cough were assessed.
Results
A total of 131 patients were reviewed. The incidence of chronic cough in the OSA group was significantly higher than the non-OSA group (39/99 (39.4%) vs. 4/32 (12.5%), p = 0.005). Both GERD and apnoea-hypopnoea index were significantly associated with chronic cough in univariate analysis. After multivariate logistic regression, GERD was the only independent factor for chronic cough. Moreover, the resolution of chronic cough was more significant in the OSA patients with CPAP treatment compared with those not receiving CPAP treatment (12/18 (66.7%) vs. 2/21 (9.5%), p = 0.010).
Conclusion
The incidence of chronic cough was significantly higher in the OSA patients. In addition, CPAP treatment significantly improved chronic cough. Therefore, OSA may be a contributory factor to chronic cough.
doi:10.1186/1745-9974-9-24
PMCID: PMC4176501  PMID: 24188336
Chronic cough; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Continuous positive airway pressure
7.  NF-κB Repressing Factor Inhibits Chemokine Synthesis by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Alveolar Macrophages in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e77789.
NF-κB repressing factor (NRF) is a transcriptional silencer implicated in the basal silencing of specific NF-κB targeting genes, including iNOS, IFN-β and IL-8/CXCL8. IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8 are involved in neutrophil and lymphocyte recruitment against M. tuberculosis (MTb) and disease progression of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used to study the regulatory role of NRF in pulmonary TB. AM and PBMC were purified from 19 TB patients and 15 normal subjects. To study the underlying mechanism, PBMC were exposed to heated TB bacilli. The regulation role of NRF in IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8 was determined by NRF knock-down or over-expression. NRF binding capabilities in promoter sites were measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The levels of IP-10/CXCL10, IL-8/CXCL8 and NRF were significantly higher in AM and PBMC in patients with active TB. NRF played an inhibitory role in IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8 inductions. We delineate the role of NRF in pulmonary TB, which inhibits the expressions of IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8 in AM and PBMC of patients with high bacterial load. NRF may serve as an endogenous repressor to prevent robust increase in IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8 when TB bacterial load is high.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077789
PMCID: PMC3817197  PMID: 24223729
8.  Nocturnal CPAP improves walking capacity in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnoea 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):66.
Background
Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea.
Methods
Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment.
Results
After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P < 0.05), and decreased urinary catecholamine levels, pre-exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564).
Conclusion
Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome.
Trial registration
NCT00914264
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-66
PMCID: PMC3689615  PMID: 23782492
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Walking capacity; Autonomic dysfunction; Continuous positive airway pressure
9.  Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Polymorphism (-1607G) and Disease Severity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66265.
Objectives
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an irreversible dilatation of bronchi and is associated with lung fibrosis. MMP-1 polymorphism may alter its transcriptional activity, and differentially modulate bronchial destruction and lung fibrosis.
Design
To investigate the association of MMP-1 polymorphisms with disease severity in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis patients, 51 normal subjects and 113 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. The associations between MMP-1 polymorphisms, lung function, and disease severity evaluated by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were analyzed.
Results
The frequency of MMP-1(-1607G) allele was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than normal subjects (70.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.01). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G (1.2±0.1 L, n = 14) and 1G/2G (1.3±0.1 L, n = 66) genotypes compared to the 2G/2G genotype (1.7±0.1 L, n = 33, p<0.01). Six minute walking distance was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Disease severity evaluated by HRCT score significantly increased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotypes compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Bronchiectasis patients with at least one MMP-1 (-1607G) allele showed increased tendency for hospitalization. Serum levels of pro-MMP-1, active MMP-1 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with bronchiectasis with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype compared with 2G/2G genotype or normal subjects. Under IL-1β stimulation, peripheral blood monocytes from subjects with 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotype secreted higher levels of TGF-β1compared to subjects with 2G/2G genotype.
Conclusion
This is the first report to address the influence of MMP-1 polymorphisms on lung function and airway destruction in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Bronchiectasis patients with MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism may be more vulnerable to permanent lung fibrosis or airway destruction due to the enhanced MMP-1 and TGF-β1 activity. Upregulated MMP-1 activity results in proteolytic destruction of matrix, and leads to subsequent fibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066265
PMCID: PMC3679085  PMID: 23776649
10.  The Potential Regimen of Target-Controlled Infusion of Propofol in Flexible Bronchoscopy Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62744.
Objectives
Target-controlled infusion (TCI) provides precise pharmacokinetic control of propofol concentration in the effect-site (Ce), eg. brain. This pilot study aims to evaluate the feasibility and optimal TCI regimen for flexible bronchoscopy (FB) sedation.
Methods
After alfentanil bolus, initial induction Ce of propofol was targeted at 2 μg/ml. Patients were randomized into three titration groups (i.e., by 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 μg/ml, respectively) to maintain stable sedation levels and vital signs. Adverse events, frequency of adjustments, drug doses, and induction and recovery times were recorded.
Results
The study was closed early due to significantly severe hypoxemia events (oxyhemoglobin saturation <70%) in the group titrated at 0.5 μg/ml. Forty-nine, 49 and 46 patients were enrolled into the 3 respective groups before study closure. The proportion of patients with hypoxemia events differed significantly between groups (67.3 vs. 46.9 vs. 41.3%, p = 0.027). Hypotension events, induction and recovery time and propofol doses were not different. The Ce of induction differed significantly between groups (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.1±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.005) and the Ce of procedures was higher at 0.5 μg/ml titration (2.4±0.5 vs. 2.1±0.4 vs. 2.2±0.3 μg/ml, p = 0.006). The adjustment frequency tended to be higher for titration at 0.1 μg/ml but was not statistically significant (2 (0∼6) vs. 3 (0∼6) vs. 3 (0∼11)). Subgroup analysis revealed 14% of all patients required no further adjustment during the whole sedation. Comparing patients requiring at least one adjustment with those who did not, they were observed to have a shorter induction time (87.6±34.9 vs. 226.9±147.9 sec, p<0.001), a smaller induction dose and Ce (32.5±4.1 vs. 56.8±22.7 mg, p<0.001; 1.76±0.17 vs. 2.28 ±0.41, p<0.001, respectively), and less hypoxemia and hypotension (15.8 vs.56.9%, p = 0.001; 0 vs. 24.1%, p = 0.008, respectively).
Conclusion
Titration at 0.5 μg/ml is risky for FB sedation. A subgroup of patients required no more TCI adjustment with fewer complications. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimal regimen of TCI for FB sedation.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01101477
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062744
PMCID: PMC3634750  PMID: 23638141
11.  Development and implementation of a mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX) program to assess the clinical competencies of internal medicine residents: from faculty development to curriculum evaluation 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:31.
Background
The mini-CEX is a valid and reliable method to assess the clinical competencies of trainees. Its data could be useful for educators to redesign curriculum as a process of quality improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate a mini-CEX assessment program in our internal medicine residency training. We investigated the impact of mini-CEX workshops as a faculty development program on the acquisition of cognitive knowledge and the difference of practice behaviors among faculty members used the mini-CEX to assess residents’ performance at work.
Methods
We designed an observational, two-phase study. In the faculty development program, we started a mini-CEX workshop for trainers in 2010, and the short-term outcome of the program was evaluated by comparing the pretest and posttest results to demonstrate the improvement in cognitive knowledge on mini-CEX. From September 2010 to August 2011, we implemented a monthly mini-CEX assessment program in our internal medicine residency training. The data of these mini-CEX assessment forms were collected and analyzed.
Results
In the group of 49 mini-CEX workshop attendees, there was a statistically significant improvement in cognitive knowledge by comparing the pretest and posttest results (67.35 ± 15.25 versus 81.22 ± 10.34, p < 0.001). Among the 863 clinical encounters of mini-CEX, which involved 97 residents and 139 evaluators, 229 (26.5%), 326 (37.8%), and 308 (35.7%) evaluations were completed by the first-year, second-year, and third- year residents separately. We found a statistically significant interaction between level of training and score in dimensions of mini-CEX. The scores in all dimensions measured were better for senior residents. Participation in mini-CEX workshops as a faculty development program strengthened the adherence of trainers to the principles of mini-CEX as a formative assessment in regard to provision of feedback. However, a deficiency in engaging residents’ reflection was found.
Conclusions
Faculty development is a prerequisite to train evaluators in order to implement a successful mini-CEX assessment program. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our mini-CEX workshops in terms of knowledge acquisition and enhancement of giving feedback when the faculty members used the tool. Further programs on providing effective feedback should be conducted to increase the impact of the mini-CEX as a formative assessment.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-31
PMCID: PMC3599226  PMID: 23442216
Mini-CEX; Mini clinical evaluation exercise; Faculty development
12.  Exercise training with negative pressure ventilation improves exercise capacity in patients with severe restrictive lung disease: a prospective controlled study 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):22.
Background
Exercise training is of benefit for patients with restrictive lung disease. However, it tends to be intolerable for those with severe disease. We examined whether providing ventilatory assistance by using negative pressure ventilators (NPV) during exercise training is feasible for such patients and the effects of training.
Methods
36 patients with restrictive lung disease were prospectively enrolled for a 12-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. During this program, half of them (n:18; 60.3 ± 11.6 years; 6 men; FVC: 32.5 ± 11.7% predicted ) received regular sessions of exercise training under NPV, whilst the 18 others (59.6 ± 12.3 years; 8 men; FVC: 37.7 ± 10.2% predicted) did not. Exercise capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnea and quality of life were measured. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change of 6 minute-walk distance (6MWD) after 12 weeks of rehabilitation.
Results
All patients in the NPV-exercise group were able to tolerate and completed the program. The between-group differences were significantly better in the NPV-exercise group in changes of 6MWD (34.1 ± 12.7 m vs. -32.5 ± 17.5 m; P = 0.011) and St George Score (−14.5 ± 3.6 vs. 11.8 ± 6.0; P < 0.01). There was an improvement in dyspnea sensation (Borg’s scale, from 1.4 ± 1.5 point to 0.8 ± 1.3 point, P = 0.049) and a small increase in FVC (from 0.85 ± 0.09 L to 0.91 ± 0.08 L, P = 0.029) in the NPV-exercise group compared to the control group.
Conclusion
Exercise training with NPV support is feasible for patients with severe restrictive lung diseases, and improves exercise capacity and health-related quality of life.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-22
PMCID: PMC3598345  PMID: 23421438
Restrictive lung disease; Negative pressure ventilation; Exercise training; Exercise capacity; Health-related quality of life
13.  Characteristics of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities 
Background and objectives
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the characteristics of stable COPD patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities and also evaluated whether the exposure to biomass fuels and dusty jobs were related to respiratory symptoms, airflow limitation, and quality of life in the COPD patients.
Methods
This cross-sectional observational study recruited 922 COPD patients from seven cities of Asia. The patients underwent spirometry and were administered questionnaires about their exposure to cigarette smoking, biomass fuels, and dusty jobs in addition to respiratory symptoms and health related quality of life.
Results
Of the patients, there appeared to be variations from city to city in the history of exposure to biomass fuels and dusty jobs and also in respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and dyspnea. These symptoms were more frequent in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to biomass fuels than without and those with a history of exposure to dusty jobs than without (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Airflow limitation was more severe in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to biomass fuels than without (52.2% predicted versus 55.9% of post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], P = 0.009); quality of life was poorer in those with exposure to biomass fuels than without (40.4 versus 36.2 of the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score, P = 0.001). Airflow limitation was more severe in those COPD patients with a history of exposure to dusty jobs than without (51.2% predicted versus 57.3% of post-bronchodilator FEV1, P < 0.001); quality of life was poorer in those with dusty jobs than without (41.0 versus 34.6 of SGRQ score, P = 0.006).
Conclusion
In Asian cities, the characteristics of COPD patients vary and the history of exposure to biomass fuels or dusty jobs was related to frequency of symptoms, severe airflow limitation, and poor quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3553655  PMID: 23378753
COPD; Asia; biomass; dust
14.  Endobronchial Mucosa Invasion Predicts Survival in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47613.
Background
Current staging system for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) categorizes patients into limited- or extensive-stage disease groups according to anatomical localizations. Even so, a wide-range of survival times has been observed among patients in the same staging system. This study aimed to identify whether endobronchial mucosa invasion is an independent predictor for poor survival in patients with SCLC, and to compare the survival time between patients with and without endobronchial mucosa invasion.
Methods
We studied 432 consecutive patients with SCLC based on histological examination of biopsy specimens or on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and received computed tomography and bone scan for staging. All the enrolled patients were assessed for endobronchial mucosa invasion by bronchoscopic and histological examination. Survival days were compared between patients with or without endobronchial mucosa invasion and the predictors of decreased survival days were investigated.
Results
84% (364/432) of SCLC patients had endobronchial mucosal invasion by cancer cells at initial diagnosis. Endobronchial mucosal involvement (Hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.30–3.10), age (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.06), and extensive stage (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06–1.84) were independent contributing factors for shorter survival time, while received chemotherapy (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25–0.42) was an independent contributing factor better outcome. The survival days of SCLC patients with endobronchial involvement were markedly decreased compared with patients without (median 145 vs. 290, p<0.0001). Among SCLC patients of either limited (median 180 vs. 460, p<0.0001) or extensive (median 125 vs. 207, p<0.0001) stages, the median survival duration for patients with endobronchial mucosal invasion was shorter than those with intact endobronchial mucosa, respectively.
Conclusion
Endobronchial mucosal involvement is an independent prognostic factor for SCLC patients and associated with decreased survival days.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047613
PMCID: PMC3464219  PMID: 23056644
15.  Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for Diagnosing Tuberculous Pleurisy—A Diagnostic Accuracy Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44842.
Background
The study was designed to investigate the clinical usefulness of Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct (AMTD) tests for diagnosing TB pleurisy.
Methods
One hundred and fifty-two patients for whom the exclusion of tuberculous pleural effusion was necessary were retrospectively analyzed.
Results
The sensitivity of AMTD in diagnosing pleural TB was 36.4% (20 of 55). Combining sputum and pleural effusion AFB smear, pleural biopsy, and AMTD test of pleural effusion increased sensitivity to 82.5% (33/40). There were significantly higher percentages of neutrophils in the pleural effusion in the positive than in the negative AMTD group (38.0±6.7% vs. 11.1±3.7%, p<0.001). Patients with symptom duration <18 days prior to pleural effusion studies had more positive AMTD tests than those with symptom >18 days (70% vs. 31.4%; OR 5.09; 95% CI 1.54–16.79; p = 0.011).
Conclusions
Combining AMTD tests with conventional diagnostic methods offer good sensitivity for pleural TB diagnosis. Patients in the early course of the disease are better candidates for AMTD tests.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044842
PMCID: PMC3438172  PMID: 22970318
16.  Concomitant Active Tuberculosis Prolongs Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Study in a Tuberculosis-Endemic Country 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33226.
Background
Adjuvant tumor cell vaccine with chemotherapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) shows limited clinical response. Whether it provokes effective cellular immunity in tumor microenvironment is questionable. Concomitant active tuberculosis in NSCLC (TBLC) resembles locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine; thus, maximally enriches effective anti-tumor immunity. This study compares the survival and immunological cell profile in TBLC over NSCLC alone.
Methods
Retrospective review of NSCLC patients within 1-year-period of 2007 and follow-up till 2010.
Results
A total 276 NSCLC patients were included. The median survival of TBLC is longer than those of NSCLC alone (11.6 vs. 8.8 month, p<0.01). Active tuberculosis is an independent predictor of better survival with HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48∼0.97). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (55.8 vs. 31.7%, p<0.01) is a significant risk factor for NSCLC with active TB. The median survival of SCC with active tuberculosis is significantly longer than adenocarcinoma or undetermined NSCLC with TB (14.2 vs. 6.6 and 2.8 months, p<0.05). Active tuberculosis in SCC increases the expression of CD3 (46.4±24.8 vs. 24.0±16.0, p<0.05), CXCR3 (35.1±16.4 vs. 19.2±13.3, p<0.01) and IP-10 (63.5±21.9 vs. 35.5±21.0, p<0.01), while expression of FOXP3 is decreased (3.5±0.5 vs. 13.3±3.7 p<0.05, p<0.05). Survival of SCC with high expression of CD3 (12.1 vs. 3.6 month, p<0.05) and CXCR3 (12.1 vs. 4.4 month, p<0.05) is longer than that with low expression.
Conclusions
Active tuberculosis in NSCLC shows better survival outcome. The effective T lymphocyte infiltration in tumor possibly underlies the mechanism. Locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine may deserve further researches.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033226
PMCID: PMC3306389  PMID: 22438899
17.  Association Between Emphysema Score, Six-Minute Walk and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests in COPD 
Background:
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has allowed in detection of airway wall abnormalities and emphysema, whose extent may correlate with the clinical severity of the disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Six minute walk test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) can determine functional status.
Methods:
A study was undertaken to investigate whether the extent of emphysema in COPD patients quantitatively confirmed by HRCT scoring was associated with distance walked, inspiratory capacity (IC) changes after exercise, anaerobic threshold of cardiopulmonary exercise and the BODE index (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise performance).
Results:
Seventeen patients with COPD underwent HRCT scanning, 6MWT and CPET. The emphysema score was highly correlated to forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.748, p<0.001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r=-0.615, p<0.01), IC post exercise (r=-0.663, p<0.01) and dyspnea score post exercise (r=0.609, p<0.01), but was not associated with the BODE index. The distance walked during 6MWT was inversely correlated to emphysema score (r=-0.557, p<0.05). IC before exercise was highly related to the 6MWT. The change in IC after exercise was associated with the percent decline of oxygen saturation after exercise (r=0.633, p<0.01). Severity of lung emphysema in COPD patients was inversely correlated to VO2 max (r=-0.514, p<0.05) and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.595, p<0.01) of cardiopulmonary exercise.
Conclusions:
These results suggest that COPD associated with emphysema on HRCT is characterized by more severe lung function impairment, greater exercise impairment and cardiopulmonary dysfunction.
doi:10.2174/1874306401206010104
PMCID: PMC3480708  PMID: 23115601
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; High-resolution computed tomography; Six-minute walk test; cardiopulmonary exercise test; Inspiratory capacity.
18.  Feasibility of Bispectral Index-Guided Propofol Infusion for Flexible Bronchoscopy Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27769.
Objectives
There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB). The bispectral index (BIS) correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.
Methods
After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group) or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.
Results
The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively). The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001), less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively), and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively) compared to the control group.
Conclusions
BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027769
PMCID: PMC3223212  PMID: 22132138
19.  An outcome analysis of self-expandable metallic stents in central airway obstruction: a cohort study 
Background
Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) have provided satisfactory management of central airway obstruction. However, the long-term benefits and complications of this management modality in patients with benign and malignant obstructing lesions after SEMS placement are unclear. We performed this cohort study to analyze the outcomes of Ultraflex SEMSs in patients with tracheobronchial diseases.
Methods
Of 149 patients, 72 with benign and 77 with malignant tracheobronchial disease received 211 SEMSs (benign, 116; malignant, 95) and were retrospectively reviewed in a tertiary hospital.
Results
The baseline characteristics of patients who received SEMS implantation for benign conditions and those who underwent implantation for malignant conditions were significantly different. These characteristics included age (mean, 63.9 vs. 58; p < 0.01), gender (male, 62% vs. 90%; p < 0.0001), smoking (47% vs. 85%; p < 0.0001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mean, 0.9 vs. 1.47 L/s; p < 0.0001), follow-up days after SEMS implantation (median; 429 vs. 57; p < 0.0001), and use of covered SEMS (36.2% vs. 94.7%; p < 0.0001). Symptoms improved more after SEMS implantation in patients with benign conditions than in those with malignant conditions (76.7% vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001). The overall complication rate after SEMS implantation in patients with benign conditions was higher than that in patients with malignancy (42.2% vs. 21.1%; p = 0.001). Successful management of SEMS migration, granulation tissue formation, and SEMS fracture occurred in 100%, 81.25%, and 85% of patients, respectively.
Conclusions
Patients who received SEMS implantation owing to benign conditions had worse lung function and were older than those who received SEMS for malignancies. There was higher complication rate in patients with benign conditions after a longer follow-up period owing to the nature of the underlying diseases.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-6-46
PMCID: PMC3090328  PMID: 21477303
20.  Diagnostic Value of EBUS-TBNA for Lung Cancer with Non-Enlarged Lymph Nodes: A Study in a Tuberculosis-Endemic Country 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16877.
Background
In tuberculosis (TB)-endemic areas, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) findings of lung cancer patients with non-enlarged lymph nodes are frequently discrepant. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) enables real-time nodal sampling, and thereby improves nodal diagnosis accuracy. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of nodal diagnosis by using EBUS-TBNA, and PET.
Methods
We studied 43 lung cancer patients with CT-defined non-enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and examined 78 lymph nodes using EBUS-TBNA.
Results
The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA were 80.6%, 100%, 100%, and 85.7%, respectively. PET had low specificity (18.9%) and a low positive predictive value (44.4%). The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was higher than that of PET (91% vs. 47.4%; p<0.001). Compared to CT-based nodal assessment, PET yielded a positive diagnostic impact in 36.9% nodes, a negative diagnostic impact in 46.2% nodes, and no diagnostic impact in 16.9% nodes. Patients with lymph nodes showing negative PET diagnostic impact had a high incidence of previous pulmonary TB. Multivariate analysis indicated that detection of hilar nodes on PET was an independent predictor of negative diagnostic impact of PET.
Conclusion
In a TB-endemic area with a condition of CT-defined non-enlarged lymph node, the negative diagnostic impact of PET limits its clinical usefulness for nodal staging; therefore, EBUS-TBNA, which facilitates direct diagnosis, is preferred.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016877
PMCID: PMC3045379  PMID: 21364919
21.  Extravascular Lung Water Correlates Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome and Mortality in Sepsis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e15265.
Background
This study was designated to investigate whether increased extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) may correlate multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality in sepsis.
Methods
We designed a prospective cohort study in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Sixty-seven patients with severe sepsis were included. Data were used to determine an association between EVLWI and the development of MODS and mortality. These connections were determined by the multiple logistic regression, plotting the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and by Spearman test.
Results
EVLWI levels were higher in MODS patients on day 1 (median (IQR), 18(12.8–23.9) ml/kg, n = 38, p<0.0001) than in those without (median (IQR), 12.4 (7.9–16.3) ml/kg, n = 29) and day 3 (median (IQR), 17.8 (11.2–22.8) ml/kg, n = 29, p = 0.004) than in those without (median (IQR), 12.4 (8.0–16.3) ml/kg, n = 29). EVLWI was used as an independent predictor of the development of MODS (odds ratio, 1.6; p = 0.005; 95% confidence interval, 1.2∼2.2) during ICU stay. The area under the ROC curve showed that EVLWI levels could predict MODS (0.866) and mortality (0.881) during ICU stay. Meanwhile, the higher of SOFA score, the more EVLWI was found on day 1 (r = 0.7041, p<0.0001) and day 3 (r = 0.7732, p<0.0001).
Conclusions
Increased EVLWI levels correlates development of MODS and mortality during the patients' ICU stay. Further more, the potential of novel treatment in severe sepsis with lung injury may develop.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015265
PMCID: PMC3002976  PMID: 21187890
22.  Persistence of lung inflammation and lung cytokines with high-resolution CT abnormalities during recovery from SARS 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):42.
Background
During the acute phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), mononuclear cells infiltration, alveolar cell desquamation and hyaline membrane formation have been described, together with dysregulation of plasma cytokine levels. Persistent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) abnormalities occur in SARS patients up to 40 days after recovery.
Methods
To determine further the time course of recovery of lung inflammation, we investigated the HRCT and inflammatory profiles, and coronavirus persistence in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 12 patients at recovery at 60 and 90 days.
Results
At 60 days, compared to normal controls, SARS patients had increased cellularity of BALF with increased alveolar macrophages (AM) and CD8 cells. HRCT scores were increased and correlated with T-cell numbers and their subpopulations, and inversely with CD4/CD8 ratio. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 levels were increased. Viral particles in AM were detected by electron microscopy in 7 of 12 SARS patients with high HRCT score. On day 90, HRCT scores improved significantly in 10 of 12 patients, with normalization of BALF cell counts in 6 of 12 patients with repeat bronchoscopy. Pulse steroid therapy and prolonged fever were two independent factors associated with delayed resolution of pneumonitis, in this non-randomized, retrospective analysis.
Conclusion
Resolution of pneumonitis is delayed in some patients during SARS recovery and may be associated with delayed clearance of coronavirus, Complete resolution may occur by 90 days or later.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-42
PMCID: PMC1156954  PMID: 15888207
SARS; alveolar macrophages; T lymphocyte; coronavirus; cytokines; bronchoalveolar lavage

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