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1.  High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer: preliminary results of a dose reduction trial 
Purpose
To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer.
Material and methods
Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility.
Results
The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility.
Conclusions
We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients.
doi:10.5114/jcb.2014.40726
PMCID: PMC4003422  PMID: 24790616
dose reduction; high-dose-rate brachytherapy; tongue cancer
2.  Three-dimensional image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2013;55(1):154-161.
To investigate the influence of a 3D image-based treatment-planning method for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer, we analyzed dose–volume histogram results for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the mandible. Between October 2010 and November 2011, one and four patients having T2 and T3 tumors, respectively, were treated with HDR-ISBT. Multiplane implantation using 9–15 treatment applicators was performed. Lugol's iodine staining, metal markers, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the contours of the gross tumor volume (defined as the CTV). The results of the image-based treatment plan were compared with those of the conventional simulated plan on the basis of a reference point 5 mm from the applicator position. The mean D90(CTV) and V100(CTV) were 112% of the prescribed dose (PD) and 98.1%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 113%PD and 97.2%PD, respectively, for the conventional plan. The median CTVref/Vref was 0.23 for the image-based plan and 0.16 for the conventional plan (P = 0.01). The mean D0.1 cm3 (mandible), D1 cm3 (mandible), and D2 cm3 (mandible) were 80.1%PD, 62.5%PD, and 55.7%PD, respectively, for the image-based plan, and 109.1%PD (P = 0.02), 82.4%PD (P = 0.005), and 74%PD (P = 0.004), respectively, for the conventional plan). Image-based treatment planning may achieve high-conformity radiotherapy for the CTV and decrease irradiated doses to the mandible.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrt079
PMCID: PMC3885112  PMID: 23732769
high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy; mobile tongue cancer; image-based plan; dose–volume histogram
3.  Quantitative assessment of inter-observer variability in target volume delineation on stereotactic radiotherapy treatment for pituitary adenoma and meningioma near optic tract 
Background
To assess inter-observer variability in delineating target volume and organs at risk in benign tumor adjacent to optic tract as a quality assurance exercise.
Methods
We quantitatively analyzed 21 plans made by 11 clinicians in seven CyberKnife centers. The clinicians were provided with a raw data set (pituitary adenoma and meningioma) including clinical information, and were asked to delineate the lesions and create a treatment plan. Their contouring and plans (10 adenoma and 11 meningioma plans), were then compared. In addition, we estimated the influence of differences in contouring by superimposing the respective contours onto a default plan.
Results
The median planning target volume (PTV) and the ratio of the largest to the smallest contoured volume were 9.22 cm3 (range, 7.17 - 14.3 cm3) and 1.99 for pituitary adenoma, and 6.86 cm3 (range 6.05 - 14.6 cm3) and 2.41 for meningioma. PTV volume was 10.1 ± 1.74 cm3 for group 1 with a margin of 1 -2 mm around the CTV (n = 3) and 9.28 ± 1.8 cm3(p = 0.51) for group 2 with no margin (n = 7) in pituitary adenoma. In meningioma, group 1 showed larger PTV volume (10.1 ± 3.26 cm3) than group 2 (6.91 ± 0.7 cm3, p = 0.03). All submitted plan keep the irradiated dose to optic tract within the range of 50 Gy (equivalent total doses in 2 Gy fractionation). However, contours superimposed onto the dose distribution of the default plan indicated that an excessive dose 23.64 Gy (up to 268% of the default plan) in pituitary adenoma and 24.84 Gy (131% of the default plan) in meningioma to the optic nerve in the contours from different contouring.
Conclusion
Quality assurance revealed inter-observer variability in contour delineation and their influences on planning for pituitary adenoma and meningioma near optic tract.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-6-10
PMCID: PMC3040152  PMID: 21272369
4.  Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the node negative oral tongue in patients aged eighty or older 
Background
To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number.
Methods
We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0) treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases) ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81), and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR) Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy), with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy), with Au-198 (n = 1) or with high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy). Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy). The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years). We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart.
Results
Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%), and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response) was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%). The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years). These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.). The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years.
Conclusion
Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-5-116
PMCID: PMC3016284  PMID: 21143904

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