Because most human stroke victims are elderly, studies of experimental stroke in the aged rather than the young rat model may be optimal for identifying clinically relevant cellular responses, as well for pinpointing beneficial interventions.
We employed the Affymetrix platform to analyze the whole-gene transcriptome following temporary ligation of the middle cerebral artery in aged and young rats. The correspondence, heat map, and dendrogram analyses independently suggest a differential, age-group-specific behaviour of major gene clusters after stroke. Overall, the pattern of gene expression strongly suggests that the response of the aged rat brain is qualitatively rather than quantitatively different from the young, i.e. the total number of regulated genes is comparable in the two age groups, but the aged rats had great difficulty in mounting a timely response to stroke. Our study indicates that four genes related to neuropathic syndrome, stress, anxiety disorders and depression (Acvr1c, Cort, Htr2b and Pnoc) may have impaired response to stroke in aged rats. New therapeutic options in aged rats may also include Calcrl, Cyp11b1, Prcp, Cebpa, Cfd, Gpnmb, Fcgr2b, Fcgr3a, Tnfrsf26, Adam 17 and Mmp14. An unexpected target is the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 1 in aged rats, a key enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Post-stroke axonal growth was compromised in both age groups.
We suggest that a multi-stage, multimodal treatment in aged animals may be more likely to produce positive results. Such a therapeutic approach should be focused on tissue restoration but should also address other aspects of patient post-stroke therapy such as neuropathic syndrome, stress, anxiety disorders, depression, neurotransmission and blood pressure.
The action of irrigant solutions on intra- radicular dentinal surface were evaluated in an in vitro setting using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and it was observed that sodium hypochlorite and MTAD produced the cleanest surface and that none of the irrigants were able to produce an ideal preparation of the dentinal surface when used individually. The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a clean, optimal environment in root canals to avoid unsuccessful treatment outcomes. The complexities of the root canal system necessitate the use of irrigating solutions which act on radicular dentin surface, modifying it. The action of irrigants can be beneficial, and yet at the same time, as they modify the surface structure of dentin, they can have an adverse impact on the properties of dentin. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of various irrigants on the dentinal surface using an SEM.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-five roots were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and prepared by sectioning at the level of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and 10 mm from the CEJ and split longitudinally. The dentin surface was prepared and the cemental surfaces were coated with double layer of varnish. The irrigants tested were normal saline, de-ionized water, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5% NaOCl with ultrasonic agitation, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), MTAD, and MTAD with ultrasonic agitation. The prepared samples were placed in the irrigant solution for 3 min, subsequently dehydrated, sputter coated, and observed under SEM. The images were subsequently analyzed for dentinal surface changes.
17% EDTA and MTAD produced the cleanest dentinal surface. Ultrasonic agitation enhanced the effect of irrigants. 5% NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide were efficient at removal of organic debris, but were unable to remove the smear layer. De-ionized water, normal saline, and 2% chlorhexidine were not effective at removing the debris or the smear layer.
None of the irrigants individually were able to achieve conditions of an ideal dentinal surface preparation.
Debris; dentinal plugs; radicular dentinal surface; root canal irrigants; scanning electron microscope; smear layer
The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.
Elusive canal; mandibular second molar; middle mesial canals; missed canals; root canal anatomy
Influence of luting agent, design of tooth preparation for cast posts on tooth resistance to fracture.
To evaluate fracture resistance of teeth restored with cast posts and cores with or without cervical ferrule and cemented with zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, or resin cement.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty single-rooted maxillary first premolars of similar sizes were selected. Biomechanical preparation and post space preparation for cast post was done for all samples and then they were divided into two groups (n=30). Cervical ferrule preparation was done for Group A, and Group B was prepared without any cervical ferrule. Both groups were further divided into three subgroups (1, 2, and 3; n=10) Cast posts for subgroups 1, 2, and 3 were cemented with zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and resin cement, respectively. A shearing load was applied to indented buccal cusp of specimens at an angle of 45° in universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until fracture.
Specimens with ferrule (Group A) had significantly higher shear bond strength values (mean 1503.37 N) than specimens without ferrule (Group B) (mean 1052.09 N).
Inclusion of ferrule in tooth preparations for posts increased the fracture resistance regardless of the luting agent.
Cast posts and cores; ferrule; fracture resistance
Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care.
The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT).
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital.
Materials and Methods:
The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care) for each of which the person had to indicate ‘correct’, ‘incorrect’, or ‘unsure.’ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items).
Statistical Analysis Used:
Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson's co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows.
The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%). The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%), pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%), dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%), psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%), and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%). (P = .00). The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05).
Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT.
Information; Nursing education; Palliative care education; Professional knowledge
Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed.
Adenomatoid odontogenic cyst; adenomatoid odontogenic tumor; hamartoma
Epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (EGFR-2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast and other carcinomas. In this report, we tested the ability of a bacteriophage selected peptide KCCYSL, radiolabeled with 64Cu, to image EGFR-2 expressing breast tumors in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). We evaluated and compared the in vivo tissue distribution and imaging properties of 64Cu-X-(Gly-Ser-Gly)-KCCYSL peptide (X = 1,4,7,10, tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N’’,N’’’-tetracetic acid, [DOTA] 1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane-4,11-diacetic acid [CB-TE2A], and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid [NOTA] chelators) in a human breast cancer xenograft mouse model using dual modality PET and computed tomography (CT). The synthesized peptides DO3A-GSG-KCCYSL, CB-TE2A-GSG-KCCYSL, and NO2A-GSG-KCCYSL were purified, radiolabeled with 64Cu, and evaluated for human breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-435) binding, 50% inhibitory concentration, and serum stability. In vivo pharmacokinetic and small animal PET/CT imaging studies were performed using SCID mice bearing MDA-MB-435 xenografts. The radiolabeled peptides bound with an 50% inhibitory concentration of 42.0 ± 10.2 nM (DO3A), 31 ± 7.9 nM (CB-TE2A), and 44.2 ± 6.6 nM (NO2A) to cultured MDA-MB-435 cells. All of the radiolabeled peptides were stable in vitro. The tumor uptake of DO3A, CB-TE2A, and NO2A peptides were 0.73 ± 0.15 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g), 0.64 ± 0.08%ID/g, and 0.52 ± 0.04%ID/g, respectively at 1 hour. Liver uptake for the 64Cu-DO3A-peptide (1.68 ± 0.42%ID/g) was more than that of the 64Cu-CB-TE2A-peptide (0.52 ± 0.02% ID/g) and 64Cu-NO2A-peptide (0.48 ± 0.05%ID/g) at 2 hours. PET/CT studies revealed successful tumor uptake of 64Cu-peptides at 2 hours postinjection. In vivo kidney retention was observed with all of the radiolabeled peptides. The optimization of bifunctional chelators improves the pharmacokinetic properties of the 64Cu-labeled GSG-KCCYSL peptide, which enables the selection of a suitable peptide homolog as a PET imaging agent for EGFR-2 expressing breast carcinomas.
breast cancer; 64Cu-chelators; EGFR-2; peptide; PET-imaging
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are disproportionately likely to be HIV-infected, and face distinct psychosocial challenges. Understanding the unique socio-cultural issues of MSM in India and how they relate to HIV risk could maximize the utility of future prevention efforts. This review discusses: (i) the importance of addressing co-occurring mental health issues, such as depression, which may interfere with MSM's ability to benefit from traditional risk reduction counselling, (ii) reducing HIV-related stigma among health providers, policymakers and the lay public, and (iii) the role for non-governmental organizations that work with the community to play in providing culturally relevant HIV prevention programmes for MSM.
HIV; India; men who have sex with men; MSM; mental health; stigma
Lumbar segmental stability is an important biomechanical component that influences symptoms amongst patients with Mechanical low back pain.
To compare the efficacy of segmental stabilization exercises utilizing multifidus and transversus abdominis muscles versus a placebo treatment in patients with lumbar segmental instability.
Materials and methods:
The study was an observer-blinded randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of 18 adults (12 men, 6 women), of mean age 22.5 ± 1.09 yrs who scored 7/13 in subjective aspects and 8/14 in objective aspects of Delphi criteria for lumbar segmental instability. The selected subjects were then randomized to receive either placebo-control (prone lying) or experimental (lumbar segmental stabilization) as a first treatment. Each treatment was followed by a wash-out period of 24 hours. Outcomes were measured four times- pre- and post- first intervention, pre- and post- second intervention. The outcome measures used were pain on Visual analogue scale, Pressure pain threshold and Joint play grading scale (0-6 scale) on that level.
Two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis using Bonferonni test were used with level of significance set at p<.05 using Statistical package for social sciences version 12.0.1 for Windows. Visual analogue scale changed significantly in both the periods of intervention- in control (P =.016) and experimental (P =.000) periods. However this improvement was more significant in the experimental period. The Joint play grading scale scores improved only in the experimental condition compared to the control condition significantly. The Pressure pain threshold also improved significantly in the experimental condition (P =.000) while the changes in control condition was not statistically significant (P=.816).
Segmental stabilization exercise was more effective than placebo intervention in symptomatic lumbar segmental instability.
Lumbar instability; segmental stabilization exercise; crossover study
The essential oil from the leaves of Feronia limonia was extracted and the chemical constituents and antibacterial activity were studied. The GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of F. limonia contained fourteen compounds representing about 98.4% of the total oil. The major chemical compounds identified were Eudesma-4 (14).11-dine (46.3%), carvacrol (29.6%) and 1,5-cyclodecandine (13.4%). The essential oil was screened for its antibacterial activity against different clinically isolated Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The essential oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 125 to 500 μg/mL except Proteus mirabilis.
Antibacterial activity; Chemical constituents; Feronia limonia; Essential oil
Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain.
The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital.
Materials and Methods:
The study utilized a self-report questionnaire – pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS) – which had 31 items (statements about pain) for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl–Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows.
The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00). The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81) than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67) which was significant at P < 0.05 level.
Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported very “good” general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had good general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.
Nursing education; Pain assessment; Professional behavior; Professional psychology; Psychosocial issues
Pediatric palliative care clinical practice depends upon an evidence-based decision-making process which in turn is based upon current research evidence.
This study aimed to perform a quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals for reporting characteristics of articles on pediatric palliative care.
Settings and Design:
This was a systematic review of palliative care journals.
Materials and Methods:
Twelve palliative care journals were searched for articles with “paediatric” or “children” in titles of the articles published from 2006 to 2010. The reporting rates of all journals were compared. The selected articles were categorized into practice, education, research, and administration, and subsequently grouped into original and review articles. The original articles were subgrouped into qualitative and quantitative studies, and the review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. Each subgroup of original articles’ category was further classified according to study designs.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentiles was done using SPSS for Windows, version 11.5.
The overall reporting rate among all journals was 2.66% (97/3634), and Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing (JHPN) had the highest reporting rate of 12.5% (1/8), followed by Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care (JSWELPC) with a rate of 7.5% (5/66), and Journal of Palliative Care (JPC) with a rate of 5.33% (11/206).
The overall reporting rate for pediatric palliative care articles in palliative care journals was very low and there were no randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for pediatric palliative care.
Evidence-based pediatric palliative care; Journal reporting; Publication trend; Research
The Pain Research Group of the world health organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Symptom Evaluation in Cancer Care had developed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a pain assessment tool for use with cancer patients. The BPI measures both the intensity of pain (sensory dimension) and interference of pain in the patient's life (reactive dimension). The objective of this review paper was to provide a detailed update of existing evidence on applicability of BPI in evaluation of patients with cancer pain. The BPI demonstrated good construct and concurrent validity. It was translated and validated into many languages – Brazilian, Chinese, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Taiwanese and Thai. The BPI was validated in patient populations such as bone metastases, breast cancer and postoperative cancer patients. The BPI can be used both as a quantitative or a qualitative measure for statistical analysis. The BPI was a powerful tool and, having demonstrated both reliability and validity across cultures and languages, was being adopted in many countries for clinical pain assessment, epidemiological studies, and in studies on the effectiveness of pain treatment. Future studies are warranted on its responsiveness and cross-cultural adaptation into other cancer pain syndromes and into other Indian languages.
Brief Pain Inventory; Cancer pain; Cancer research; Outcome measurement; Pain measurement tools
Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient's symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms – central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective – operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient's findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain.
Mechanism-based classification; Pain pathomechanisms; Pain rehabilitation; Palliative oncology; Physical therapy
Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care.
The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program.
Settings and Design:
Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female) of age (20.51±1.78 years) who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants’ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale)- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program.
Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows.
Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points), attitudes (9.46±8.06 points), beliefs (4.88±3.29 points) and experiences (15.8±11.28 points) out of a total score of 104 points.
The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.
Training effectiveness; Professional training; Educational intervention; Curriculum development; Program evaluation
A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature.
Materials and Methods:
Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract.
During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles) were on cancer pain.
While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model.
Cancer pain; Palliative care research; Reporting characteristics
Pain relief is a major goal for palliative care in India so much that most palliative care interventions necessarily begin first with pain relief. Physical therapists play an important role in palliative care and they are regarded as highly proficient members of a multidisciplinary healthcare team towards management of chronic pain. Pain necessarily involves three different levels of classification–based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Mechanism-based treatments are most likely to succeed compared to symptomatic treatments or diagnosis-based treatments. The objective of this clinical commentary is to update the physical therapists working in palliative care, on the mechanism-based classification of pain and its interpretation, with available therapeutic evidence for providing optimal patient care using physical therapy. The paper describes the evolution of mechanism-based classification of pain, the five mechanisms (central sensitization, peripheral neuropathic, nociceptive, sympathetically maintained pain and cognitive-affective) are explained with recent evidence for physical therapy treatments for each of the mechanisms.
Mechanism-based classification; Pain rehabilitation; Pain sciences; Palliative physical therapy care
Aberrant expression of ErbB-2, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of receptors, has been implicated in the formation of various malignancies including ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine if the bacteriophage (phage) display-selected ErbB-2 targeting peptide, KCCYSL, once radiolabeled with 111In would serve as a tumor targeting and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging agent in a mouse model of human ovarian carcinoma expressing ErbB-2. The KCCYSL peptide was synthesized with a chelator 1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and a Gly-Ser-Gly (GSG) spacer between DOTA and amino terminus of the peptide and radiolabeled with 111InC13. In vitro cell binding studies indicated that 111In-DOTA-GSG-KCCYSL bound to cultured ovcar-3 carcinoma cells. Biodistribution studies in scid mice bearing human ovcar-3 tumor xenografts revealed a tumor uptake of 0.50 ± 0.05 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 1 h, and 0.39 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 2 h. Blocking studies with non-radiolabeled counterpart indicated a partial inhibition (41%) (P = 0.04) in tumor uptake of 111In-DOTA-GSG-KCCYSL. In vivo tumor uptake of 111In-DOTA-GSG-KCCYSL was clearly evident through SPECT/CT images after 2 h post injection. These studies suggest the potential of this peptide as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging of ErbB-2-expressing ovarian tumors.
Ovarian cancer; ErbB-2; peptide; radiolabeling; imaging
The goal of this prospective study was to determine (a) concentrations of the carbohydrate biomarkers Thomsen Friedenreich (TF) antigen and its precursor, Tn antigen, in nipple discharge (ND) collected from women requiring biopsy because of a suspicious breast lesion; and (b) if concentration levels predicted pathologic diagnosis.
Adult women requiring biopsy to exclude breast cancer were enrolled and ND obtained. The samples from 124 women were analyzed using an anti-TF and anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies in direct immunoassay.
The highest median concentration in ND for TF and Tn was in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). TF was higher in women with 1) cancer (DCIS or invasive) vs. either no cancer (atypia or benign pathology, p = .048), or benign pathology (p = .018); and 2) abnormal (atypia or cancer) versus benign pathology (p = .016); and was more predictive of atypia or cancer in post- compared to premenopausal women. Tn was not predictive of disease. High TF concentration and age were independent predictors of disease, correctly classifying either cancer or abnormal vs. benign pathology 83% of the time in postmenopausal women.
TF concentrations in ND were higher in women with precancer and cancer compared to women with benign disease, and TF was an independent predictor of breast atypia and cancer. TF may prove useful in early breast cancer detection.
Lateral epicondylitis is a common sports injury of the elbow caused due to altered muscle activation during repetitive wrist extension in many athletic and non-athletic endeavours. The amount of muscle activity and timing of contraction eventually is directly dependent upon joint position during the activity. The purpose of our study was to compare the grip strength in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia in two different wrist extension positions and compare them between involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes.
An assessor-blinded case-control study of eight athletes and twenty-two non-athletes was done. The grip strength was measured using JAMAR® hand dynamometer in kilograms-force at 15 degrees (slightly extended) and 35 degrees (moderately extended) wrist extension positions (maintained by wrist splints) on both involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes with unilateral lateral epicondylitis of atleast 3 months duration. Their pain was to be elicited with local tenderness and two of three tests being positive- Cozen's, Mill's manoeuvre, resisted middle finger extension tests. For comparisons of grip strength, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparison (between 15 and 35 degrees wrist extension positions) and Mann-Whitney U test was used for between-group (athletes vs. non-athletes) comparisons at 95% confidence interval and were done using SPSS 11.5 for Windows.
Statistically significant greater grip strength was found in 15 degrees (27.75 ± 4.2 kgms in athletes; 16.45 ± 4.2 kgms in non-athletes) wrist extension than at 35 degrees (25.25 ± 3.53 kgm in athletes and 14.18 ± 3.53 kgm in non-athletes). The athletes had greater grip strength than non-athletes in each of test positions (11.3 kgm at 15 degrees and 11.07 kgm at 35 degrees) measured. There was also a significant difference between involved and uninvolved sides' grip strength at both wrist positions (4.44 ± .95 kgm at 15 degrees and 4.44 ± .86 kgm in 35 degrees) which was significant (p < .05) only in non-athletes.
The grip strength was greater in 15 degrees wrist extension position and this position could then be used in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia for grip strength assessment and designing wrist splint in this population.
Physiotherapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Physical therapists practice in a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based settings such as hospice and palliative care centers where as part of a multidisciplinary team of care, they address the physical and functional dimensions of the patients’ suffering. Physiotherapy treatment methods like therapeutic exercise, electrical modalities, thermal modalities, actinotherapy, mechanical modalities, manual physical therapy and assistive devices are useful for a range of life-threatening and life-limiting conditions like cancer and cancer-associated conditions; HIV; neurodegenerative disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis; respiratory disorders like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; and altered mental states. The professional armamentarium is still expanding with inclusion of other miscellaneous techniques which were also proven to be effective in improving quality of life in these patients. Considering the scope of physiotherapy in India, and in palliative care, professionals in a multidisciplinary palliative care team need to understand and mutually involve toward policy changes to successfully implement physical therapeutic palliative care delivery.
Palliative physiotherapy; Quality of life; Rehabilitation; Therapeutic modalities
Excessive alveolar bone resorption is commonly found when teeth are extracted. This is a problem in anterior part of mouth because it will result in an unaesthetic pontic on a narrow hollowed out alveolar ridge. Yet, another problem is gingival recession and root exposure in adjacent teeth which represent a therapeutic problem to the clinician.
Use of acellular dermal matrix graft is an appropriate solution to obtain root coverage in areas with localized or generalized soft tissue recessions, particularly if the recessions create aesthetic concern or root sensitivity or shallow root caries lesions. This case report describes a surgical technique using acellular dermal matrix graft on a class III ridge defect and Millers grade II gingival recessions.
There was a gain in both bucco-lingual and apico-coronal dimensions of the ridge, in both height and width directions, when compared to baseline and after 3 months. Recession was also covered compared to the baseline condition.
Acellular dermal matrix; Alveolar ridge augmentation; Gingival recession; Root coverage
General surgeons dealing with laparoscopic herniorrhaphy should be aware of the aberrant obturator artery that crosses the superior pubic ramus and is susceptible to injuries during dissection of the Bogros space and mesh stapling onto Cooper’s ligament. The obturator artery is usually described as a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, although variations have been reported.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted on 98 pelvic halves of embalmed cadavers, and the origin and course of the obturator artery were traced and noted.
In 79% of the specimens, the obturator artery was a branch of the internal iliac artery. It branched off at different levels either from the anterior division or posterior division, individually or with other named branches. In 19% of the cases, the obturator artery branched off from the external iliac artery as a separate branch or with the inferior epigastric artery. However, in the remaining 2% of the specimens, both the internal and the external iliac arteries branched to form an anastomotic structure within the pelvic cavity.
The data obtained in this study show that it is more common to find an abnormal obturator artery than was reported previously, and this observation has implications for pelvic surgeons and is of academic interest to anatomists. Surgeons dealing with direct, indirect, femoral, or obturator hernias need to be aware of these variations and their close proximity to the femoral ring.
Obturator artery; External iliac artery; Inferior epigastric artery; Internal iliac artery; Variations
Liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinomas are two of the most common causes of cancer deaths in the world. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well recognized, effective and minimally invasive means of treating malignant hepatic tumors. This article describes the use of contrast-enhanced 3D ultrasound (CE-3DUS) in the staging, targeting and follow-up of patients with liver tumors undergoing RFA. In particular, its value in the management of large hepatic lesions will be illustrated. Current limitations of CE-3DUS and future developments in the technique will also be discussed. In summary, CE-3DUS is useful in the RFA of liver tumors with improved detection and display of occult lesions and recurrence, in the assessment of lesional geometry and orientation for a more accurate planning and guidance of multiple RFA needle electrodes in large tumors and in the evaluation of residual or recurrent disease within the immediate and/or subsequent follow-up periods.
Liver tumors; Radiofrequency ablation; Contrast enhanced 3D ultrasound
Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems. Lifelong motivation is essential to the supportive therapy for these patients, and the maintenance of good esthetics, combined with conducive to maintaining long term dental and professional health. This paper aims to demonstrate an innovative treatment option for dealing with aesthetic challenges posed by a number of patients who have undergone initial cause related therapy for aggressive periodontitis.
Ceramic tints; composite resin; esthetic rehabilitation; gingival recession