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1.  Obesity and Obesity-Related Comorbidities in a Canadian First Nation Population* *This article is part of a joint publication initiative between Preventing Chronic Disease and Chronic Diseases in Canada. Preventing Chronic Disease is the primary publisher, while Chronic Diseases in Canada is the secondary publisher.  
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;8(1):A03.
Introduction
Rates of obesity are higher among Canada's Aboriginal First Nations populations than among non-First Nations populations. We studied obesity and obesity-related illness in a Manitoba First Nation community.
Methods
We conducted a screening study of diabetes and diabetes complications in 2003, from which we drew a representative sample of Manitoba First Nations adults (N = 483). We assessed chronic disease and chronic disease risk factors.
Results
Prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities was higher among women than men. By using multivariate analysis, we found that factors significantly associated with obesity among women were diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, and employment status. Among men, factors were age, apolipoprotein A1 level, apolipoprotein B level, and insulin resistance. Seventy-five percent of study participants had at least 1 of the following conditions: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes. Comorbidity was high even among the youngest age groups; 22% of men and 43% of women aged 18 to 29 had 2 or more chronic conditions. Twenty-two percent of participants had undiagnosed hypertension. Participants with undiagnosed hypertension had significantly more chronic conditions and were more likely to have microalbuminuria than were those without hypertension. The number of chronic conditions was not significantly different for participants with newly diagnosed hypertension than for those with previously diagnosed hypertension.
Conclusions
The prevalence of obesity and other chronic conditions in the study community is high, especially considering the number of young people. Community-based interventions are being undertaken to reduce the excessive rate of illness.
PMCID: PMC3044014  PMID: 21159215
2.  Arthritis in the Canadian Aboriginal Population: North-South Differences in Prevalence and Correlates* *This article is part of a joint publication initiative between Preventing Chronic Disease and Chronic Diseases in Canada. Preventing Chronic Disease is the secondary publisher, while Chronic Diseases in Canada is the primary publisher.  
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;8(1):A04.
Background
Information on arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders among Aboriginal people is sparse. Survey data show that arthritis and rheumatism are among the most commonly reported chronic conditions and their prevalence is higher than among non-Aboriginal people.
Objective
To describe the burden of arthritis among Aboriginal people in northern Canada and demonstrate the public health significance and social impact of the disease.
Methods
Using cross-sectional data from more than 29 000 Aboriginal people aged 15 years and over who participated in the Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2006, we assessed regional differences in the prevalence of arthritis and its association with other risk factors, co-morbidity and health care use.
Results
The prevalence of arthritis in the three northern territories ("North") is 12.7% compared to 20.1% in the provinces ("South") and is higher among females than males in both the North and South. The prevalence among Inuit is lower than among other Aboriginal groups. Individuals with arthritis are more likely to smoke, be obese, have concurrent chronic diseases, and are less likely to be employed. Aboriginal people with arthritis utilized the health care system more often than those without the disease.
Conclusion:
Aboriginal-specific findings on arthritis and other chronic diseases as well as recognition of regional differences between North and South will enhance program planning and help identify new priorities in health promotion.
Keywords
arthritis, Aboriginal people, Northern Canada, Inuit, First Nations, Métis, North American Indians, Aboriginal Peoples Survey
PMCID: PMC3044015  PMID: 21159216
3.  Cardiovascular Risk According to Plasma Apolipoprotein and Lipid Profiles in a Canadian First Nation* *This article is part of a joint publication initiative between Preventing Chronic Disease and Chronic Diseases in Canada. Preventing Chronic Disease is the primary publisher, while Chronic Diseases in Canada is the secondary publisher.  
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;8(1):A05.
Introduction
Despite high diabetes rates among Canadian First Nations people, little is known about their cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to describe the apolipoprotein profile with respect to cardiovascular risk in a Canadian First Nation community.
Methods
In 2003, a representative sample of adult members of a Manitoba First Nation (N = 483) participated in a screening study for diabetes and diabetes complications. We assessed their cardiovascular risk factors.
Results
Sixty percent of women were at increased cardiovascular risk because of low apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels, compared with 35% of men. The proportion of women with low apoA1 levels decreased with age, but the proportion with low high-density lipoprotein levels remained stable across age groups. Both apoB and apoA1 were significantly associated with obesity when age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, homocysteine, diabetes, and insulin resistance were controlled for.
Conclusion
Apolipoprotein and lipid profiles in this First Nation population suggest high cardiovascular risk. Future research should characterize the lipoprotein particle size in this population.
PMCID: PMC3044016  PMID: 21159217

Results 1-3 (3)