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1.  Myocardial gene expression profiles and cardiodepressant autoantibodies predict response of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy to immunoadsorption therapy 
European Heart Journal  2012;34(9):666-675.
Aims
Immunoadsorption with subsequent immunoglobulin G substitution (IA/IgG) represents a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) which leads to the improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, response to this therapeutic intervention shows wide inter-individual variability. In this pilot study, we tested the value of clinical, biochemical, and molecular parameters for the prediction of the response of patients with DCM to IA/IgG.
Methods and results
Forty DCM patients underwent endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) before IA/IgG. In eight patients with normal LVEF (controls), EMBs were obtained for clinical reasons. Clinical parameters, negative inotropic activity (NIA) of antibodies on isolated rat cardiomyocytes, and gene expression profiles of EMBs were analysed. Dilated cardiomyopathy patients displaying improvement of LVEF (≥20 relative and ≥5% absolute) 6 months after IA/IgG were considered responders. Compared with non-responders (n = 16), responders (n = 24) displayed shorter disease duration (P = 0.006), smaller LV internal diameter in diastole (P = 0.019), and stronger NIA of antibodies. Antibodies obtained from controls were devoid of NIA. Myocardial gene expression patterns were different in responders and non-responders for genes of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hypertrophy, and ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. The integration of scores of NIA and expression levels of four genes allowed robust discrimination of responders from non-responders at baseline (BL) [sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 85.8–100%); specificity up to 100% (95% CI 79.4–100%); cut-off value: −0.28] and was superior to scores derived from antibodies, gene expression, or clinical parameters only.
Conclusion
Combined assessment of NIA of antibodies and gene expression patterns of DCM patients at BL predicts response to IA/IgG therapy and may enable appropriate selection of patients who benefit from this therapeutic intervention.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs330
PMCID: PMC3584995  PMID: 23100283
Dilated cardiomyopathy; Immunoadsorption; Gene expression; Negative inotropic activity of antibodies; Prediction of outcome; Biomarker signature; Pilot study
2.  Comparing different scientific approaches to personalized medicine: research ethics and privacy protection 
Personalized medicine  2011;8(4):437-444.
In this article, two different scientific approaches to personalized medicine are compared. Biorepository at Vanderbilt University (BioVU) is a genomic biorepository at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. Genetic biosamples are collected from leftover clinical blood samples; medical information is derived from an electronic medical records. Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine is a research resource at the University of Greifswald, Germany, comprised of clinical records combined with biosamples collected for research. We demonstrate that although both approaches are based on the collection of clinical data and biosamples, different legal milieus present in the USA and Germany as well as slight differences in scientific goals have led to different ‘ethical designs’. While BioVU can successfully operate with an ‘opt-out’ mechanism, an informed consent-based ‘opt-in’ model is indispensable to allow GANI_MED to reach its scientific goals.
doi:10.2217/pme.11.34
PMCID: PMC3164515  PMID: 21892358
biorepositories; personalized medicine; research ethics; research regulation
3.  Pharmacogenomics: The genetics of variable drug responses 
Circulation  2011;123(15):1661-1670.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.914820
PMCID: PMC3093198  PMID: 21502584
4.  Pharmacogenomics: will the promise be fulfilled? 
Nature Reviews. Genetics  2010;12(1):69-73.
Tools such as genome resequencing and genome-wide association studies have recently been used to uncover a number of variants that affect drug toxicity and efficacy, as well as potential drug targets. But how much closer are we to incorporating pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice? Five experts discuss how far we have come, and highlight the technological, informatics, educational and practical obstacles that stand in the way of realizing genome-driven medicine.
doi:10.1038/nrg2920
PMCID: PMC3098748  PMID: 21116304
5.  Cholesterol, C-Reactive Protein, and Periodontitis: HMG-CoA-Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) as Effect Modifiers 
ISRN Dentistry  2011;2011:125168.
Common risk factors of periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases fuel the debate on interrelationships between them. The aim is to prove whether statins may influence periodontal parameters by affecting either of these factors. Out of the 4,290 subjects of SHIP (Study of Health in Pomerania), we included subjects aged >30 years (219 with statins, 2937 without) and excluded edentulous. We determined periodontal measures, cholesterol fractions, and inflammation markers. Statin use and periodontal risk factors were assessed. Gingival plaque and periodontal attachment loss were associated with systemic LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein CRP (P = 0.019) revealing interaction with statin use. When adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, education, and dental service, statins were identified as effect modifiers abolishing the relationship between attachment loss and LDL and between gingival plaque and LDL (interactions P < 0.001). No statin-related interaction was detected with increase in CRP. The interaction supports the view of inter-relationships between periodontal and systemic inflammatory mediators.
doi:10.5402/2011/125168
PMCID: PMC3235692  PMID: 22203908
6.  β-blocker therapy and heart rate control during exercise testing in the general population: role of a common G-protein β-3 subunit variant 
Pharmacogenomics  2010;11(9):1209-1221.
Aim
Impaired heart rate (HR) response to exercise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We analyzed whether common variants (rs5443/C825T and rs5442/G814A) in the G-protein β3 subunit (GNB3) gene modulate interindividual variation in β-blocker responses with respect to HR.
Materials & methods
Among 1614 subjects (347 current β-blocker users) of a population-based study, HR during symptom-limited exercise testing was analyzed by multilevel linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders.
Results
In β-blocker users, but not in nonusers, HR was attenuated in rs5443 T allele carriers (TC/TT vs CC) with lower adjusted HR over the entire exercise period from rest to peak workload (3.5 bpm; 95% CI: 1.1–5.8; p < 0.01), and during recovery (4.2 bpm; 95% CI: 0.6–7.8; p = 0.02). The genotype-related HR reducing effect at peak exercise varied by up to 7.5 bpm (CC vs TT), more than a third (35.9%) of the total β-blocker effect (20.9 bpm). By contrast, rs5442 had no impact on any HR-related parameter.
Conclusion
In this population-based sample, a common GNB3 polymorphism (C825T) was significantly related with response to β-blocker therapy with respect to HR during exercise and HR recovery, respectively. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to examine their potential clinical relevance.
doi:10.2217/pgs.10.88
PMCID: PMC3074105  PMID: 20860462
β-blocker; epidemiology; exercise testing; genetic susceptibility; GNB3; heart rate; polymorphism
7.  Beta-Amyloid Downregulates MDR1-P-Glycoprotein (Abcb1) Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Mice 
Neurovascular dysfunction is an important component of Alzheimer's disease, leading to reduced clearance across the blood-brain barrier and accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. It has been shown that the ABC transport protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is involved in the export of Aβ from the brain into the blood. To determine whether Aβ influences the expression of key Aβ transporters, we studied the effects of 1-day subcutaneous Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 administration via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps on P-gp, BCRP, LRP1, and RAGE expression in the brain of 90-day-old male FVB mice. Our results demonstrate significantly reduced P-gp, LRP1, and RAGE mRNA expression in mice treated with Aβ1-42 compared to controls, while BCRP expression was not affected. The expression of the four proteins was unchanged in mice treated with Aβ1-40 or reverse-sequence peptides. These findings indicate that, in addition to the age-related decrease of P-gp expression, Aβ1-42 itself downregulates the expression of P-gp and other Aβ-transporters, which could exacerbate the intracerebral accumulation of Aβ and thereby accelerate neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral β-amyloid angiopathy.
doi:10.4061/2011/690121
PMCID: PMC3109772  PMID: 21660212
8.  The Role of P-glycoprotein in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy; Implications for the Early Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease 
Current Alzheimer research  2004;1(2):121-125.
It has been shown in vitro that β-amyloid (Aβ) is transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Previously, we demonstrated that Aβ immunoreactivity is significantly elevated in brain tissue of individuals with low expression of P-gp in vascular endothelial cells. These findings led us to hypothesize that P-gp might be involved in the clearance of Aβ in normal aging and particularly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As we were interested in the early pathogenesis of Aβ deposition, we studied the correlation between cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and P-gp expression in brain tissue samples from 243 non-demented elderly cases (aged 50 to 91 years). We found that endothelial P-gp and vascular Aβ were never colocalized, i.e., vessels with high P-gp expression showed no Aβ deposition in their walls, and vice versa. Aβ deposition occurred first in arterioles where P-gp expression was primarily low, and disappeared completely with the accumulation of Aβ. At this early stage, P-gp was upregulated in capillaries, suggesting a compensatory mechanism to increase Aβ clearance from the brain. Capillaries were usually affected only at later stages of CAA, at which point P-gp was lost even in these vessels. We hypothesize that Aβ clearance may be altered in individuals with diminished P-gp expression due, e.g., to genetic or environmental effects (such as drug administration). The impairment of Aβ clearance could lead to the accumulation and earlier deposition of Aβ, both in the walls of blood vessels and in the brain parenchyma, thus elevating the risk of CAA and AD.
PMCID: PMC2763541  PMID: 15975076
Alzheimer; apolipoprotein E; P-glycoprotein; cerebral amyloid angiopathy; risk factors; senile plaques; vascular amyloid; MDR1; degeneration
10.  The role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the interaction of digoxin and rifampin 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(2):147-153.
Recent data point to the contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to digoxin elimination. On the basis of clinical observations of patients in whom digoxin levels decreased considerably when treated with rifampin, we hypothesized that concomitant rifampin therapy may affect digoxin disposition in humans by induction of P-gp. We compared single-dose (1 mg oral and 1 mg intravenous) pharmacokinetics of digoxin before and after coadministration of rifampin (600 mg/d for 10 days) in 8 healthy volunteers. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from each volunteer before and after administration of rifampin. The area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin was significantly lower during rifampin treatment; the effect was less pronounced after intravenous administration of digoxin. Renal clearance and half-life of digoxin were not altered by rifampin. Rifampin treatment increased intestinal P-gp content 3.5 ± 2.1–fold, which correlated with the AUC after oral digoxin but not after intravenous digoxin. P-gp is a determinant of the disposition of digoxin. Concomitant administration of rifampin reduced digoxin plasma concentrations substantially after oral administration but to a lesser extent after intravenous administration. The rifampin-digoxin interaction appears to occur largely at the level of the intestine. Therefore, induction of intestinal P-gp could explain this new type of drug-drug interaction.
PMCID: PMC408477  PMID: 10411543
11.  Epigenetic modulation of the drug resistance genes MGMT, ABCB1 and ABCG2 in glioblastoma multiforme 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:617.
Background
Resistance of the highly aggressive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to drug therapy is a major clinical problem resulting in a poor patient’s prognosis. Beside promoter methylation of the O 6 -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene the efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 have been suggested as pivotal factors contributing to drug resistance, but the methylation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 has not been assessed before in GBM.
Methods
Therefore, we evaluated the proportion and prognostic significance of promoter methylation of MGMT, ABCB1 and ABCG2 in 64 GBM patient samples using pyrosequencing technology. Further, the single nucleotide polymorphisms MGMT C-56 T (rs16906252), ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) and ABCG2 C421A (rs2231142) were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method (RFLP). To study a correlation between promoter methylation and gene expression, we analyzed MGMT, ABCB1 and ABCG2 expression in 20 glioblastoma and 7 non-neoplastic brain samples.
Results
Despite a significantly increased MGMT and ABCB1 promoter methylation in GBM tissue, multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant association between overall survival of glioblastoma patients and MGMT or ABCB1 promoter methylation. However, a significant negative correlation between promoter methylation and expression could be identified for MGMT but not for ABCB1 and ABCG2. Furthermore, MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with the genotypes of the MGMT C-56 T polymorphism showing a higher methylation level in the T allele bearing GBM.
Conclusions
In summary, the data of this study confirm the previous published relation of MGMT promoter methylation and gene expression, but argue for no pivotal role of MGMT, ABCB1 and ABCG2 promoter methylation in GBM patients’ survival.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-617
PMCID: PMC3890604  PMID: 24380367
Glioblastoma multiforme; MGMT; Drug resistance; DNA methylation
12.  A genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;20(6):1241-1251.
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are involved in cell replication, proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations predict anthropometric traits and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In a genome-wide association study of 10 280 middle-aged and older men and women from four community-based cohort studies, we confirmed a known association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IGFBP3 gene region on chromosome 7p12.3 with IGFBP-3 concentrations using a significance threshold of P < 5 × 10−8 (P = 3.3 × 10−101). Furthermore, the same IGFBP3 gene locus (e.g. rs11977526) that was associated with IGFBP-3 concentrations was also associated with the opposite direction of effect, with IGF-I concentration after adjustment for IGFBP-3 concentration (P = 1.9 × 10−26). A novel and independent locus on chromosome 7p12.3 (rs700752) had genome-wide significant associations with higher IGFBP-3 (P = 4.4 × 10−21) and higher IGF-I (P = 4.9 × 10−9) concentrations; when the two measurements were adjusted for one another, the IGF-I association was attenuated but the IGFBP-3 association was not. Two additional loci demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with IGFBP-3 concentration (rs1065656, chromosome 16p13.3, P = 1.2 × 10−11, IGFALS, a confirmatory finding; and rs4234798, chromosome 4p16.1, P = 4.5 × 10−10, SORCS2, a novel finding). Together, the four genome-wide significant loci explained 6.5% of the population variation in IGFBP-3 concentration. Furthermore, we observed a borderline statistically significant association between IGF-I concentration and FOXO3 (rs2153960, chromosome 6q21, P = 5.1 × 10−7), a locus associated with longevity. These genetic loci deserve further investigation to elucidate the biological basis for the observed associations and clarify their possible role in IGF-mediated regulation of cell growth and metabolism.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq560
PMCID: PMC3043664  PMID: 21216879
13.  Eight Common Genetic Variants Associated with Serum DHEAS Levels Suggest a Key Role in Ageing Mechanisms 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(4):e1002025.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands—yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15×10−36), SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p = 2.61×10−19), ARPC1A (rs740160; p = 1.56×10−16), TRIM4 (rs17277546; p = 4.50×10−11), BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44×10−11), HHEX (rs2497306; p = 4.64×10−9), BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72×10−8), and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29×10−8). These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS.
Author Summary
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), mainly secreted by the adrenal gland, is the most abundant circulating steroid in humans. It shows a significant physiological decline after the age of 25 and diminishes about 95% by the age of 85 years, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. Twin- and family-based studies have shown that there is a substantial genetic effect with heritability estimate of 60%, but no specific genes regulating serum DHEAS concentration have been identified to date. Here we take advantage of recent technical and methodological advances to examine the effects of common genetic variants on serum DHEAS concentrations. By examining 14,846 Caucasian individuals, we show that eight common genetic variants are associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near these genetic variants include BCL2L11, ARPC1A, ZKSCAN5, TRIM4, HHEX, CYP2C9, BMF, and SULT2A1. These genes have various associations with steroid hormone metabolism—co-morbidities of ageing including type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins—suggesting a wider functional role for DHEAS than previously thought.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002025
PMCID: PMC3077384  PMID: 21533175

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