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1.  Efficacy of Sweet Potato Powder and Added Water as Fat Replacer on the Quality Attributes of Low-fat Pork Patties 
The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of sweet potato powder (SPP) and water as a fat replacer in low-fat pork patties. Low-fat pork patties were developed by replacing the added fat with combinations of SPP and chilled water. Three different levels of SPP/chilled water viz. 0.5/9.5% (T-1), 1.0/9.0% (T-2), and 1.5/8.5% (T-3) were compared with a control containing 10% animal fat. The quality of low-fat pork patties was evaluated for physico-chemical (pH, emulsion stability, cooking yield, aw), proximate, instrumental colour and textural profile, and sensory attributes. The cooking yield and emulsion stability improved (p<0.05) in all treatments over the control and were highest in T-2. Instrumental texture profile attributes and hardness decreased, whereas cohesiveness increased compared with control, irrespective of SPP level. Dimensional parameters (% gain in height and % decrease in diameter) were better maintained during cooking in the low-fat product than control. The sensory quality attributes juiciness, texture and overall acceptability of T-2 and T-3 were (p<0.05) higher than control. Results concluded that low-fat pork patties with acceptable sensory attributes, improved cooking yield and textural attributes can be successfully developed with the incorporation of a combination of 1.0% SPP and 9.0% chilled water.
PMCID: PMC4283171  PMID: 25557822
Pork; Low-fat Patties; Sweet Potato Powder; Physico-chemical; Sensory Attributes
2.  Extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis (CCC540) 
In this study a simple protocol was developed for purifying phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis (CCC540) by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by a single step chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose-11 and acetate buffer. Precipitation with 65 % ammonium sulphate resulted in 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with purity of 1.5 (A620/A280). Thro1ugh chromatography an 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with a purity of 4.5 (A620/A280) was achieved. In SDS_PAGE analysis, the purified PC showed the presence of two subunit α (16 kD) and β (17 kD).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40502-014-0094-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4113674  PMID: 25089058
Spirulina; DEAE-Cellulose-11; Phycocyanin
3.  Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina 
Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m−2 s−1), temperature (30 °C), CO2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L−1).
PMCID: PMC3991003  PMID: 24764599
Mass production; Pigments; Spirulina
4.  Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Clinically Available Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera on P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley Rats 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72517.
Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp.
PMCID: PMC3756011  PMID: 24015255
5.  Effects of incorporation of ground mustard on quality attributes of chicken nuggets 
Chicken nuggets were prepared from spent hen meat using ground mustard as phyto-preservative without impairing the sensory attributes of the product and also the antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of mustard on keeping quality of the product was assessed. The emulsion stability (%), cooking yield (%) and moisture content (%) of the product containing ground mustard differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from the control. Nuggets containing ground mustard maintained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher sensory scores throughout the storage period (at 4 ± 1 °C for 15 days). The pH as well as thiobarbituric acid value increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with advancement of storage period. Ground mustard maintained significantly lower thiobarbituric acid values throughout the observation period than the control. Microbiological studies revealed significant increase in total plate count and lipolytic count with the length of storage period. Microbial counts were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in control than in nuggets containing ground mustard.
PMCID: PMC3551044  PMID: 23572818
Mustard; Phyto-preservative; Chicken nuggets; Storage stability
6.  Dose escalation pharmacokinetics and lipid lowering activity of a novel farnesoid X receptor modulator: 16-Dehydropregnenolone 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(1):57-62.
To study the dose escalation pharmacokinetics and lipid lowering activity of a novel FXR modulator, 16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP).
Materials and Methods:
The disposition of DHP following oral (36, 72, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and intravenous (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) administration and its dose-response relationship were carried out in Sprague–Dawley rats. DHP and its metabolite 5-pregnene-3β-ol-16, 17-epoxy-20-one (M1) were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method in plasma after intravenous and oral administration. Dose escalation lipid lowering activities were carried out by triton-induced hyperlipidemic model.
Oral administration resulted in higher amount of M1 formation as compared to intravenous administration. Dose escalation intravenous administration (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) resulted in nonlinear increase in AUC of DHP. This was due to saturation of metabolism. On the contrary, systemic AUC and Cmax after oral administration show non-linear pharmacokinetics where saturated systemic DHP and M1 pharmacokinetics was observed above 72 mg/kg, indicating saturated oral absorption. Lipid lowering activity by its oral route of administration was in accordance with its pharmacokinetic profile and reached saturation above 72 mg/kg.
DHP exhibits route and dose-dependent pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic and lipid lowering activity by oral route indicate saturation of oral absorption at higher doses. The study contributes to the understanding of the plasma disposition pharmacokinetics of DHP and its metabolite in rats by oral and intravenous route of administration.
PMCID: PMC3271541  PMID: 22345871
Dose-escalation pharmacokinetics; lipid-lowering activity; 80/574
7.  Immunization Status of Children Admitted to a Tertiary-care Hospital of North India: Reasons for Partial Immunization or Non-immunization 
Reasons for the low coverage of immunization vary from logistic ones to those dependent on human behaviour. The study was planned to find out: (a) the immunization status of children admitted to a paediatric ward of tertiary-care hospital in Delhi, India and (b) reasons for partial immunization and non-immunization. Parents of 325 consecutively-admitted children aged 12–60 months were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. A child who had missed any of the vaccines given under the national immunization programme till one year of age was classified as partially-immunized while those who had not received any vaccine up to 12 months of age or received only pulse polio vaccine were classified as non-immunized. Reasons for partial/non-immunization were recorded using open-ended questions. Of the 325 children (148 males, 177 females), 58 (17.84%) were completely immunized, 156 (48%) were partially immunized, and 111 (34.15%) were non-immunized. Mothers were the primary respondents in 84% of the cases. The immunization card was available with 31.3% of the patients. All 214 partially- or completely-immunized children received BCG, 207 received OPV/DPT1, 182 received OPV/DPT2, 180 received OPV/DPT3, and 115 received measles vaccines. Most (96%) received pulse polio immunization, including 98 of the 111 non-immunized children. The immunization status varied significantly (p<0.05) with sex, education of parents, urban/rural background, route and place of delivery. On logistic regression, place of delivery [odds ratio (OR): 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–4.1], maternal education (OR=6.94, 95% CI 3.1–15.1), and religion (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.2–3.1) were significant (p<0.05). The most common reasons for partial or non-immunization were: inadequate knowledge about immunization or subsequent dose (n=140, 52.4%); belief that vaccine has side-effects (n=77, 28.8%); lack of faith in immunization (n=58, 21.7%); or oral polio vaccine is the only vaccine required (n=56, 20.9%. Most (82.5%) children admitted to a tertiary-care hospital were partially immunized or non-immunized. The immunization status needs to be improved by education, increasing awareness, and counselling of parents and caregivers regarding immunizations and associated misconceptions as observed in the study.
PMCID: PMC2980896  PMID: 20635642
Child; Immunization; Vaccination; India

Results 1-7 (7)