Squamous cell carcinoma arising from the small intestine is rare and difficult to identify as a primary or metastatic feature. We report a case of small intestinal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as subacute peritonitis due to perforation. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with intermittent postprandial abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute peritonitis due to gastrointestinal perforation. During explorative laparotomy, a perforation site was detected in the jejunum and segmental resection to correct the perforation was performed including the perforation site located at the 70 cm inside the jejunum from the Treitz ligament. The pathology results revealed squamous cell carcinoma in the resected segment of the jejunum with two perforation sites.
Squamous cell carcinoma; small intestine; jejunum; perforation; peritonitis
Anomalies of renal vasculature combined with ectopic kidneys were found on a multi-detector CT scan. Knowledge of renal vascular variation is very important for surgical exploration, radiologic intervention and staging for urologic cancer. We present an extremely rare case of a right circumaortic renal vein combined with a right ectopic kidney. The right kidney was located at the level between the third and fifth lumbar vertebra. The right circumaortic renal vein crossed the aorta and returned to the inferior vena cava behind the aorta.
Renal vein; Variation; Ectopic; Kidney; Multi-detector CT
Leptin is a potent adipokine that plays a significant role in tumor development and the progression of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether leptin affects the response to tamoxifen treatment in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells.
Leptin, leptin receptor (Ob-R), and activation of signaling pathways were studied by Western immunoblotting. The effects of leptin on tamoxifen-dependent growth inhibition were studied in MCF-7 and T-47D cells.
Leptin was expressed in MCF-7 and T-47D and had a proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells. Leptin significantly inhibited the antiestrogenic effect of tamoxifen in both cells only under β-estradiol (E2) (20 nM) conditions. In MCF-7, the inhibitory effect against tamoxifen was a result from the activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 signal transduction pathway.
Leptin interferes with the effects of tamoxifen under E2 stimulated conditions in ER-positive breast cancer cells. These results imply that inhibition of leptin is expected to enhance the response to tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer cells, and, therefore, could be a promising way to overcome endocrine resistance.
Breast neoplasms; Hormone resistance; Leptin
Implant stability at the time of surgery is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. Primary stability is considered of paramount importance to achieve osseointegration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using artificial bone blocks with different bone densities and compositions to mimic different circumstances that are encountered in routine daily clinical settings.
In order to validate the objectives, various sized holes were made in bone blocks with different bone densities (#10, #20, #30, #40, and #50) using a surgical drill and insertion torque together with implant stability quotient (ISQ) values that were measured using the Osstell Mentor. The experimental groups under evaluation were subdivided into 5 subgroups according to the circumstances.
In group 1, the mean insertion torque and ISQ values increased as the density of the bone blocks increased. For group 2, the mean insertion torque values decreased as the final drill size expanded, but this was not the case for the ISQ values. The mean insertion torque values in group 3 increased with the thickness of the cortical bone, and the same was true for the ISQ values. For group 4, the mean insertion torque values increased as the cancellous bone density increased, but the correlation with the ISQ values was weak. Finally, in group 5, the mean insertion torque decreased as the final drill size increased, but the correlation with the ISQ value was weak.
Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that primary stability does not simply depend on the insertion torque, but also on the bone quality.
Bone density; Dental implants; Torque
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synthetic fibronectin (FN) fragments, including fibrin binding sites from amino-terminal FN fragments containing type I repeats 1 to 5, on osteoblast-like cell activity.
Oligopeptides ranging from 9 to 20 amino acids, designated FF1, FF3, and FF5, were synthesized by a solid-phase peptide synthesizing system, and we investigated the effects of these peptides on cell attachment and extent of mineralization using confocal microscopy, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, and Alizarin red S staining.
FF3 and FF5 peptides increased the number of attached human osteoblastic cells, and FF3 administration led to prominent cell spreading. Mineralization was increased in FF3 and FF5 compared to FF1 and the untreated control.
Taken together, it can be concluded that the fibrin-binding oligopeptides FF3 and FF5 enhanced cell attachment and mineralization on osteoblast-like cells. These results indicate that FF3 and FF5 have the potential to increase osteoblast-like cell activity. Performing an in vivo study may provide further possibilities for surface modification of biomimetic peptides to enhance osteogenesis, thus improving the regeneration of destroyed alveolar bone.
Fibrin; Fibronectins; Oligopeptides; Osteoblasts
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
The effect of FK506 and CsA on rat MSCs was assessed in vitro. The MTT assay was used to determine the deleterious effect of immunosuppressants on stem cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 7 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed on days 3, 7, and 14. Alizarin red S staining was done on day 21 to check mineralization nodule formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also performed to detect the expressions of bone tissue-specific genes on days 1 and 7.
Cell proliferation was promoted more in the FK506 groups than the control or CsA groups on days 3 and 7. The FK506 groups showed increased ALP activity compared to the other groups during the experimental period. The ALP activity of the CsA groups did not differ from the control group in any of the assessments. Mineralization nodule formation was most prominent in the FK506 groups at 21 days. RT-PCR results of the FK506 groups showed that several bone-related genes-osteopontin, osteonectin, and type I collagen (Col-I)-were expressed more than the control in the beginning, but the intensity of expression decreased over time. Runx2 and Dlx5 gene expression were up-regulated on day 7. The effects of 50 nM CsA on osteonectin and Col-I were similar to those of the FK506 groups, but in the 500 nM CsA group, most of the genes were less expressed compared to the control.
These results suggest that FK506 enhances the osteoblastic differentiation of rat MSCs. Therefore, FK506 might have a beneficial effect on bone regeneration when immunosuppressants are needed in xenogenic or allogenic stem cell transplantation to treat bone defects.
Cell differentiation; Cyclosporin A; FK506; Immunosuppressive agents; Mesenchymal stem cells
The aim of this study was to compare osteoblast behavior on zirconia and titanium under conditions cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2.
MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on sandblasted zirconia and sandblasted/etched titanium discs. At 24 hours after seeding MC3T3-E1, the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) gel alone and the DBM gel with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were added to the culture medium. The surface topography was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular proliferation was measured at 1, 4, and 7 days after gel loading. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured at 7 days after gel loading. The mRNA expression of ALPase, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin, and osterix were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction at 4 days and 7 days.
At 1, 4, and 7 days after loading the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2, cellular proliferation on the zirconia and titanium discs was similar and that of the groups cultured with the DBM gel alone and the DBM gel with BMP-2 was not significantly different, except for titanium with BMP-2 gel. ALPase activity was higher in the cells cultured with BMP-2 than in the other groups, but there was no difference between the zirconia and titanium. In ALPase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, Runx-2 and osterix gene expression, that of cells on zirconia or titanium with BMP-2 gel was much more highly increased than titanium without gel at day 7. The gene expression level of cells cultured on zirconia with BMP-2 was higher than that on titanium with BMP-2 at day 7.
The data in this study demonstrate that the osteoblastic cell attachment and proliferation of zirconia were comparable to those of titanium. With the stimulation of BMP-2, zirconia has a more pronounced effect on the proliferation and differentiation of the osteoblastic cells compared with titanium.
Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Cell differentiation; Cell proliferation; Zirconium oxide
The aim of this study is to determine whether certain biomaterials have the potential to support cell attachment. After seeding bone marrow stromal cells onto the biomaterials, we investigated their responses to each material in vitro.
Rat bone marrow derived stromal cells were used. The biomaterials were deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), DBBM coated with fibronectin (FN), synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), HA coated with FN, HA coated with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and pure β-TCP. With confocal laser scanning microscopy, actin filaments and vinculin were observed after 6, 12, and 24 hours of cell seeding. The morphological features of cells on each biomaterial were observed using scanning electron microscopy at day 1 and 7.
The cells on HA/FN and HA spread widely and showed better defined actin cytoskeletons than those on the other biomaterials. At the initial phase, FN seemed to have a favorable effect on cell adhesion. In DBBM, very few cells adhered to the surface.
Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that in contrast with DBBM not supporting cell attachment, HA provided a more favorable environment with respect to cell attachment.
Bone substitutes; Cell adhesion; Fibronectins; Stem cells
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of canine periodontal ligament stem cells on allogenic and xenogenic immune cells in vitro.
Mixed cell cultures consisting of canine stem cells (periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells) and allogenic canine/xenogenic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were established following the addition of phytohemagglutinin. The proliferation of PBMCs was evaluated using the MTS assay. The cell division of PBMCs was analyzed using the CFSE assay. The apoptosis of PBMCs was assessed using the trypan blue uptake method.
Periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells inhibited the proliferation of allogenic and xenogenic PBMCs. Both periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells suppressed the cell division of PBMCs despite the existence of a mitogen. No significant differences in the percentages of apoptotic PBMCs were found among the groups.
Canine periodontal ligament stem cells have an immunomodulatory effect on allogenic and xenogenic PBMCs. This effect is not a product of apoptosis of PBMCs but is caused by the inhibition of cell division of PBMCs.
Allogenic; Immunomodulation; Periodontal ligaments; Stem cell; Xenogenic
Fibronectin (FN) has been shown to stimulate bone regeneration in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of bovine bone mineral coated with synthetic oligopeptides to enhance bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects.
Oligopeptides including fibrin-binding sequences of FN repeats were synthesized on the basis of primary and tertiary human plasma FN structures. Peptide coated and uncoated bone minerals were implanted into 10 mm calvarial defects in New Zealand white rabbits, and the animals were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after surgery. After specimens were prepared, histologic examination and histomorphometric analysis were performed.
At 4 weeks after surgery, the uncoated groups showed a limited amount of osteoid formation at the periphery of the defect and the oligopeptide coated groups showed more osteoid formation and new bone formation in the center of the defect as well as at the periphery. At 8 weeks, both sites showed increased new bone formation. However, the difference between the two sites had reduced.
Fibrin-binding synthetic oligopeptide derived from FN on deproteinized bovine bone enhanced new bone formation in rabbit calvarial defects at the early healing stage. This result suggests that these oligopeptides can be beneficial in reconstructing oral and maxillofacial deformities or in regenerating osseous bone defects.
Fibrin; Fibronectins; Oligopeptides
The healing process following tooth extraction apparently results in a pronounced resorption of the alveolar ridge. As a result, the width of alveolar ridge is reduced and severe alveolar bone resorption occurs. The purpose of this experiment is to clinically and histologically evaluate the results of using horse-derived bone mineral for socket preservation.
The study comprised 4 patients who were scheduled for extraction as a consequence of severe chronic periodontitis or apical lesion. The extraction was followed by socket preservation using horse-derived bone minerals. Clinical parameters included buccal-palatal width, mid-buccal crest height, and mid-palatal crest height. A histologic examination was conducted.
The surgical sites healed uneventfully. The mean ridge width was 7.75 ± 2.75 mm at baseline and 7.00 ± 2.45 mm at 6 months. The ridge width exhibited no significant difference between baseline and 6 months. The mean buccal crest height at baseline was 7.5 ± 5.20 mm, and at 6 months, 3.50 ± 0.58 mm. The mean palatal crest height at baseline was 7.75 ± 3.10 mm, and at 6 months, 5.00 ± 0.82 mm. There were no significant differences between baseline and 6 months regarding buccal and palatal crest heights. The amount of newly formed bone was 9.88 ± 2.90%, the amount of graft particles was 42.62 ± 6.57%, and the amount of soft tissue was 47.50 ± 9.28%.
Socket preservation using horse-derived bone mineral can effectively maintain ridge dimensions following tooth extraction and can promote new bone formation through osteoconductive activities.
Bone resorption; Bone substitutes; Clinical trial; Tooth socket
To prolong the degradation time of collagen membranes, various cross-linking techniques have been developed. For cross-linking, chemicals such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde are added to collagen membranes, but these chemicals could adversely affect surrounding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of porous non-chemical cross-linking porcine-derived collagen nanofibrous membrane to enhance bone and associated tissue regeneration in one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs.
The second and third mandibular premolars and the first molars of 2 adult beagles were extracted bilaterally and the extraction sites were allowed to heal for 10 weeks. One-wall intrabony defects were prepared bilaterally on the mesial and distal side of the fourth mandibular premolars. Among eight defects, four defects were not covered with membrane as controls and the other four defects were covered with membrane as the experimental group. The animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after surgery.
Wound healing was generally uneventful. For all parameters evaluating bone regeneration, the experimental group showed significantly superior results compared to the control. In new bone height (NBh), the experimental group exhibited a greater mean value than the control (3.04 ± 0.23 mm/1.57 ± 0.59, P = 0.003). Also, in new bone area (NBa) and new bone volume (NBv), the experimental group showed superior results compared to the control (NBa, 34.48 ± 10.21% vs. 5.09 ± 5.76%, P = 0.014; and NBv, 28.04 ± 12.96 vs. 1.55 ± 0.57, P = 0.041). On the other hand, for parameters evaluating periodontal tissue regeneration, including junctional epithelium migration and new cementum height, there were no statistically significant differences between two groups.
Within the limitations of this study, this collagen membrane enhanced bone regeneration at one-wall intrabony defects. On the other hand, no influence of this membrane on periodontal tissue regeneration could be ascertained in this study.
Absorbable implants; Bone regeneration; Collagen; Guided tissue regeneration
The purpose of this study was to evaluate any improvement in the quality of abdominal CTs after the utilization of the nationally based accreditation program.
Materials and Methods
Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. We retrospectively analyzed 1,011 outside abdominal CTs, from 2003 to 2007. We evaluated images using a fill-up sheet form of the national accreditation program, and subjectively by grading for the overall CT image quality. CT scans were divided into two categories according to time periods; before and after the implementation of the accreditation program. We compared CT scans between two periods according to parameters pertaining to the evaluation of images. We determined whether there was a correlation between the results of a subjective assessment of the image quality and the evaluation scores of the clinical image.
The following parameters were significantly different after the implementation of the accreditation program: identifying data, display parameters, scan length, spatial and contrast resolution, window width and level, optimal contrast enhancement, slice thickness, and total score. The remaining parameters were not significantly different between scans obtained from the two different periods: scan parameters, film quality, and artifacts.
After performing the CT accreditation program, the quality of the outside abdominal CTs show marked improvement, especially for the parameters related to the scanning protocol.
Computed tomography (CT); QA/QC; Health policy and practice
It has been reported that low-level semiconductor diode lasers could enhance the wound healing process. The periodontal ligament is crucial for maintaining the tooth and surrounding tissues in periodontal wound healing. While low-level semiconductor diode lasers have been used in low-level laser therapy, there have been few reports on their effects on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). We performed this study to investigate the biological effects of semiconductor diode lasers on human PDLFs.
Human PDLFs were cultured and irradiated with a gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) semiconductor diode laser of which the wavelength was 810 nm. The power output was fixed at 500 mW in the continuous wave mode with various energy fluencies, which were 1.97, 3.94, and 5.91 J/cm2. A culture of PDLFs without laser irradiation was regarded as a control. Then, cells were additionally incubated in 72 hours for MTS assay and an alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity test. At 48 hours post-laser irradiation, western blot analysis was performed to determine extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. ANOVA was used to assess the significance level of the differences among groups (P<0.05).
At all energy fluencies of laser irradiation, PDLFs proliferation gradually increased for 72 hours without any significant differences compared with the control over the entire period taken together. However, an increment of cell proliferation significantly greater than in the control occurred between 24 and 48 hours at laser irradiation settings of 1.97 and 3.94 J/cm2 (P<0.05). The highest ALPase activity was found at 48 and 72 hours post-laser irradiation with 3.94 J/cm2 energy fluency (P<0.05). The phosphorylated ERK level was more prominent at 3.94 J/cm2 energy fluency than in the control.
The present study demonstrated that the GaAlAs semiconductor diode laser promoted proliferation and differentiation of human PDLFs.
Alkaline phosphatase; Extracellular signal-regulated kinases; Fibroblasts; Periodontal ligament; Semiconductor diode lasers
The purpose of this study was to compare the bone regeneration effects of cortical, cancellous, and cortico-cancellous human bone substitutes on calvarial defects of rabbits.
Four 8-mm diameter calvarial defects were created in each of nine New Zealand white rabbits. Freeze-dried cortical bone, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous bone, and demineralized bone matrix with freeze-dried cancellous bone were inserted into the defects, while the non-grafted defect was regarded as the control. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of healing, the experimental animals were euthanized for specimen preparation. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was performed to calculate the percent bone volume. After histological evaluation, histomorphometric analysis was performed to quantify new bone formation.
In micro-CT evaluation, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed the highest percent bone volume value among the experimental groups at week 4. At week 8 and week 12, freeze-dried cortical human bone showed the highest percent bone volume value among the experimental groups. In histologic evaluation, at week 4, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed more prominent osteoid tissue than any other group. New bone formation was increased in all of the experimental groups at week 8 and 12. Histomorphometric data showed that freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed a significantly higher new bone formation percentile value than any other experimental group at week 4. At week 8, freeze-dried cortical human bone showed the highest value, of which a significant difference existed between freeze-dried cortical human bone and demineralized bone matrix with freeze-dried cancellous human bone. At week 12, there were no significant differences among the experimental groups.
Freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed swift new bone formation at the 4-week healing phase, whereas there was less difference in new bone formation among the experimental groups in the following healing phases.
Bone Substitutes; Osteogenesis; Transplantation; X-Ray Microtomography
It has been suggested that primary implant stability plays an essential role in successful osseointegration. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is widely used to measure the initial stability of implants because it provides superior reproducibility and non-invasiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the fractal dimension from the panoramic radiograph is related to the primary stability of the implant as represented by RFA.
This study included 22 patients who underwent dental implant installation at the Department of Periodontology of Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Morphometric analysis and fractal analysis of the bone trabecular pattern were performed using panoramic radiographs, and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were measured after implant installation using RFA. The radiographs of 52 implant sites were analyzed, and the ISQ values were compared with the results from the morphometric analysis and fractal analysis.
The Pearson correlation showed a linear correlation between the ISQ values of RFA and the parameters of morphometric analysis but not of statistical significance. The fractal dimension had a linear correlation that was statistically significant. The correlation was more pronounced in the mandible.
In conclusion, we suggest that the fractal dimension acquired from the panoramic radiograph may be a useful predictor of the initial stability of dental implants.
Dental implantation; Fractals; Panoramic radiography
Mesenteric lymphangiomas are rare abdominal masses that are seldom associated with small bowel volvulus, and especially in adult patients. We report here on an unusual case of small bowel volvulus that was induced by a mesenteric lymphangioma in a 43-year-old man who suffered from repeated bouts of abdominal pain. At multidetector CT, we noticed whirling of the cystic mesenteric mass and the adjacent small bowel around the superior mesenteric artery. Small bowel volvulus induced by the rotation of the mesenteric lymphangioma was found on exploratory laparotomy. Lymphangioma should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel volvulus in adult patients.
Volvulus; Small intestine; Lymphangioma; Multi-detector CT
Hepatic subcapsular steatosis is a rare and specific form of fatty change in the liver. It is a unique finding in diabetic patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and intraperitoneal insulin treatment. Intraperitoneal administration of insulin causes a unique pattern of fatty infiltration in the subcapsular location of the liver. Here we report a case of hepatic subcapsular steatosis in a diabetic CAPD patient who received intraperitoneal insulin. A 46-year-old diabetic woman on CAPD presented with general weakness. The patient received a total amount of 110 units of regular insulin via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection. Her initial blood chemistry showed increased serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles. Abdominal CT scan images and MRI revealed characteristic findings consistent with hepatic subcapsular steatosis. We assumed that the cause was CAPD and concomitant intraperitoneal insulin treatment; therefore, the patient was switched from CAPD to hemodialysis (HD) and began to receive insulin subcutaneously. Two months after the beginning of HD, the hepatic subcapsular steatosis completely resolved.
Fatty liver; Peritoneal dialysis; Diabetes mellitus
Interstitial pneumonia (IP) frequently occurs in patients with scrub typhus, but its clinical significance is not well known. This study was designed to evaluate interstitial pneumonia as a marker of severity of the disease for patients with scrub typhus. We investigated clinical parameters representing the severity of the disease, and the chest radiographic findings for 101 patients with scrub typhus. We then compared these clinical factors between patients with and without IP. We also studied the relationship between IP and other chest radiographic findings. The chest radiography showed IP (51.4%), pleural effusion (42.6%), cardiomegaly (14.9%), pulmonary alveolar edema (20.8%), hilar lymphadenopathy (13.8%) and focal atelectasis (11.8%), respectively. The patients with IP (n=52) had higher incidences in episode of hypoxia (p=0.030), hypotension (p=0.024), severe thrombocytopenia (p=0.036) and hypoalbuminemia (p=0.013) than the patients without IP (n=49). The patients with IP also had higher incidences of pleural effusion (p<0.001), focal atelectasis (p=0.019), cardiomegaly (p<0.001), pulmonary alveolar edema (p=0.011) and hilar lymphadenopathy (p<0.001) than the patients without IP. Our data suggest that IP frequently occurs for patients with scrub typhus and its presence is closely associated with the disease severity of scrub typhus.
Orientia tsutsugamushi; Scrub Typhus; Pneumonia, Rickettsial; Severity of Illness Index
We present a case of an intraperitoneal bronchogenic cyst located at inferior surface of the liver, next to the gallbladder which clinically mimicked a gallbladder tumor. This is the first case reported in Korea, and we offer reviews of the related literatures. A 48-yr-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of intermittent abdominal pain in right upper quadrant. Computed tomography showed a large mass alongside the gallbladder. During laparotomy, the mass showed an ovoid cystic nature, which was attached to the normal gallbladder and liver bed. Cyst excision with cholecystectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst. Most bronchogenic cysts have a benign nature, but malignant changes have also been reported. Therefore, if a cystic tumor in the abdomen is suspected during preoperative diagnosis, a bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Bronchogenic Cyst; Gallbladder Neoplasms
Hypoalbuminemia frequently occurs in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), but clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia is not well known. This study was designed to evaluate hypoalbuminemia as a marker of severity of disease in patients with HFRS. We evaluated the relationship between the level of serum albumin and clinical parameters representing the severity of disease in 144 patients with HFRS. The patients were divided into three groups based on the level of serum albumin; Group I (normal serum albumin), Group II (serum albumin <3.5 g/dL and >/=3.0 g/dL), and Group III (serum albumin <3.0 g/dL). Of the total of 144 patients, 42 patients (29.2%) were categorized as Group I, 39 patients (27.1%) as Group II, and 63 patients (43.8%) as Group III. Group III had a higher rate of incidence in episode of hypotension, pulmonary edema than did Group I and Group II. The lowest level of serum albumin was positively correlated with platelet count (r=0.505, p<0.001) and was negatively correlated with leukocyte count (r=-0.329, p<0.001), BUN (r=-0.484, p<0.001), serum creatinine (r=-0.394, p<0.001), and AST (r=-0.251, p=0.002). Our data suggest that hypoalbuminemia frequently occurs in the acute stage of HFRS, and level of serum albumin is associated with the disease severity of HFRS.