Antibodies to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) form the basis of two potential therapeutic intervention strategies, i.e., conjugate vaccines and passive antibody therapy. To better understand the molecular basis of the antibody response, the heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin variable region (VH and VL, respectively) sequences of seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to GXM were determined. Rabbit anti-idiotypic serum was made to the previously characterized murine MAb 2H1 and used to study MAb 2H1 idiotype expression in other GXM-binding MAbs and immune sera. MAb E1 originated from a C3H/HeJ mouse immunized with C. neoformans serotype A polysaccharide. MAbs 471, 1255, 339, 3C2, 386, and 302 originated from BALB/c mice immunized with polysaccharide of serotypes A, A, B, C, D, and D, respectively, conjugated to sheep erythrocytes. In the E1, VH uses V11 from the T15 gene family and JH3 and has a D segment of three amino acids, and the VL uses a VKSer-like gene family element and JK5. In MAbs 471 and 3C2, the VH uses VH7183-like gene family elements and JH2 and has D segments of seven amino acids, and the VL uses VK5.1 and JK1. In MAbs 1255 and 339, the VH uses VH10-like gene elements and JH4 and has six codon D segments, and the VL uses a VK21-like gene element and JK5. In MAbs 302 and 386, respectively, the VH uses VHGAM-like gene elements and JH2 and JH3 and has six and four codon D segments, and VL uses VK4/5-like gene elements and JK1.VH usage, MAb 2H1 idiotype expression, and fine specificity mapping define a minimum of three GXM epitopes which elicit protective antibodies. The results confirm that the antibody response is highly restricted, suggest a close relationship between molecular structure and serological properties, and provide insight into protein structural motifs important for GXM binding.