To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of localized resectable genitourinary sarcomas in adults.
Materials and Methods
Between September, 1996 and November, 2008, 18 consecutive cases of adults (12 men and 6 women; median age 48.8 years) who were treated for primary genitourinary sarcomas were identified. The following variables were analyzed: patient age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary organ, tumor histology, size, necrosis, Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) grade, and surgical margin positivity. Recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival were the study end-points.
The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass (six cases, 33.3%), the most common site was the kidney (six cases, 33.3%), and the most common histological subtype was leiomyosarcoma (eight patients, 44.4%). Complete resection with negative surgical margins was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). The median follow-up period was 49.9 months (range 6.4 to 147.6). The recurrence-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6%, 66.5%, and 66.5%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival only associated significantly with ASA score (p=0.018). The disease-specific survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.9%, 76.2%, and 67.7%, respectively. Disease-specific survival was associated significantly only with FNCLCC grade (p=0.042).
Although genitourinary sarcomas in adults are a rare group of tumors with a poor prognosis, some patients may have a favorable prognosis. Our findings suggest that FNCLCC grade is the most important prognostic factor for these patients.
Urogenital neoplasms; sarcoma; genitourinary tract; survival; prognosis
The aim of this study was to describe the surgical clip-related complications that can occur after open retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), pure laparoscopic prostatectomy (LRP), and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP).
Materials and Methods
A database of 641 patients who underwent RRP (n=439), LRP (n=49), and RALP (n=153) at our institution between January 2006 and April 2009 was reviewed to identify patients with complications related to the use of surgical clips. The median follow-up time for the entire cohort was 19.0 months (range, 1-42 months).
Of the 641 patients, 25 (5.7%), 1 (2.0%), and 2 (1.3%) had a bladder neck contracture after RRP, LRP, and RALP, respectively. Two RRP patients had a bladder stone. In total, 6 patients had surgical clip-related complications. Metal clip migration was associated with 2 (8%) of the 25 RRP cases of bladder neck contracture and both (100%) of the RRP cases of bladder stone. Moreover, both (100%) of the RALP cases of bladder neck contractures were associated with Hem-o-lok clip migration into the anastomotic site.
Surgical clips are prone to migration and may cause, or significantly contribute to, bladder neck contracture or the formation of bladder stones after radical prostatectomy. These findings also suggest that because the incidence of bladder neck contracture after RALP is low, the migration of Hem-o-lok clips should be suspected when voiding difficulty occurs after RALP.
Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Surgical instruments; Urinary bladder calculi; Urinary bladder neck obstruction
Although radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the optimal extent of PLND and the minimum number of nodes that should be examined for pathology remain unclear. However, evidence is growing that extended PLND has additional diagnostic and therapeutic benefits relative to standard PLND. In particular, a more meticulous and extended PLND may improve the disease-free survival of node-negative patients because it removes undetected micrometastases. Indeed, some patients with positive nodes can be cured by surgery alone, even those with gross adenopathy. Increasing lines of evidence also suggest that the extent of the primary bladder tumor, the number of lymph nodes that are removed, and the lymph node tumor burden are important prognostic variables in patients undergoing cystectomy. Therefore, extended PLND may not only provide improved prognostic information, it may also have a clinically significant therapeutic benefit for both lymph node-positive and node-negative patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Although the absolute limits of PLND remain to be determined, evidence supports the notion that a more extended PLND should include the common iliac vessels and presacral lymph nodes at cystectomy. Such PLND should only be performed in patients who are appropriate surgical candidates. Prospective, randomized trials are needed to properly establish the extent of PLND that is required to generate these benefits.
Cystectomy; Lymph node excision; Urinary bladder neoplasms
The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of terazosin and tamsulosin, on prostate activity, i.e., serum prostate-specific antigen, total prostate volume (TPV), and transition zone volume (TZV). A total of 90 patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), ranging in age from 52 to 83 yr (median 65 yr), were included in the study. Patients were given 0.2 mg tamsulosin, 2 mg terazosin, or 4 mg terazosin once daily for an average of 14 months (range, 6-56 months). Subjective (International Prostate Symptom Scores, I-PSS) and objective (maximal flow rate and post-void residual) parameters were assessed both at baseline and at treatment cessation. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were found to be unaffected by treatment (1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL). In total patients, multivariate analysis showed that baseline TPV was the only independent predictor of treatment-related TPV reduction. Moreover, baseline TPV ≥30 g was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of TPV reduction (odds ratio [OR], 3.939; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.506-10.304; p=0.005), and a baseline TZV of ≥10 g was associated with a 7.1-times greater chance of TZV reduction (OR, 7.100; 95% CI, 2.428-20.763; p<0.001). The same model showed that patients on 2 mg terazosin had a 10.8-fold greater likelihood (OR, 10.770; 95% CI, 1.409-82.323; p=0.022) and that those on 4 mg terazosin had a 9.0-fold greater likelihood (OR, 9.001; 95% CI, 1.724-46.995; p=0.009) of a TZV reduction than those on 0.2 mg tamsulosin. In addition, symptoms improved regardless of prostate activity after taking alpha1-blockers. Our findings suggest that terazosin reduces TZV and demonstrate that the relief of symptoms associated with BPH may not be due to a prostate activity reduction induced by apoptosis in the prostate gland.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia; Prostate Volume; Prostate-Specific Antigen; Tamsulosin; Terazosine
We determined the efficacy and safety of a relatively high dose of terazosin (5 mg) in Korean patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), with or without concomitant hypertension.
Materials and Methods
From July to December 2006, 200 men who consecutively presented with LUTS were prospectively studied. Eight weeks after treatment, blood pressure (BP), uroflowmetry, and International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) were assessed. For analysis purposes, patients were stratified according to concomitant hypertension. Of the 200 patients, 173 completed the scheduled eight-week treatment period.
At baseline, no differences were evident in the two groups in terms of I-PSS, Qmax, PVR and BP. After eight weeks of treatment-although I-PSS and uroflowmetry parameters were not significantly different in the two groups-systolic and diastolic BP in the non-hypertensive control group were higher than in the hypertensive group (p= 0.001 and p = 0.0100, respectively). Changes in I-PSS, uroflowmetry parameters, and BPs measured at week eight post-treatment commencement did not significantly differ between the two groups. Moreover, the addition of 5 mg of terazosin to antihypertensives did not cause a significant reduction in either systolic or diastolic BP in either group.
Adding terazosin to existing antihypertensive regimens did not seem to increase the incidence of adverse events. Our findings suggest that 5 mg terazosin is effective and that it has an acceptable safety profile as an add-on therapy for patients with LUTS and concomitant hypertension.
Hypertension; prostate; lower urinary tract symptoms; terazosin
This study aimed to evaluate the cancer detection rate in a Korean population with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels greater than or equal to 20.0ng/mL.
Materials and Methods
A total of 174 men 50 to 79 years old (median 69) included in the study. The median prostate volume of the patients was 44.8mL (range 14.1 to 210.0) and their serum PSA ranged from 20.0 to 9725.0ng/mL (median 44.8).
Of 174 men 141 (81.0%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer on initial biopsy. In the total number of patients, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 62.9% for PSA 20 to 29.9, 72.7% for PSA 30 to 39.9 and 100% for PSA 40 to 49.9ng/mL. In patients with an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), the values for these PSA ranges increased to 89.5%, 91.7% and 100%, respectively. The PPV was 81.0% for PSA cutoff of 20, 89.2% for a cutoff of 30, 95.4% for a cutoff of 40, and 94.7% for a cutoff of 50ng/mL. In conjunction with an abnormal DRE, the values for these PSA cutoffs increased to 95.9%, 98.1%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
Our data suggest the ability to predict the presence of prostate cancer reliably on initial biopsy when PSA threshold is greater than or equal to 50ng/mL. This PSA threshold may be lowered to 40ng/mL in the presence of an abnormal DRE. In Korean men with high PSA, the detection rate of prostate cancer on biopsy appears to be comparable to that for American men.
Prostate-specific antigen; prostate neoplasms; prostate cancer; Asian
Advances in medical and rehabilitative care have increased interest in studying how different factors may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). There has been a large increase in the number of studies assessing HRQOL among persons with SCI. However, despite these advances, numerous issues remain unanswered because these studies have used a variety of methodologic approaches and assessment tools to examine how different factors have a role in predicting HRQOL in SCI populations. Therefore, standardized instruments should be used as part of this process. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36) was developed in order to survey health status of the general population. However, the available data on the HRQOL of individuals with SCI are currently limited. In addition, there is little information currently available on the factors that are associated with HRQOL in the SCI population and this issue remains controversial. The findings from several individual studies that used the SF-36 to assess the HRQOL of patients suffering from SCI were reviewed, and the results were interpreted with disability in mind. This review article aims to summarize the data regarding the HRQOL of individuals with SCI by using the SF-36.
Spinal cord injury; quality of life; questionnaires; Short Form-36
We have evaluated the patterns of diagnostic and treatment practices for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a country that does not have country-specific clinical practice guidelines.
Materials and Methods
Probability samples were taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and randomly sampled Korean urologists were asked to complete a questionnaire. The survey explored practice characteristics and attitudes, as well as diagnostic and treatment strategies, for the management of BPH.
Of the 850 questionnaires sent, 302 were returned, and 277 of those were included in the final analysis (response rate 32.6%). For the initial evaluation, most urologists routinely used digital rectal examinations (DRE) and urinalysis. Uroflowmetry was used 34.7% of the time. Pressure-flow studies were rarely done. Symptom assessment was used in only 46.9% of cases. In addition, a significant number (58.8%) reported that treatment decisions were not based on the symptom questionnaire. Before surgery, almost all urologists routinely used DRE, urinalysis, and prostate-specific antigen tests. Of the respondents, 55.6% and 41.9% had prescribed alpha-blockers and alpha-blockers with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, respectively. 81.2% of urologists perceived that selective alpha-blockers are different in terms of efficacy, and 82.7% felt that they differed in safety. Most respondents prescribed 5-alpha reductase inhibitors based on the prostate size.
These data provide a picture of current practices regarding the management of BPH in Korea. The diagnostic and treatment practices for BPH do not follow published guidelines. Our findings ask the question "How influential are international guidelines, and do they really affect patient management in countries that do not have country-specific guidelines?"
Prostate; practice patterns; benign prostatic hyperplasia; prostatic neoplasms
We assessed several emotional variables in patients experiencing conventional urodynamic and ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AUM) to verify the hypothesis that AUM is tolerated as well as conventional urodynamics. A total of 33 women and 7 men from 23 to 72 years of age who were undergoing both procedures were prospectively included in this study. Prior to and immediately after the procedures, each patient completed a self-administered questionnaire. Answers were given on a visual analogue scale. The degree of anxiety was higher for conventional urodynamics than for AUM (p = 0.045), while the degree of boredom experienced during AUM was higher than that during conventional urodynamics (p = 0.013). There was no significant difference in the degree of shame or bother experienced by the patients during the two procedures. In general, patients tolerated both examinations extremely well. The examiner-rated degree of intolerance during conventional urodynamics was influenced by the subjective pain score (p = 0.001), while all other emotional variables except bother were not significantly related with the degree of intolerance during AUM (p = 0.007). A total of 74.4% and 84.6% responded that they were willing to repeat conventional urodynamics and AUM, respectively, which were not significantly different. Although AUM produced a significantly higher level of boredom than conventional urodynamics, our data demonstrates that patients are as tolerant of AUM as they are of conventional urodynamic procedures.
Urodynamics; ambulatory monitoring; detrusor instability; pain; anxiety
We compared the impact of prostate volume on oncological and functional outcomes 2 years after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP).
Materials and Methods
Between 2003 and 2010, 253 consecutive patients who had undergone prostatectomy by a single surgeon were serially followed over 2 years postoperatively. RALP was performed on 77 patients and ORP on 176. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasound: less than 40 g and 40 g or larger. Recoveries of potency and continence were checked serially by interview 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.
RALP was associated with less blood loss (ORP vs. RALP: 910 mL vs. 640 mL, p<0.001) but a longer operation time (150 minutes vs. 220 minutes, p<0.001) than was ORP. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for oncological outcomes, such as positive surgical margin (40% vs. 39%, p=0.911) or biochemical recurrence (12% vs. 7%, p=0.155). The overall functional outcomes showed no statistically significant differences at 2 years of follow-up (continence: 97% vs. 94%, p=0.103; potency: 51% vs. 56%, p=0.614). In the results of an inter-subgroup analysis, potency recovery was more rapid in patients who underwent RALP in a small-volume prostate than in those who underwent ORP in a small-volume prostate (3 months: 24% vs. 0%, p=0.005; 6 months: 36% vs. 10%, p=0.024). However, patients who underwent RALP in a large-volume prostate were less likely to recover continence than were patients who underwent ORP in a large-volume prostate (97% vs. 88%, p=0.025).
Patients can be expected to recover erectile function more quickly after RALP than after ORP, especially in cases of a small prostate volume.
Erectile dysfunction; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Robotics; Urinary incontinence
We investigated prostate size and its correlation with final pathologic outcomes and prognosis.
Materials and Methods
From 1993 to 2009, 830 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with follow-up duration of 12 months or more were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to prostate size as follows: group 1, prostate size ≤40 g (n=458), and group 2, prostate size >40 g (n=472). Preoperative parameters and postoperative pathologic outcomes were compared between groups. Multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the pathologic and clinical factors affecting biochemical recurrence.
Patients in group 1 had higher pathologic T stage (pT2a=17.7% vs. 23.9%, pT2b=1.1% vs. 0%, pT2c=40.4% vs. 39.8%, pT3a=29.5% vs. 21.0%, pT3b=10.7% vs. 13.2%, p=0.003) and higher positive surgical margin (40.3% vs. 33.1%, p=0.033) than did patients in group 2. Pathologic Gleason score was not significantly different between the two groups. The 5-year biochemical-recurrence-free survival was 62.3% for patients in group 1 and 73.2% for patients in group 2 (p=0.005). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that prostate size of 40 g or less (hazard ratio [HR], 1.378; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.027 to 1.848; p=0.032), extracapsular extension (HR, 1.592; 95% CI, 1.147 to 2.209; p=0.005), positive surgical margin (HR, 2.348; 95% CI, 1.701 to 3.242; p<0.001), and pathologic Gleason sum (HR, 1.507; 95% CI, 1.292 to 1.758; p<0.001) were independent predictors of biochemical recurrence.
Smaller prostate size was associated with increased risk of higher pT stage and positive surgical margin after radical prostatectomy. Also, prostate size less than 40 g was an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence.
Prognosis; Prostate; Prostatectomy
We sought to maximize the antitumor effect of an anticancer vaccine based on genetically modified endothelial cells by combining it with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor imatinib.
Materials and Methods
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with 10 MOI of Ad-CMV-mGMCSF to make anticancer vaccines. One million mouse bladder cancer cells (MBT-2) were subcutaneously inoculated in C3H mice. The experimental groups included the following: Group 1 (phosphate-buffered saline), Group 2 (anticancer vaccine and GM-CSF), Group 3 (imatinib), and Group 4 (anticancer vaccine, GM-CSF, and imatinib). Tumor growth and body weight were measured weekly. At 4 weeks, the tumors were immunostained with anti-CD31, and microvessel density (MVD) was measured. To evaluate the immunological mechanism of each treatment, flow cytometry analysis of activated CD4 and CD8 cells was performed.
At 4 weeks, the mean body weight of each group, excluding the extracted tumor weight, was not significantly different. Since week 3, the mean tumor volume in Group 4 was the smallest among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic suppressive effect on tumor volume was observed in Group 4. The MVD in Group 4 was the most suppressed among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic anti-angiogenic effect was observed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells increased in Group 2 and decreased in Group 3 compared with the other groups.
The combination of genetically modified endothelial cell vaccines and imatinib showed a synergistic antiangiogenic effect in bladder cancer.
Immunotherapy; Platelet-derived growth factor; Urinary bladder neoplasms
Although transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is useful for diagnosing prostate cancer, it is a painful procedure. There are many methods for providing pain relief and for treating discomfort during the procedure, but occasionally these are reported to be of limited use. We aimed to evaluate the value and safety of midazolam-induced anesthetic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.
Materials and Methods
From August 2008 to December 2009, 104 male patients, who were examined with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate 12-core biopsy, were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 (n=51) received ketorolac (Tarasyn®) 30 mg. Group 2 (n=53) was treated with midazolam (Dormicum®) 3 mg, which was increased to 5 mg if necessary. Immediately after the procedure, the patients were asked to rate their comfort level by using a 10-point visual analog self-assessment pain scale.
The pain scale in group 2 was significantly lower than that in group 1 (p<0.05). The patients assigned to group 2 experienced no side-effects from midazolam and were more satisfied than the patients in group 1 (p<0.05).
Midazolam anesthesia relieves pain effectively, and the patient's satisfaction is better than with conventional transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Midazolam-induced anesthetic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is useful and safe.
Biopsy; Midazolam; Pain measurement
The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value adjusted for total tumor volume (PSA/tumor volume) and serum PSA value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume (NCPV) (PSA/NCPV) as a predictor of pathological findings and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clinical and pathological data of 407 patients (median age: 66.5 years; range: 41.8–85.7 years) were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up period was 18.1 months (range: 1.0–107.8 months). Biochemical recurrence was defined as detectable PSA levels (greater than 0.2 ng ml−1) and the time of biochemical recurrence was taken to be the first time PSA became detectable. In the multivariate model, PSA/NCPV was an independent predictor of extracapsular extension and positive surgical margin (P<0.05), but PSA/tumor volume was not. Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that PSA/NCPV correlated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (P<0.001; log-rank test) but PSA/tumor volume did not (P=0.275; log-rank test). PSA/NCPV was also a significant independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival on multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (P=0.004, relative risk=2.42). Our findings suggest that PSA/NCPV is associated independently with extracapsular extension and surgical margin status and may be an independent prognostic variable of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
prostatectomy; prostatic neoplasm; PSA; treatment outcome; tumor volume
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether predicted tumor volume could predict pathologic stage in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Materials and Methods
The clinical and pathologic data of 236 patients who underwent a 12-core needle biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy were obtained from our database and reviewed retrospectively.
Observed tumor volume correlated best with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (r=0.677, p<0.001) and the number of positive biopsy cores (r=0.489, p<0.001). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop a model for predicting tumor volume before radical prostatectomy. All explanatory variables except PSA and the number of positive biopsy cores were eliminated, yielding the equation ([predicted tumor volume]=0.381x[PSA]+0.921x[No. of positive biopsy cores]-0.992). Tumor volume predicted by this equation correlated strongly with observed tumor volume (r=0.722, p<0.001). This was also true when a different cohort of 159 patients was analyzed (r=0.638, p<0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of predicted tumor volume were 68.5% for extracapsular extension, 75.7% for seminal vesicle invasion, and 70.4% for positive surgical margin. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that predicted tumor volume correlated significantly with biochemical recurrence-free survival (p<0.001; log-rank test).
Our findings suggest that tumor volume predicted on the basis of PSA levels and number of positive biopsy cores may predict pathologic stage with reasonable accuracy.
Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Treatment outcome; Tumor burden
We determined the impact of prostate volume on the efficacy of the high-power (80 W) potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Materials and Methods
Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to prostate volume: '< 40 g' (n = 49) and '40-59 g' (n = 49) and '≥ 60 g' (n = 22). Median follow-up was 9 months (range 6 to 21).
No differences in age and follow-up duration were observed in the three groups. At baseline, no significant differences were noted in the three groups in terms of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) (21.4, 19.4 and 19.1; p = 0.412) as well as the maximum flow rate (Qmax) (10.2, 9.2, and 8.6 mL/s; p = 0.291) and post-void residual (PVR) (66.2, 80.4, and 71.5 mL; p = 0.856). The mean operative times were 30.9, 46.9, and 58.6 minutes (p < 0.001) and total median energy deliveries for each group were 62.3, 97.6, and 135.9 kJ, respectively (p < 0.001). No severe intraoperative complication was observed. At the last follow-up, these parameters improved significantly regardless of prostate volume, and the IPSS (11.1, 9.4, and 12.3; p = 0.286) as well as Qmax (15.9, 15.9, and 14.2 mL/s; p = 0.690) and PVR (33.7, 28.4, and 14.2 mL; p = 0.395) were not significantly different among the groups.
Although a larger prostate requires more time and energy delivery, photoselective laser vaporization of the prostate is safe and efficacious for patients with LUTS regardless of prostate volume.
Prostate; benign prostatic hyperplasia; vaporization; KTP; laser surgery
To investigate the factors that influence treatment satisfaction after high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser vaporization of the prostate, we compared the characteristics between patients who were satisfied and those who were not satisfied. In all, 97 patients aged between 53–82 years (median age 67 years) underwent high-power KTP laser vaporization of the prostate for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. At 12 months postoperatively, 60 patients were satisfied with the treatment, whereas 37 were dissatisfied. Although there were no differences in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) values at baseline, the satisfied group scored better in total IPSS at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). At baseline, the maximum flow rate (Qmax) was lower in the dissatisfied group and remained low throughout the follow-up period, with the exception of 1 month postoperatively (P < 0.05), compared with the satisfied group. There were no differences in other objective data between the two groups, including post-void residual and the number of voids based on the frequency-volume charts. In a multivariate model, a higher bladder contractility index was associated with a greater likelihood of treatment satisfaction 12 months after high-power KTP laser vaporization (odds ratio 1.024, 95% confidence interval 1.001–1.048, P < 0.05). Patients who were not satisfied following the surgery had a smaller improvement in subjective symptoms and Qmax. In addition, our findings suggest that the relative risk of treatment dissatisfaction following high-power KTP laser vaporization was increased in patients with weak detrusor contractility.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; potassium-titanyl-phosphate; prostate; satisfaction; vaporization
To investigate changes in nocturia and predictive factors for improvement after photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
A total of 103 patients who complained of nocturia of ≥2 times per night on baseline frequency-volume chart (FVC) and who underwent PVP were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a preoperative evaluation for BPH including multichannel video urodynamics. The efficacy of the PVP was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and FVC. Subjective and objective improvement of nocturia were defined as a reduction of ≥50% in nocturnal frequency compared with baseline on the IPSS and FVC, respectively.
As shown by the IPSS and FVC, nocturia was significantly reduced starting from 1 month after PVP. The percentage of patients with improvement in nocturia was 20.0%, 20.7%, 36.2%, and 27.9% on the IPSS, and 30.1%, 48.6%, 52.2%, and 54.5% on the FVC at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after PVP, respectively. None of the baseline parameters, including the presence or absence of nocturnal polyuria (NPU), reduced nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC), and detrusor overactivity (DO), were associated with improvement of nocturia.
Nocturnal frequency was significantly reduced from the early postoperative period after PVP. Improvement in nocturia after PVP was not affected by baseline nocturnal frequency, the presence or absence of preoperative NPU, or reduced NBC or DO on baseline urodynamics.
Laser therapy; Nocturia; Prostatic hyperplasia
We present an unusual case of concurrent occurrence of a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma in the same kidney of a patient with no evident clinical symptoms. A 38-year-old man was found incidentally to have a cystic right renal mass on computed tomography. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma. Histology revealed a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma and a leiomyoma. This is the first report of this kind of presentation.
Renal cell carcinoma; Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma; Leiomyoma; Synchronous tumors
We investigated 2-year follow-up outcomes of patients who underwent potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP)-photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) laser therapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
Of a total of 169 patients who underwent 80 W KTP-PVP by a single surgeon, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 74 patients who completed 2 years of follow-up. The efficacy of the PVP was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry with postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). Safety, including complications, was evaluated at each visit.
Mean preoperative total prostate and transitional zone volumes were 42.3 ml (range, 34.0-59.0 ml) and 18.6 ml (range, 10.1-28.6 ml) respectively. According to both IPSS and uroflowmetry, compared with baseline, the improvement in each parameter was sustained significantly at both 1 and 2 years postoperatively (p<0.05). There were no serious intraoperative complications, such as massive hemorrhage requiring transfusion or transurethral resection syndrome. Transient gross hematuria occurred in 16 (21.6%) cases, urgency incontinence in 6 (8.1%) cases, bladder neck contracture (BNC) in 3 (4.1%) cases, and urethral stricture in 1 (2.7%) case. The cases of urethral stricture and BNC developed only in the group with a prostate size of less than 45 ml. No cases required reoperation due to re-growing prostatic tissue.
PVP seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the surgical treatment of symptomatic BPH. After PVP, the subjective and objective improvements in the micturition parameters were sustainable up to 2 years, with minimal complications.
Laser therapy; Potassium titanylphosphate; Prostatic hyperplasia
The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical and urodynamic features in Korean men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and to determine non-invasive parameters for predicting bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Four hundred twenty nine Korean men with LUTS over 50 yr of age underwent clinical evaluations for LUTS including urodynamic study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of BOO. These two groups were compared with regard to age, the results of the uroflowmetry, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), and the results of the urodynamic study. Patients with BOO had a lower maximal flow rate (Qmax), lower voided volume, higher serum PSA level and larger prostate volume (P<0.05). BOO group had a significantly higher rate of involuntary detrusor contraction and poor compliance compared to the patients without BOO (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that Qmax and poor compliance were significant factors for predicting BOO. Our results show that Qmax plays a significant role in predicting BOO in Korean men with LUTS. In addition, BOO is significantly associated with detrusor dysfunction, therefore, secondary bladder dysfunction must be emphasized in the management of male patients with LUTS.
Prostatic Hyperplasia; Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction; Urodynamics
The aim of this study was to develop a new simple method for measuring the vaporized volume and to evaluate the outcome of high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization. A total of 65 patients, with a mean age of 67.7 yr (range 53 to 85), were included in the primary analysis. The vaporized volume was calculated as the pre-operative volume minus the immediate post-operative volume plus the volume of the defect. For all patients, the subjective and objective parameters improved significantly after surgery. Six and 12 months after surgery, the group with a smaller vaporized volume (<15 g) had a lower reduction of the mean International Prostate Symptom Score (P=0.006 and P=0.004) and quality of life index (P=0.006 and P=0.004) when compared to the group with a greater vaporized volume (≥15 g). There were no differences in the change of the maximum flow rate and post-void residual based on the vaporized volume. Our findings suggest that the subjective improvement, after a high-power KTP laser vaporization, may be dependent on the vaporized volume obtained after the procedure.
Prostate; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Vaporization; Laser Therapy
A 70-yr-old man presented with painless gross hematuria. He underwent right nephrectomy for benign disease 9 yr ago. Computed tomography and cystoscopy showed a mass in the distal region of the right ureteral stump. He underwent right ureterectomy and bladder cuff resection. Pathological examination showed T1 and WHO grade 2 transitional cell carcinoma. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient is alive without any evidence of recurrence.
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell; Ureter; Nephrectomy
Various laparoscopic nephroureterectomy techniques for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract have been developed to minimize postoperative discomfort and the necessity for a lengthy convalescence. We performed hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy without hand-assisted device in 3 male patients with urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter. Average operative time and estimated blood loss were 251 min (range 235 to 280) and 250 mL (range 200 to 300), respectively. Complication did not occur and conversion to open surgery was not necessary in all cases. Postoperative analgesic requirements were moderate and the time to regular diet intake averaged 3 days (range 2 to 4). None of the patients had a positive margin on the final pathologic specimen. At the average follow-up of 8.1 months, no regional recurrence, port-site metastasis, bladder recurrence, or distant metastasis were noted in any patient. We described our initial experience with the described technique, which obviates the need for midprocedural patient repositioning.
Ureteral Neoplasms; Retroperitoneal Space; Laparoscopy
Iatrogenic implantation has been the main cause in the majority of cases of transitional call carcinoma (TCC) with metastasis to the abdominal wall. A 66-year-old woman had undergone radical cystectomy 20 years prior to presenting. Radiological investigations revealed one mass in the left lower abdominal wall and one mass in the right inguinal area. She underwent wide excision of the lesions that revealed metastasis of TCC. This report describes this case of a woman with bladder carcinoma who developed a metastasis in the anterior abdominal wall following an apparent disease-free interval of 20 years.
Abdominal wall metastasis; bladder; transitional cell carcinoma