Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polylactic acid (PLA)-based copolymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and investigated as a carrier for prolonged delivery of insulin via the parenteral route. Insulin loading was simultaneously achieved with particle synthesis using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, and the effect of varied PEG chain lengths on particle size and insulin loading efficiency was determined. The synthesized copolymer and nanoparticles were analyzed by standard polymer characterization techniques of gel permeation chromatography, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro insulin release studies performed under simulated conditions provided a near zero-order release pattern up to 10 days. In vivo animal studies were undertaken with varied insulin loads of nanoparticles administered subcutaneously to fed diabetic rabbits and, of all doses administered, nanoparticles containing 50 IU of insulin load per kg body weight controlled the blood glucose level within the physiologically normal range of 90–140 mg/dL, and had a prolonged effect for more than 7 days. Histopathological evaluation of tissue samples from the site of injection showed no signs of inflammation or aggregation, and established the nontoxic nature of the prepared copolymeric nanoparticles. Further, the reaction profiles for PLA-COOH and NH2-PEGDA-NH2 were elucidated using molecular mechanics energy relationships in vacuum and in a solvated system by exploring the spatial disposition of various concentrations of polymers with respect to each other. Incorporation of insulin within the polymeric matrix was modeled using Connolly molecular surfaces. The computational results corroborated the experimental and analytical data. The ability to control blood glucose levels effectively coupled with the nontoxic behavior of the nanoparticles indicates that these nanoparticles are a potential candidate for insulin delivery.
parenteral delivery; insulin; nanoparticles; poly(lactide-ethylene glycol) diblock copolymer; molecular mechanics energy relationship
To longitudinally assess the quality of life in maxillectomy patients rehabilitated with obturator prosthesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in the span of 16 months, out of which six were dropouts. Subjects (age group 20-60 years) with maxillary defects, irrespective of the cause, planned for definite obturator prosthesis, were recruited. The Hindi version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Head and Neck version 1 of Quality of Life Questionnaire was used before surgical intervention and one month after definitive obturator. Questionnaire includes 35 questions related to the patient's physical health, well being, psychological status, social relation and environmental conditions. The data were processed with statistical package for social science (SPSS). Probability level of P<.05 was considered statistically significant.
The quality of life after rehabilitation with obturator prosthesis was 81.48% (±13.64) on average. On item-level, maximum mean scores were obtained for items problem with teeth (1.87 ± 0.94), pain in mouth (1.80 ± 0.92), trouble in eating (1.70 ± 0.88), trouble in talking to other people (1.60 ± 1.22), problems in swallowing solid food (1.57 ± 1.22) and bothering appearance (1.53 ± 1.04); while minimum scores were obtained for the items coughing (1.17 ± 0.38), hoarseness of voice (1.17 ± 0.53), painful throat (1.13 ± 0.43), trouble in having social contacts with friends (1.10 ± 0.40) and trouble having physical contacts with family or friends (1.10 ± 0.31).
Obturator prosthesis is a highly positive and non-invasive approach to improve the quality of life of patients with maxillectomy defects.
Quality of life; Maxillectomy; Obturator prosthesis; Oral cancer
In order to overcome poor bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs, a gastrosphere system comprising two mechanisms of gastric retention, namely buoyancy and gastroadhesion, has been investigated in this study employing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), alginate, pectin, and a model drug metformin hydrochloride. Fifteen formulations were obtained using a Box–Behnken statistical design. The gastrosphere yield was above 80% in all cases; however, due to the high water solubility of metformin, drug entrapment efficacy was between 18% and 54%. Mean dissolution time and gastroadhesive strength were used as the formulation responses in order to optimize the formulation. Furthermore, the molecular mechanics force field simulations were performed to corroborate the experimental findings. Drug release profiles revealed three different release kinetics, namely, burst, first-order and zero-order release. Varying gastroadhesive results were obtained, and were highly sensitive to changes in polymer concentrations. FTIR revealed that strong bonds of PAA and PLGA were retained within the gastrosphere. Surface area and porosity analysis provided supporting evidence that the lyophilization process resulted in a significant increase in the porosity. Analysis of the surface morphology by SEM revealed that air pockets were spread over the entire surface of the gastrosphere, providing a visual proof of the high porosity and hence low density of the gastrosphere. The spatial disposition and energetic profile of the sterically constrained and geometrically optimized multi-polymeric complex of alginate, pectin, PAA, and PLGA corroborated the experimental results in terms of in vitro drug release and gastroadhesive strength of the fabricated gastrospheres.
Box–Behnken design; gastroretentive drug delivery; molecular mechanics simulations; narrow absorption window drugs; polymeric gastrosphere synthesis
Due to their self-catalytic properties, small RNAs with bulge bases are hypothesized to be primordial molecules which could form elementary translation systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the binding propensity of small RNAs by calculating the free energy barrier corresponding to the looped out conformations of bulge bases, which presumably act as the binding sites for ligands in these small RNAs. We find that base flipping kinetics can proceed at atmospheric pressure but with a very small propensity. Furthermore, the free energy barrier associated with base flipping depends on the stacking with neighboring bases. Next, we studied the base flipping kinetics with pressure. We find that the free energy associated with base looping out increases monotonically as the pressure is increased. Furthermore, we calculate the mean first-passage time of conformational looping out of the bulge base using the diffusion of reaction coordinate associated with the base flipping on the underlying free energy surface. We find that the mean first-passage time associated with bulge looping out increases slowly upon increasing pressures up to atm but changes dramatically for atm. Finally, we discuss our results in the light of the role of hydration shell of water around RNA. Our results are relevant for the RNA world hypothesis.
Neisseria meningitidis employs redundant heme acquisition mechanisms, including TonB receptor-dependent and receptor-independent uptakes. The TonB-dependent zinc receptor ZnuD shares significant sequence similarity to HumA, a heme receptor of Moraxella catarrhalis, and contains conserved motifs found in many heme utilization proteins. We present data showing that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, ZnuD allowed heme capture on the cell surface and supported the heme-dependent growth of an E. coli hemA strain. Heme agarose captured ZnuD in enriched outer membrane fractions, and this binding was inhibited by excess free heme, supporting ZnuD's specific interaction with heme. However, no heme utilization defect was detected in the meningococcal znuD mutant, likely due to unknown redundant TonB-independent heme uptake mechanisms. Meningococcal replication within epithelial cells requires a functional TonB, and we found that both the znuD and tonB mutants were defective not only in survival within epithelial cells but also in adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Ectopic complementation rescued these phenotypes. Interestingly, while znuD expression was repressed by Zur with zinc as a cofactor, it also was induced by iron in a Zur-independent manner. A specific interaction of meningococcal Fur protein with the znuD promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Thus, the meningococcal ZnuD receptor likely participates in both zinc and heme acquisition, is regulated by both Zur and Fur, and is important for meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells.
The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid)-methacrylic acid copolymeric nanoparticles with the potential to serve as nanocarrier systems for methotrexate (MTX) used in the chemotherapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Nanoparticles were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique employing a 3-Factor Box-Behnken experimental design strategy. Analysis of particle size, absolute zeta potential, polydispersity (Pdl), morphology, drug-loading capacity (DLC), structural transitions through FTIR spectroscopy, and drug release kinetics was undertaken. Molecular modelling elucidated the mechanisms of the experimental findings. Nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 211.0 to 378.3 nm and a recovery range of 36.8–86.2 mg (Pdl ≤ 0.5) were synthesized. DLC values were initially low (12 ± 0.5%) but were finally optimized to 98 ± 0.3%. FTIR studies elucidated the comixing of MTX within the nanoparticles. An initial burst release (50% of MTX released in 24 hours) was obtained which was followed by a prolonged release phase of MTX over 84 hours. SEM images revealed near-spherical nanoparticles, while TEM micrographs revealed the presence of MTX within the nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were formed as corroborated by the chemometric modelling studies undertaken.
The success of a complete denture relies on the principles of retention, stability and support. The prosthodontist skill lies in applying these principles efficiently in critical situations. Severely resorbed maxillary edentulous ridges that are narrow and constricted with increased inter ridge space provide decreased support, retention and stability. The consequent weight of the processed denture only compromises them further. This article describes a case report of an edentulous patient with resorbed ridges where a simplified technique of fabricating a hollow maxillary complete denture using lost salt technique was used for preservation of denture bearing areas. The hollowing of the denture reduces the weight of the denture, thereby enhancing stability and retention, reducing the further resorption of the jaws.
Hollow maxillary complete denture; inter-ridge distance; residual ridge resorption; severely resorbed ridge
In India, HIV prevention and control activities started way before the reporting of the first case of HIV infection. On reporting of evidences of HIV infection from different parts of the country and varied groups, Government launched the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). The program was launched on the foundation of early interventions and Mid-Term Plan, which evolved in three phases over the period of eighteen years. With progression of time, epidemiological situation changed and knowledge/capacity to tackle HIV improved. In the course of the evolution, NACP has moved from the centrally controlled program to district driven. Also different strategies were inducted/refined and many important institutes like Task Force, a high-powered National AIDS Committee, National AIDS Control Board, National AIDS Control Organization, State AIDS Control Societies, Project Support Units/Project Management Units, National Council on AIDS, Department of AIDS Control, Technical Support Unit, District AIDS Prevention and Control Unit (DAPCU) were created. Currently program is implemented vertically with good impetus and is able to contain the spread of HIV in India. For enhancing the effectiveness and sustainability, future of the NACP is strongly linked with the well-performing DAPCU and good synergy/integration with General Health System. HIV/AIDS epidemic in India has entered into the third decade. Evidences show that this epidemic in India is of concentrated type and characterized by the heterogeneity, following the type 4 pattern, where the epidemic shifts from the most vulnerable populations [such as female sex workers, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users to bridge populations (clients of sex workers, sexually transmitted infection patients, partners of drug users, long route truck drivers, short stay cyclical single male migrants], then to the general population and from urban centers to rural areas (ruralization of epidemic) with increasing involvement of youth and women (feminization of epidemic).
Decentralization of AIDS control; District AIDS Prevention and Control Unit; National AIDS Control Program; Technical Support Unit
Proper periplasmic disulfide bond formation is important for folding and stability of many secreted and membrane proteins, and is catalyzed by three DsbA oxidoreductases in Neisseria meningitidis. DsbD provides reducing power to DsbC that shuffles incorrect disulfide bond in misfolded proteins as well as to the periplasmic enzymes that reduce apo-cytochrome c (CcsX) or repair oxidative protein damages (MrsAB). The expression of dsbD, but not other dsb genes, is positively regulated by the MisR/S two-component system. qRT-PCR analyses showed significantly reduced dsbD expression in all misR/S mutants, which was rescued by genetic complementation. The direct and specific interaction of MisR with the upstream region of the dsbD promoter was demonstrated by EMSA, and the MisR-binding sequences were mapped. Further, the expression of dsbD was found to be induced by dithiothrietol (DTT), through the MisR/S regulatory system. Surprisingly, we revealed that inactivation of dsbD can only be achieved in a strain carrying an ectopically located dsbD, in the dsbA1A2 double mutant or in the dsbA1A2A3 triple mutant, thus DsbD is indispensable for DsbA-catalyzed oxidative protein folding in N. meningitidis. The defects of the meningococcal dsbA1A2 mutant in transformation and resistance to oxidative stress were more severe in the absence of dsbD.
Neisseria meningitidis; DsbD; MisRS; two-component regulatory system; DsbA
The purpose of this study was to formulate drug-loaded polyelectrolyte matrices constituting blends of pectin, chitosan (CHT) and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAAm) for controlling the premature solvation of the polymers and modulating drug release. The model drug employed was the highly water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine HCl (DPH). Polyelectrolyte complex formation was validated by infrared spectroscopy. Matrices were characterized by textural profiling, porositometry and SEM. Drug release studies were performed under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using USP apparatus 3. FTIR spectra revealed distinctive peaks indicating the presence of –COO− symmetrical stretching (1,425–1,390 cm−1) and -NH3+ deformation (1,535 cm−1) with evidence of electrostatic interaction between the cationic CHT and anionic HPAAm corroborated by molecular mechanics simulations of the complexes. Pectin–HPAAm matrices showed electrostatic attraction due to residual –NH2 and –COO− groups of HPAAm and pectin, respectively. Textural profiling demonstrated that CHT-HPAAm matrices were most resilient at 6.1% and pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices were the least (3.9%). Matrix hardness and deformation energy followed similar behavior. Pectin–CHT–HPAAm and CHT–HPAAm matrices produced type IV isotherms with H3 hysteresis and mesopores (22.46 nm) while pectin–HPAAm matrices were atypical with hysteresis at a low P/P0 and pore sizes of 5.15 nm and a large surface area. At t2 h, no DPH was released from CHT–HPAAm matrices, whereas 28.2% and 82.2% was released from pectin–HPAAm and pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices, respectively. At t4 h, complete DPH release was achieved from pectin–CHT–HPAAm matrices in contrast to only 35% from CHT–HPAAm matrices. This revealed the release-modulating capability of each matrix signifying their applicability in controlled oral drug delivery applications.
composite polyelectrolytes; controlled oral drug delivery; hydrolyzed polyacylamide; matrix characterization; polysaccharides
Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.
controlled drug delivery; geometrically altered devices; multilayered tablets; polymeric materials; release modules assemblage
This study was aimed to evaluate the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation in eastern Uttar Pradesh population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers followed by amplicon digestion by Hinf I restriction enzyme was used for MTHFR C677T polymorphism analysis. Total 250 subjects were analyzed.
The CC genotype was found in 192 subjects, followed by CT in 56 subjects and TT in 2 subject. Genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT were 0.768, 0.224 and 0.008, respectively. The frequency of C allele was found to be 0.88 and that of T allele was 0.12.
It is evident from the results of the present study that the percentage of homozygous genotype (CC) is highest in the target population.
Allele; C677T polymorphism; genotype; homocysteine; methylation; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS) mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%), grafting ratio (GR = 263%), intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g) and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da) compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT)—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness, superior hydrophilicity as well as surface charge due to the acrylic chains. Additionally, these results suggested that the porous PAAm-g-CHT scaffold may act as a potential neural cell carrier.
neural tissue engineering; polymer composite; polyacrylamidated chitosan; potassium persulphate; polymer grafting; neurodurable scaffold; molecular modeling and simulation
Adiponectin is protective against hepatic fibrosis, while leptin promotes fibrosis. In hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), leptin signals via a Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (Jak2/Stat3) pathway, producing effects that enhance extracellular matrix deposition. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) are both negative regulators of Jak/Stat signaling, and recent studies demonstrated a role for adiponectin in regulating SOCS-3 expression. In this study we investigated mechanisms whereby adiponectin dampens leptin signaling and prevents excess ECM production. We treated culture-activated rat HSCs with recombinant adiponectin, leptin, both or neither, and also treated adiponectin knockout (Ad−/−) and wild-type mice with leptin and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), or saline. We analyzed Jak2 and Ob-Rb phosphorylation, and PTP1B expression and activity. We also explored potential mechanisms through which adiponectin regulates SOCS-3/Ob-Rb association. Adiponectin inhibited leptin-stimulated Jak2 activation and Ob-Rb phosphorylation in HSCs, while both were increased in Ad−/− mice. Adiponectin stimulated PTP1B expression and activity, in vitro, while PTP1B expression was lower in Ad−/−mice than in wild-type mice. Adiponectin also promoted SOCS-3/Ob-R association, and blocked leptin-stimulated formation of extracellular TIMP-1/MMP-1 complexes, in vitro. These data suggest two novel mechanisms whereby adiponectin inhibits hepatic fibrosis: by promoting binding of SOCS-3 to Ob-Rb, and stimulating PTP1B expression and activity, thus inhibiting Jak2-Stat3 signaling at multiple points.
Fibrosis; Adiponectin; Leptin; SOCS-3; PTP1B; Jak2
Histidine-rich peptides are commonly used in recombinant protein production as purification tags, allowing the one-step affinity separation of the His-tagged proteins from the extracellular media or cell extracts. Genetic engineering makes feasible the post-purification His-tag removal by inserting, between the tag and the main protein body, a target site for trans-acting proteases or a self-proteolytic peptide with regulatable activities. However, for technical ease, His tags are often not removed and the fusion proteins eventually used in this form. In this commentary, we revise the powerful biological properties of histidine-rich peptides as endosomolytic agents and as architectonic tags in nanoparticle formation, for which they are exploited in drug delivery and other nanomedical applications. These activities, generally unknown to biotechnologists, can unwillingly modulate the functionality and biotechnological performance of recombinant proteins in which they remain trivially attached.
Standard assay has limited utility in diagnosing HIV reactivity among infants till the age of 18 months by which time, many HIV-infected infants expire. The test for diagnosing infant and children below 18 months is DNA polymerase chain reaction (DNAPCR) either by dried blood spot (DBS) or whole blood sample (WBS). Early infant diagnosis (EID) project is implemented in 18 districts of Gujarat through 33 PPTCT centers from 1st April 2010. Present analysis is done to evaluate factors curbing mother to child HIV transmission.
Materials and Methods:
Study included all children (< 18 months) who are born to HIV-positive mothers or referred children with signs/ symptoms of HIV with unknown parent status or children already on anti-retroviral therapy whose status could not be confirmed by antibody tests. Data was compiled and analyzed according to the infant's age at testing, type of feeding, history of Anti retero viral (ARV) prophylaxis, and type of delivery. Data compiled between April and August 2010 was used for the analysis.
Cohort of 326 infants was followed up, fewer infants (14/270) who received ARV prophylaxis tested positive than those who did not (23/56). Transmission was more in normal delivery (29/252) than cesarean (8/74). Low transmission rate was seen in replacement feeding (13/208) than breast/mixed feeding (24/94). Out of 37 samples found positive by the DBS, 17 were sent for WBS and all were found to be positive.
DBS test results were found as accurate as WBS. So DBS (less cumbersome and cost effective) can be used in future exclusively. Nevirapine administration at birth as mother baby pair showed 36% decrease in MTCT.
Dried Blood spot; early infant diagnosis; hiv testing in children; whole blood sample
The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP) into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer‘s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing static lattice atomistic simulations and array constructions. A combinatorial approach using isobolographic analysis was stochastically modeled employing Artificial Neural Networks and a Design of Experiments approach, namely an orthogonal Face-Centered Central Composite Design for small molecules, such as curcumin and glycosylated nornicotine exhibiting concentration-dependent behavior on modulating AβP aggregation and oligomerization. This work provides a mathematical and in silico approach that constitutes a new frontier in providing neuroscientists with a template for in vitro and in vivo experimentation. In future this could potentially allow neuroscientists to adopt this in silico approach for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the neuroprotection and neurotherapy of Alzheimer‘s disease. In addition, the neuroprotective entities identified in this study may also be valuable in this regard.
amyloid-β protein; Alzheimer‘s disease; molecular mechanics; artificial neural networks; curcumin; nicotine; isobolographic analysis; docking; central composite design; constraint optimization; ligand-protein complexes; synergism
Average risk of acquiring HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV infected blood is 0.3%. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV refers to a set of comprehensive services to prevent HIV infection in exposed individuals where the exposure can be occupational/ non occupational and a provision of short term (28 days) antiretroviral drugs are given depending on the risk assessment. It also includes counselling and relevant laboratory investigations after taking informed consent of the exposed person and source. PEP inhibits the replication of the initial inoculum of virus and thereby prevents establishment of chronic HIV infection, and is best effective when initiated within 2 hours but certainly within 72 hours. Present communication deals with the registry of 278 cases of PEP from Gujarat in terms of various determinants, their status and the outcome in terms of HIV sero positivity.
Antiretroviral drugs; health care personals; HIV; post exposure prophylaxis
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery.
nanotechnology; nanoparticles; nanocapsules; methacrylate copolymer; chitosan; oral drug delivery; bioavailability; crosslinking; molecular mechanics simulations
Outer membrane iron receptors are some of the major surface entities that are critical for meningococcal pathogenesis. The gene encoding the meningococcal hemoglobin receptor, HmbR, is both independently transcribed and transcriptionally linked to the upstream gene hemO, which encodes a heme oxygenase. The MisR/S two-component system was previously determined to regulate hmbR transcription, and its hemO and hmbR regulatory mechanisms were characterized further here. The expression of hemO and hmbR was downregulated in misR/S mutants under both iron-replete and iron-restricted conditions, and the downregulation could be reversed by complementation. No significant changes in expression of other iron receptors were detected, suggesting that the MisR/S system specifically regulates hmbR. When hemoglobin was the sole iron source, growth defects were detected in the mutants. Primer extension analysis identified a promoter upstream of the hemO-associated Correia element (CE) and another promoter at the proximal end of CE, and processed transcripts previously identified for other cotranscribed CEs were also detected, suggesting that there may be posttranscriptional regulation. MisR directly interacts with sequences upstream of the CE and upstream of the hmbR Fur binding site and thus independently regulates hemO and hmbR. Analysis of transcriptional reporters of hemO and hmbR further demonstrated the positive role of the MisR/S system and showed that the transcription of hmbR initiated from hemO was significantly reduced. A comparison of the effects of the misS mutation under iron-replete and iron-depleted conditions suggested that activation by the MisR/S system and iron-mediated repression by Fur act independently. Thus, the expression of hemO and hmbR is coordinately controlled by multiple independent regulatory mechanisms, including the MisR/S two-component system.