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1.  Imaging acute pancreatitis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(986):104-112.
Acute pancreatitis is a common condition (thought to be increasing in incidence worldwide), which has a highly variable clinical course. The radiologist plays a key role in the management of such patients, from diagnosis and staging to identification and treatment of complications, as well as in determining the underlying aetiology. The aim of this article is (i) to familiarise the reader with the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, the appearances of the various stages of pancreatitis, the evidence for the use of staging classifications and the associated complications and (ii) to review current thoughts on optimising therapy.
PMCID: PMC3473535  PMID: 20139261
2.  Utility of an ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging protocol in recent and semi-recent strokes 
Methods: 23 patients were evaluated with the ultrafast MR protocol using T2, T1, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 3D time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. These were compared with routine conventional MR sequences.
Results: One patient could not tolerate conventional imaging, although imaging using the three minute head SENSE protocol was diagnostic. Both conventional and ultrafast protocols were of similar diagnostic yield in the remaining patients. There were no significant differences in clinical diagnostic quality for the T1, T2, FLAIR, and DWI sequences. One MRA examination was of better quality when SENSE was used, owing to reduced motion artefacts and shorter imaging time.
Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a comprehensive MR examination in stroke patients in approximately three to five minutes. Ultrafast imaging may become a useful triage tool before thrombolytic therapy. It may be of particular benefit in patients unable to tolerate longer sequences. Further work is necessary to confirm these findings in hyperacute stroke.
PMCID: PMC1739722  PMID: 15965212
3.  The Seoul Metropolitan Preschool Vision Screening Programme: results from South Korea 
Aim: To report on a new model of preschool vision screening that was performed in metropolitan Seoul and to investigate the distribution of various ocular disorders in this metropolitan preschool population.
Methods: Vision screening was conducted on 36 973 kindergarten children aged 3–5 years in a stepwise manner. The first step was home screening using a set of five picture cards and a questionnaire. The children who did not pass the first step (VA <0.5 in at least one eye or any abnormal responses on the questionnaire) were retested with regular vision charts at the regional public healthcare centres. After this retest, some children were referred to ophthalmologists. The referral criteria for visual acuity were <0.5 at 3 years and <0.63 at 4 or 5 years in at least one eye.
Results: Of those screened, 7116 (19.2%) children did not pass the home screening tests and 2058 (28.9%) out of the 7116 were referred. The results of the ophthalmological examination in eye clinics were only available for 894 children (43.4%) of those who were referred. The rest of the children did not visit ophthalmologists because they had been checked at an eye clinic, were currently under treatment, or for personal reasons. Refractive errors were found in 608 (1.6%) children. Astigmatism was associated in 78.2% of ametropes. Amblyopia was discovered in 149 (0.4%) children and refractive error was the major aetiology with a predominant rate (82.5%). Manifest strabismus was detected in 52 children. The positive predictive value of vision screening for any ophthalmological disorder was 0.77, and 0.49 for significant disorders requiring treatment.
Conclusions: This preschool vision screening model was highly accessible to the children and their parents, easy to administer, and effective to detect a variety of ocular disorders. However, the participation rate of the referred children in the examinations by ophthalmologists was quite low. The performance and efficiency of this screening programme need to be optimised with further revision.
PMCID: PMC1772222  PMID: 15205240
amblyopoa; preschool vision screening; refractive error; Seoul; South Korea
4.  Amplification of c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene in cancer foci, adjacent normal, metastatic and normal tissues of human primary gastric adenocarcinomas. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1997;12(4):311-315.
Genetic damages are frequently found in both tumor and normal cells at carcinogen exposed areas in the patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer. These phenomena are explained by the multistage process and/or field cancerization theories. The c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene has been amplified in many human tumors including breast, stomach, kidney and lung cancers. To study the possible evidence of multistage process and/or field cancerization in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, the amplification statuses of c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene using the Southern hybridization technique were evaluated at the 45 gastric adenocarcinoma specimen sets consisting of tumor tissue, adjacent normal tissue (within 2 cm of the primary tumor), metastatic tissue and normal stomach tissue (at least 5 cm away from primary tumor). As a result, c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene at 2 specimen sets (4.4%) was amplified 2- to 4-fold to normal control status. In these 2 cases, c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene at histologically normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue was amplified. And, the metastatic tissue of 1 case also exhibited c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene amplification of which the degree was less than that of tumor tissue. From these results, we were able to suspect that c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene amplification in the normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue could be a biomarker of premalignant changes in a small proportion of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. And, this result might suggest the possible role of multistage process and/or field cancerization in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3054209  PMID: 9288630
5.  Distribution of cryV-type insecticidal protein genes in Bacillus thuringiensis and cloning of cryV-type genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus. 
DNA dot blot hybridizations with a cryV-specific probe and a cryI-specific probe were performed to screen 24 Bacillus thuringiensis strains for their cryV-type (lepidopteran- and coleopteran-specific) and cryI-type (lepidopteran-specific) insecticidal crystal protein gene contents, respectively. The cryV-specific probe hybridized to 12 of the B. thuringiensis strains examined. Most of the cryV-positive strains also hybridized to the cryI-specific probe, indicating that the cryV genes are closely related to cryI genes. Two cryV-type genes, cryV1 and cryV465, were cloned from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 and B. thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus BP465, respectively, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The CryV1 protein was toxic to Plutella xylostella and Bombyx mori, whereas the CryV465 protein was toxic only to Plutella xylostella.
PMCID: PMC167511  PMID: 7793960

Results 1-5 (5)