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1.  MicroRNA-199a is induced in dystrophic muscle and affects WNT signaling, cell proliferation, and myogenic differentiation 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2013;20(9):1194-1208.
In patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the absence of a functional dystrophin protein results in sarcolemmal instability, abnormal calcium signaling, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal muscle degeneration. Using the dystrophin-deficient sapje zebrafish model, we have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that, in comparison to our previous findings in human DMD muscle biopsies, are uniquely dysregulated in dystrophic muscle across vertebrate species. MiR-199a-5p is dysregulated in dystrophin-deficient zebrafish, mdx5cv mice, and human muscle biopsies. MiR-199a-5p mature miRNA sequences are transcribed from stem loop precursor miRNAs that are found within the introns of the dynamin-2 and dynamin-3 loci. The miR-199a-2 stem loop precursor transcript that gives rise to the miR-199a-5p mature transcript was found to be elevated in human dystrophic muscle. The levels of expression of miR-199a-5p are regulated in a serum response factor (SRF)-dependent manner along with myocardin-related transcription factors. Inhibition of SRF-signaling reduces miR-199a-5p transcript levels during myogenic differentiation. Manipulation of miR-199a-5p expression in human primary myoblasts and myotubes resulted in dramatic changes in cellular size, proliferation, and differentiation. MiR-199a-5p targets several myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation regulatory factors within the WNT signaling pathway, including FZD4, JAG1, and WNT2. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in the muscles of transgenic zebrafish resulted in abnormal myofiber disruption and sarcolemmal membrane detachment, pericardial edema, and lethality. Together, these studies identify miR-199a-5p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through suppression of WNT-signaling factors that act to balance myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation.
PMCID: PMC3741500  PMID: 23764775
microRNA; zebrafish; miR-199a; WNT signaling; dystrophin; skeletal muscle
2.  Haplotype structure enables prioritization of common markers and candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder 
Translational Psychiatry  2013;3(5):e262-.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that results in behavioral, social and communication impairments. ASD has a substantial genetic component, with 88–95% trait concordance among monozygotic twins. Efforts to elucidate the causes of ASD have uncovered hundreds of susceptibility loci and candidate genes. However, owing to its polygenic nature and clinical heterogeneity, only a few of these markers represent clear targets for further analyses. In the present study, we used the linkage structure associated with published genetic markers of ASD to simultaneously improve candidate gene detection while providing a means of prioritizing markers of common genetic variation in ASD. We first mined the literature for linkage and association studies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, copy-number variations and multi-allelic markers in Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) families. From markers that reached genome-wide significance, we calculated male-specific genetic distances, in light of the observed strong male bias in ASD. Four of 67 autism-implicated regions, 3p26.1, 3p26.3, 3q25-27 and 5p15, were enriched with differentially expressed genes in blood and brain from individuals with ASD. Of 30 genes differentially expressed across multiple expression data sets, 21 were within 10 cM of an autism-implicated locus. Among them, CNTN4, CADPS2, SUMF1, SLC9A9, NTRK3 have been previously implicated in autism, whereas others have been implicated in neurological disorders comorbid with ASD. This work leverages the rich multimodal genomic information collected on AGRE families to present an efficient integrative strategy for prioritizing autism candidates and improving our understanding of the relationships among the vast collection of past genetic studies.
PMCID: PMC3669925  PMID: 23715297
AGRE; autism genetics; autism spectrum disorders; bibliome mining
3.  Focal interstitial CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;59(1):28-39.
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a diverse grouping of chronic pulmonary diseases characterised by varying degrees of pulmonary fibrosis. The triggers of the fibroproliferative process in IIP remain enigmatic but recent attention has been directed towards chemokine involvement in this process.
The expression of two chemokine receptors, CCR7 and CXCR4, and their respective ligands, CCL19, CCL21, and CXCL12, were examined in surgical lung biopsies (SLBs) from patients with IIP. Transcript and protein expression of these receptors and their ligands was compared with that detected in histologically normal margin SLBs.
CCR7 and CXCR4 were detected by gene array and real time polymerase chain reaction analysis and CCR7, but not CXCR4, expression was significantly raised in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) relative to biopsies from patients diagnosed with non‐specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) or respiratory bronchiolitis/interstitial lung disease (RBILD). CCR7 protein was expressed in interstitial areas of all upper and lower lobe UIP SLBs analysed. CCR7 expression was present in 50% of NSIP SLBs, and CCR7 was restricted to blood vessels and mononuclear cells in 75% of RBILD SLBs. Immune cell specific CXCR4 expression was seen in IIP and normal margin biopsies. CCR7 positive areas in UIP biopsies were concomitantly positive for CD45 (the leucocyte common antigen) but CCR7 positive areas in all IIP SLBs lacked the haemopoietic stem cell antigen CD34, collagen 1, and α smooth muscle actin.
This molecular and immunohistochemical analysis showed that IIPs are associated with abnormal CCR7 transcript and protein expression.
PMCID: PMC1860265  PMID: 16394278
chemokine; chemokine receptor; idiopathic interstitial pneumonia; fibrocyte
4.  Augmented pulmonary IL-4 and IL-13 receptor subunit expression in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2004;57(5):477-486.
Background: Some idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterised by fibroproliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix. Because efficacious treatment options are limited, research has been directed towards understanding the cytokine networks that may affect fibroblast activation and, hence, the progression of certain IIPs.
Aims: To examine the expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13, and their corresponding receptor subunits in the various forms of IIP and normal patient groups.
Methods: Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis of IL-4, interferon γ (IFNγ), IL-13, IL-4 receptor (IL-R), and IL-13 receptor subunits in surgical lung biopsies (SLBs) from 39 patients (21 usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), six non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight respiratory bronchiolitic interstitial lung disease (RBILD), and five normal controls).
Results: Molecular analysis demonstrated that IL-13Rα2, IL-13Rα1, and IL-4Rα were present in a greater proportion of upper and lower lobe biopsies from patients with UIP than patients with NSIP and RBILD. Immunohistochemical analysis of patients with UIP, NSIP, and RBILD revealed interstitial staining for all three receptor subunits, whereas such staining was only seen in mononuclear cells present in normal SLBs. Fibroblastic foci in patients with UIP strongly stained for IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2. Localised expression of IL-4Rα was also seen in SLBs from patients with NSIP but not in other groups.
Conclusion: Some histological subtypes of IIP are associated with increased pulmonary expression of receptor subunits responsive to IL-4 and IL-13. These findings may be of particular importance in understanding the pathogenesis of IIP and, more importantly, may provide important novel therapeutic targets.
PMCID: PMC1770295  PMID: 15113854
interleukin 4; interleukin 13; interleukin 4 receptor; interleukin 13 receptor; idiopathic interstitial pneumonia
5.  Loss of FilaminC (FLNc) Results in Severe Defects in Myogenesis and Myotube Structure†  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(17):6522-6534.
FilaminC (FLNc) is the muscle-specific member of a family of actin binding proteins. Although it interacts with many proteins involved in muscular dystrophies, its unique role in muscle is poorly understood. To address this, two models were developed. First, FLNc expression was stably reduced in C2C12 myoblasts by RNA interference. While these cells start differentiation normally, they display defects in differentiation and fusion ability and ultimately form multinucleated “myoballs” rather than maintain elongated morphology. Second, a mouse model carrying a deletion of last 8 exons of Flnc was developed. FLNc-deficient mice die shortly after birth, due to respiratory failure, and have severely reduced birth weights, with fewer muscle fibers and primary myotubes, indicating defects in primary myogenesis. They exhibit variation in fiber size, fibers with centrally located nuclei, and some rounded fibers resembling the in vitro phenotype. The similarity of the phenotype of FLNc-deficient mice to the filamin-interacting TRIO null mice was further confirmed by comparing FLNc-deficient C2C12 cells to TRIO-deficient cells. These data provide the first evidence that FLNc has a crucial role in muscle development and maintenance of muscle structural integrity and suggest the presence of a TRIO-FLNc-dependent pathway in maintaining proper myotube structure.
PMCID: PMC1592847  PMID: 16914736
6.  Chemokine C10 Promotes Disease Resolution and Survival in an Experimental Model of Bacterial Sepsis 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(11):6108-6114.
Previous studies have suggested that the C-C chemokine C10 is involved in the chronic stages of host defense reactions. The present study addressed the role of C10 in a murine model of septic peritonitis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Unlike other C-C chemokines, C10 levels in the peritoneal wash were increased approximately 30-fold above baseline levels at 48 h after CLP surgery. Immunoneutralization of peritoneal C10 levels with polyclonal anti-C10 antiserum during CLP-induced peritonitis negatively impacted mouse survival over 4 days. In contrast, when 500 ng of recombinant murine C10 was administered immediately after CLP surgery, the 4-day survival rate increased from 20% to over 60%. The C10 therapy appeared to facilitate a rapid and significant enhancement of the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and a later increase in interleukin-13 (IL-13) levels in the peritoneal cavity. In vitro studies showed that the combination of IL-1β and C10 markedly augmented TNF-α synthesis by peritoneal macrophages and that C10 synthesis was induced in these cells following their exposure to IL-13. At 24 h after CLP surgery, only 25% of C10-treated mice were bacteremic versus 85% of the control group that exhibited dissemination of bacteria into the circulation. The lack of bacteremia in C10-treated mice appeared to be related, in part, to in vitro evidence that C10 significantly enhanced the bacterial phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. In addition, in vivo evidence suggested that C10 therapy significantly reduced the amount of material that leaked from the damaged gut. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that the C10 chemokine rapidly promotes disease resolution in the CLP model through its direct effects on the cellular events critically involved in host defense during septic peritonitis.
PMCID: PMC97687  PMID: 11035713
7.  High-dose chemotherapy followed by reinfusion of selected CD34+ peripheral blood cells in patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer: a randomized multicentre study. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(7):913-921.
Seventy-one patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer were enrolled after informed consent in a multicentre randomized study to evaluate the use of selected peripheral blood CD34+ cells to support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. Patients who responded to conventional chemotherapy were mobilized with chemotherapy (mainly high-dose cyclophosphamide) and/or recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Patients who reached the threshold of 20 CD34+ cells per microl of peripheral blood underwent apheresis and were randomized at that time to receive either unmanipulated mobilized blood cells or selected CD34+ cells. For patients in the study arm, CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses using the Isolex300 device. Fifteen patients failed to mobilize peripheral blood progenitors and nine other patients were excluded for various reasons. Forty-seven eligible patients were randomized into two comparable groups. CD34+ cells were selected from aphereses in the study group. Haematopoietic recovery occurred at similar times in both groups. No side-effect related to the infusion of selected cells was observed. The frequency of epithelial tumour cells in aphereses was low (8 out of 42 evaluated patients), as determined by immunocytochemistry. We conclude that selected CD34+ cells safely support haematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in patients with poor-prognosis breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2063121  PMID: 9764583
8.  Epithelial-neutrophil activating peptide (ENA-78) is an important angiogenic factor in non-small cell lung cancer. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;102(3):465-472.
We report here the role of the CXC chemokine, epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA-78), as an angiogenic factor in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In freshly isolated human specimens of NSCLC, elevated levels of ENA-78 were found that strongly correlated with the vascularity of the tumors. In a SCID mouse model of human NSCLC tumorigenesis, expression of ENA-78 in developing tumors correlated with tumor growth in two different NSCLC cell lines. Furthermore, passive immunization of NSCLC tumor-bearing mice with neutralizing anti-ENA-78 antibodies reduced tumor growth, tumor vascularity, and spontaneous metastases, while having no effect on the proliferation of NSCLC cells either in vitro or in vivo. These findings suggest that ENA-78 is an important angiogenic factor in human NSCLC.
PMCID: PMC508906  PMID: 9691082
9.  MIP-1alpha as a critical macrophage chemoattractant in murine wound repair. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(8):1693-1698.
At sites of injury, macrophages secrete growth factors and proteins that promote tissue repair. While this central role of the macrophage has been well studied, the specific stimuli that recruit macrophages into sites of injury are not well understood. This study examines the role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), a C-C chemokine with monocyte chemoattractant capability, in excisional wound repair. Both MIP-1alpha mRNA and protein were detectable in murine wounds from 12 h through 5 d after injury. MIP-1alpha protein levels peaked 3 d after injury, coinciding with maximum macrophage infiltration. The contribution of MIP-1alpha to monocyte recruitment into wounds was assessed by treating mice with neutralizing anti-MIP-1alpha antiserum before injury. Wounds of mice treated with anti-MIP-1alpha antiserum had significantly fewer macrophages than control (41% decrease, P < 0. 01). This decrease in wound macrophages was paralleled by decreased angiogenic activity and collagen synthesis. When tested in the corneal micropocket assay, wound homogenates from mice treated with anti-MIP-1alpha contained significantly less angiogenic activity than control wound homogenates (27% positive for angiogenic activity versus 91% positive in the control group, P < 0.01). Collagen production was also significantly reduced in the wounds from anti-MIP-1alpha treated animals (29% decrease, P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that MIP-1alpha plays a critical role in macrophage recruitment into wounds, and suggest that appropriate tissue repair is dependent upon this recruitment.
PMCID: PMC508751  PMID: 9541500
10.  Differential regulation of C-C chemokines during fibroblast-monocyte interactions: adhesion vs. inflammatory cytokine pathways. 
Mediators of Inflammation  1998;7(4):269-274.
The cell-to-cell interactions during chronic inflammatory diseases likely contribute to leukocyte accumulation leading to increased pathology and organ dysfunction. In particular, there is a paucity of information relating to the maintenance of chronic fibrotic diseases. Using a lung fibroblast line and enriched monocyte populations, we have investigated the activational events which contribute to the production of two C-C chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), during fibroblast-monocyte interactions. Neither the fibroblast cell line (16lu) nor isolated monocytes alone produced significant levels of MIP-1alpha or MCP-1. However, when isolated monocytes were layered onto 16 lu fibroblast monolayers a significant increase in MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 production was observed. The use of fixed cell populations indicated that the MIP-1alpha was derived from monocytes and MCP-1 from both cell populations. To examine the molecules which were required for chemokine production during the interaction, specific antibodies were used in the co-cultures. Blocking beta3-integrin interactions significantly inhibited MIP-1alpha production. In contrast, beta-integrin interactions had no effect on the MCP-1 production, while, neutralization of TNF significantly decreased MCP-1 production during the co-culture. These data indicate that fibroblast-monocyte interactions induce chemokine production through different mechanisms and a combination of these responses may contribute to the maintenance of the mononuclear cell accumulation during disease progression.
PMCID: PMC1781852  PMID: 9792337
11.  Impaired monocyte migration and reduced type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses in C-C chemokine receptor 2 knockout mice. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(10):2552-2561.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent agonist for mononuclear leukocytes and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and granulomatous lung disease. To determine the role of MCP-1 and related family members in vivo, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to generate mice with a targeted disruption of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), the receptor for MCP-1. CCR2-/- mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratios and developed normally. In response to thioglycollate, the recruitment of peritoneal macrophages decreased selectively. In in vitro chemotaxis assays, CCR2-/- leukocytes failed to migrate in response to MCP-1. Granulomatous lung disease was induced in presensitized mice by embolization with beads coupled to purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis. As compared with wild-type littermates, CCR2-/- mice had a decrease in granuloma size accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the level of interferon gamma in the draining lymph nodes. Production of interferon gamma was also decreased in PPD-sensitized splenocytes from CCR2-/- mice and in naive splenocytes activated by concanavalin A. We conclude that CCR2-/- mice have significant defects in both delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and production of Th1-type cytokines. These data suggest an important and unexpected role for CCR2 activation in modulating the immune response, as well as in recruiting monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation.
PMCID: PMC508456  PMID: 9366570
12.  Chemokine-induced eosinophil recruitment. Evidence of a role for endogenous eotaxin in an in vivo allergy model in mouse skin. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(7):1657-1666.
Selective eosinophil recruitment into tissues is a characteristic feature of allergic diseases. Chemokines are effective leukocyte chemoattractants and may play an important role in mediating eosinophil recruitment in various allergic conditions in man. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of eosinophil recruitment in which we have compared the in vivo chemoattractant activity of different C-C chemokines. Furthermore, we describe the use of antibodies to chemokines and receptor blockade to address the endogenous mechanisms involved in eosinophil recruitment in a late-phase allergic reaction in mouse skin. Intradermal injection of mEotaxin and mMIP-1alpha, but not mMCP-1, mRANTES, mMCP-5, or mMIP-1beta, induced significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment in mouse skin. Significant 111In-eosinophil recruitment was also observed in an active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. Pretreatment of skin sites with antieotaxin antiserum, but not an antiMIP-1alpha antibody, suppressed 111In-eosinophil recruitment in this delayed-onset allergic reaction. Similarly, desensitization of the eosinophil eotaxin receptor CCR3 with mEotaxin, or blockade of the receptor with metRANTES, significantly inhibited 111In-eosinophil recruitment in the allergic reaction. These results demonstrate an important role for endogenous eotaxin in mediating the 111In-eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation, and suggest that blockade of the CCR3 receptor is a valid strategy to inhibit eosinophil migration in vivo.
PMCID: PMC508348  PMID: 9312163
13.  Elevated levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in severe murine peritonitis increase neutrophil recruitment and mortality. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(9):3847-3851.
We hypothesized that chemokines may play important roles in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of septic peritonitis in CD-1 mice. Concentrations of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein 2 [MIP-2] and ENA-78) and C-C (MIP-1alpha and JE) chemokines were measured (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in serum, peritoneal lavage fluid, lung, and liver at 4, 8, 24, 48, and 96 h after CLP. Significant elevations in all measured chemokines occurred in peritoneal fluid after CLP (P < 0.05). MIP-2, in particular, increased dramatically (>400-fold, P < 0.001) in peritoneal fluid, serum, and to a lesser extent lung and liver (P < 0.05). Increased MIP-2 was correlated with severity of sepsis (P < 0.001). To determine the significance of this finding, mice were passively immunized prior to CLP with polyclonal antibody to MIP-2, which decreased mortality from 85 to 38% at 96 h (P < 0.01). To further understand the mechanism of the effect of MIP-2, additional measurements demonstrated that anti-MIP-2 prior to CLP decreased the percent neutrophils in peritoneal fluid (55% +/- 12%, compared with 82% +/- 10% in controls), but no significant changes in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 occurred. MIP-2 contributes to the inflammatory response and overall mortality in this model of severe septic peritonitis, possibly by increasing recruitment of neutrophils, which clear bacteria but may also injure the host.
PMCID: PMC175549  PMID: 9284162
14.  MCP-1 protects mice in lethal endotoxemia. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(12):2832-2836.
The overzealous production of proinflammatory cytokines in sepsis can result in shock, multiorgan dysfunction, and even death. In this study, we assessed the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a mediator of sepsis in endotoxin-challenged mice. Intraperitoneal administration of LPS to CD-1 mice induced a substantial time-dependent increase in MCP-1 in plasma, lung, and liver. The passive immunization of mice with rabbit antimurine MCP-1 antiserum 2 h before endotoxin administration resulted in a striking increase in LPS-induced mortality from 10% in control animals to 65% in anti-MCP-1-treated animals. Importantly, the administration of anti-MCP-1 antibodies to endotoxin-challenged mice resulted in increases in peak TNF-alpha and IL-12 levels, and also in a trend toward decreased serum levels of IL-10. Conversely, the administration of recombinant murine MCP-1 intraperitoneally significantly protected mice from endotoxin-induced lethality, and resulted in an increase in IL-10 levels, a decrease in IL-12 levels, and a trend toward decreased levels of TNF. In conclusion, our findings indicate that MCP-1 is a protective cytokine expressed in murine endotoxemia, and does so by shifting the balance in favor of antiinflammatory cytokine expression in endotoxin-challenged animals.
PMCID: PMC508132  PMID: 9185504
15.  Alveolar macrophages are required for protective pulmonary defenses in murine Klebsiella pneumonia: elimination of alveolar macrophages increases neutrophil recruitment but decreases bacterial clearance and survival. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(4):1139-1146.
To study the in vivo role of alveolar macrophages (AM) in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia in mice, AM were eliminated by the intratracheal (i.t.) administration of dichloromethylene diphosphonate encapsulated liposomes. Subsequently, the AM-depleted mice were infected i.t. with 100 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the effects of AM depletion on survival, bacterial clearance, and neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) recruitment were assessed. It was shown that depletion of AM decreases survival dramatically, with 100% lethality at day 3 postinfection, versus 100% long-term survival in the control group. This increased mortality was accompanied by 20- to 27- and 3- to 10-fold increases in the number of K. pneumoniae CFU in lung and plasma, respectively, compared to those in nondepleted animals. This decreased bacterial clearance was not due to an impaired PMN recruitment; on the contrary, the K. pneumoniae-induced PMN recruitment in AM-depleted lungs was sevenfold greater 48 h postinfection than that in control infected lungs. Together with an increased PMN infiltration, 3- and 10-fold increases in lung homogenate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) levels, respectively, were measured. Neutralization of TNF-alpha or MIP-2, 2 h before infection, reduced the numbers of infiltrating PMN by 41.6 and 64.2%, respectively, indicating that these cytokines mediate PMN influx in infected lungs, rather then just being produced by the recruited PMN themselves. Our studies demonstrate, for the first time, the relative importance of the AM in the containment and clearance of bacteria in the setting of Klebsiella pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC175109  PMID: 9119443
16.  Tumor necrosis factor mediates lung antibacterial host defense in murine Klebsiella pneumonia. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(12):5211-5218.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine which has recently been shown to have beneficial effects in the setting of acquired host immunity. However, the role of TNF in innate immune responses, as in the setting of bacterial pneumonia, has been incompletely characterized. To determine the role of TNF in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia, CBA/J mice were challenged with 10(2) CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae intratracheally, resulting in the time-dependent expression of TNF MRNA and protein within the lung. Passive immunization of animals with a soluble TNF receptor-immunoglobulin (Ig) construct (sTNFR:Fc) intraperitoneally 2 h prior to K. pneumoniae inoculation resulted in a significant reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, but not macrophages, at 48 h, as compared with animals receiving control IgG1. Furthermore, treatment with sTNFR:Fc resulted in 19.6- and 13.5-fold increases in K. pneumoniae CFU in lung homogenates and plasma, respectively, as compared with animals receiving control IgG1. Finally, treatment of Klebsiella-infected mice with sTNFR:Fc markedly decreased both short- and long-term survival of these animals. In conclusion, our studies indicate that endogenous TNF is a critical component of antibacterial host defense in murine Klebsiella pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC174510  PMID: 8945568
17.  Balance of inflammatory cytokines related to severity and mortality of murine sepsis. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(11):4733-4738.
We tested the hypothesis that, during sepsis, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is related to severity and survival. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) with a large (18-gauge)-, intermediate (21-gauge)-, or small (26-gauge)-diameter needle, or sham laparotomy, was performed on outbred CD-1 mice. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in serum, peritoneal lavage fluid, and liver and lung samples at 4, 8, 24, 48, and 96 h. As the diameter of the CLP needle decreased, the mortality rate decreased (at 48 h: large, 80%; intermediate, 40%; small, 20%; P < 0.05), the TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations decreased, and the time-to-peak TNF-alpha expression increased. In contrast, IL-10 concentration increased compared with baseline (serum at 24 h: large, 2.3-fold +/- 1.6-fold; intermediate, 2.0-fold +/- 0.5-fold; small, 49.9-fold +/- 8.3-fold; P < 0.05). Administration of IL-10 (5 microg, intraperitoneal) prior to CLP decreased mortality (P < 0.001). Administration of polyclonal anti-IL-10 serum prior to CLP (0.5 ml intraperitoneal) had the opposite effect and increased mortality (P < 0.001) and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and TNF-alpha mRNA expression compared with controls. Thus, severe sepsis is associated with a largely unopposed inflammatory response, and a largely unopposed inflammatory response (with anti-IL-10) results in severe sepsis and death. Less severe sepsis is associated with greater anti-inflammatory mediator expression, and greater anti-inflammatory mediator expression (with IL-10) results in less severe sepsis. Thus, the balance of inflammatory mediators is related to the severity and mortality of murine sepsis.
PMCID: PMC174439  PMID: 8890233
19.  Inhibition of interleukin-8 reduces tumorigenesis of human non-small cell lung cancer in SCID mice. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(12):2792-2802.
The salient feature of solid tumor growth is the strict dependence on local angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that IL-8 is an angiogenic factor present in freshly isolated specimens of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a model of human NSCLC tumorigenesis in SCID mice, we now report that IL-8 acts as a promoter of human NSCLC tumor growth through its angiogenic properties. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies to IL-8 resulted in more than 40% reduction in tumor size and was associated with a decline in tumor-associated vascular density and angiogenic activity. IL-8 did not act as an autocrine growth factor for NSCLC proliferation. The reduction in primary tumor size in response to neutralizing antibodies to IL-8 was also accompanied by a trend toward a decrease in spontaneous metastasis to the lung. These data support the notion that IL-8 plays a significant role in mediating angiogenic activity during tumorigenesis of human NSCLC, thereby offering a potential target for immunotherapy against solid tumors.
PMCID: PMC507372  PMID: 8675690
20.  TNF-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in the eosinophilic cell line, EOL-1 
Mediators of Inflammation  1996;5(3):218-223.
The role of eosinophils in inflammation and their mode of activation is not well understood. Eosinophil accumulation and subsequent expression of cytokines at the site of inflammation may play a role in exacerbation of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF-α in eosinophil activation and chemokine production using a human leukaemic eosinophil cell line, EOL-1. Initial studies demonstrated that TNF-α induced the upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA and protein. Kinetic studies indicated production of chemokines, IL-8 and MCP-1, as early as 4 h post-activation, with peak levels of chemokine produced at 8 h, and decreasing by 24 h post-TNF-α activation. When IL-10, a suppressive cytokine, was incubated with TNF-α and EOL-1 cells, no effect was observed on IL-8 and MCP-1 production. However, dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, demonstrated potent inhibitory effects on the EOL-1-derived chemokines. These studies indicate that eosinophils may be a significant source of chemokines capable of participating in, and maintaining, leukocyte recruitment during inflammatory responses, such as asthma.
PMCID: PMC2365785  PMID: 18475720
21.  Regulatory effects of endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein in immunoglobulin G immune complex-induced lung injury. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(4):963-970.
IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) has regulatory effects on IL-1 activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the IgG immune complex model of lung injury in rats, exogenously administered human IL-1Ra suppressed neutrophil recruitment and ensuing lung injury. In this study, we sought to determine if endogenous rat IL-1Ra might regulate this lung-inflammatory response. By Northern blot analysis of lung mRNA and Western analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, rat IL-1Ra expression was found to increase during development of inflammation in IgG immune complex-mediated alveolitis. By immunostaining, alveolar macrophages and recruited neutrophils were the apparent sources of IL-1Ra. In vivo blocking of endogenous IL-1Ra resulted in a 53% increase in lung vascular permeability and a 180% increase in BAL fluid neutrophils. In companion studies, a significant increase in IL-1beta was found, whereas no significant change in TNF-alpha activity was observed. Whereas the in vivo regulatory effects of IL-1R appear to be limited to IL-1beta, IL-10 regulates both IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in this model, reflected by a 48% increase in BAL IL-1beta in rats treated with anti-IL-10. These findings suggest that IL-1Ra is an intrinsic regulator of inflammatory injury after deposition of IgG immune complexes and that it regulates production of IL-1beta.
PMCID: PMC507142  PMID: 8613550
22.  Interleukin-10 expression and chemokine regulation during the evolution of murine type II collagen-induced arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(6):2868-2876.
In the enclosed study we have examined the expression and contribution of specific chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) during the evolution of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Detectable levels of chemotactic cytokine protein for MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2 were first observed between days 32 and 36, after initial type II collagen challenge, while increases in IL-10 were found between days 36 and 44. CIA mice passively immunized with antibodies directed against either MIP-1 alpha or MIP-2 demonstrated a delay in the onset of arthritis and a reduction of the severity of arthritis. On the contrary, CIA mice receiving neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies demonstrated an acceleration of the onset and an increase in the severity of arthritis. Interestingly, anti-IL-10 treatment increased the expression of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2, as well as increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and leukocyte infiltration in the inflamed joints. These data suggest that MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2 play a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance, while IL-10 appears to play a regulatory role during the development of experimental arthritis.
PMCID: PMC295974  PMID: 7769128
23.  Cultured lung fibroblasts isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have a diminished capacity to synthesize prostaglandin E2 and to express cyclooxygenase-2. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(4):1861-1868.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. In this study, we compared lung fibroblasts isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (F-IPF) and from patients undergoing resectional surgery for lung cancer (F-nl) with respect to their capacity for PGE2 synthesis and their expression and regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX) proteins. Basal COX activity, assessed by quantitating immunoreactive PGE2 synthesized from arachidonic acid, was twofold less (P < 0.05) in F-IPF than F-nl. In F-nl, incubation with the agonists PMA, LPS, or IL-1 increased COX activity and protein expression of the inducible form of COX, COX-2, and these responses were inhibited by coincubation with dexamethasone. By contrast, F-IPF failed to demonstrate increases in COX-2 protein expression or COX activity in response to these agonists. Under conditions of maximal induction, COX activity in F-IPF was sixfold less than that in F-nl (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that F-IPF have a striking defect in their capacity to synthesize the antiinflammatory and antifibrogenic molecule PGE2, apparently because of a diminished induction of COX-2 protein. This reduction in the endogenous capacity of F-IPF to down-regulate their function via PGE2 may contribute to the inflammatory and fibrogenic response in IPF. Moreover, we believe that this represents the first description of a defect in COX-2 expression in association with a human disease.
PMCID: PMC295728  PMID: 7706493
24.  Chemokine expression during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury in the rat. The role of epithelial neutrophil activating protein. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(1):134-141.
The liver is highly susceptible to a number of pathological insults, including ischemia/reperfusion injury. One of the striking consequences of liver injury is the associated pulmonary dysfunction that may be related to the release of hepatic-derived cytokines. We have previously employed an animal model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, and demonstrated that this injury causes the production and release of hepatic-derived TNF, which mediates a neutrophil-dependent pulmonary microvascular injury. In this study, we have extended these previous observations to assess whether an interrelationship between TNF and the neutrophil chemoattractant/activating factor, epithelial neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), exists that may be accountable for the pathology of lung injury found in this model. In the context of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, we demonstrated the following alterations in lung pathophysiology: (a) an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung neutrophil sequestration, and production of pulmonary-derived ENA-78; (b) passive immunization with neutralizing TNF antiserum resulted in a significant suppression of pulmonary-derived ENA-78; and (c) passive immunization with neutralizing ENA-78 antiserum resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary neutrophil sequestration and microvascular permeability similar to our previous studies with anti-TNF. These findings support the notion that pulmonary ENA-78 produced in response to hepatic-derived TNF is an important mediator of lung injury.
PMCID: PMC295389  PMID: 7814607
25.  Epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78: a novel chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;94(3):1012-1018.
We and others have shown that cells obtained from inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients produce interleukin-8, a potent chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils (PMNs). However, IL-8 accounted for only 40% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs found in these synovial fluids. Currently, we have examined the production of the novel PMN chemotactic cytokine, epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78), using peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue from 70 arthritic patients. RA ENA-78 levels were greater in RA synovial fluid (239 +/- 63 ng/ml) compared with synovial fluid from other forms of arthritis (130 +/- 118 ng/ml) or osteoarthritis (2.6 +/- 1.8 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). RA peripheral blood ENA-78 levels (70 +/- 26 ng/ml) were greater than normal peripheral blood levels (0.12 +/- 0.04 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). Anti-ENA-78 antibodies neutralized 42 +/- 9% (mean +/- SE) of the chemotactic activity for PMNs found in RA synovial fluids. Isolated RA synovial tissue fibroblasts in vitro constitutively produced significant levels of ENA-78, and this production was further augmented when stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition RA and osteoarthritis synovial tissue fibroblasts as well as RA synovial tissue macrophages were found to constitutively produce ENA-78. RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells spontaneously produced ENA-78, which was augmented in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Immunohistochemical localization of ENA-78 from the synovial tissue of patients with arthritis or normal subjects showed that the predominant cellular source of this chemokine was synovial lining cells, followed by macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Synovial tissue macrophages and fibroblasts were more ENA-78 immunopositive in RA than in normal synovial tissue (P < 0.05). These results, which are the first demonstration of ENA-78 in a human disease state, suggest that ENA-78 may play an important role in the recruitment of PMNs in the milieu of the inflamed joint of RA patients.
PMCID: PMC295150  PMID: 8083342

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