Hemodialysis is essential for the survival of patients suffering from chronic renal failure. However, in diabetics the incidence of dry eye disease is higher than in non-diabetic individuals. Accordingly, we evaluated if this difference is attributable to different effects of hemodialysis on basal tear fluid secretion.
A modified Schirmer´s eye test determined if hemodialysis improved basal tear secretion rates in 36 diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis.
Basal tear secretion was invariant in diabetic patients whereas in non-diabetic individuals this process increased.
In non-diabetic patients, autonomic neuropathy appears to be less severe and somewhat reversible since only in these individuals hemodialysis improved basal tear fluid secretion. This difference may be a factor contributing to the lower incidence of dry eye disease in non-diabetic patients.
Tear; Hemodialysis; Diabetes mellitus
Electroencephalogram (EEG) phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE), to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz) phase locking factor (PLF) reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study), with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. Phase-preservation index (PPI) analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms), which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.
transcranial magnetic stimulation; electroencephalogram; synchronization; transfer entropy; information flow; transient phase resetting; oscillations
Three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) is increasingly used in the initial evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is a risk of aneurysm re-rupture in the hyperacute phase. We sought to clarify the incidence of re-rupture and characterize the subgroup in which extravasation of contrast media was seen on 3D-CTA.
We examined the records of 356 consecutive patients presenting to our institution with non-traumatic SAH between October 2003 and December 2011. After resuscitation, patients with poor grade SAH underwent CT then 3D-CTA while sedated, mechanically ventilated and with a target systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg.
336 patients underwent 3D-CTA; 20 died without return of spontaneous circulation. Extravasated contrast medium was seen in 16 (4.8%), 15 (4.5%) at the initial evaluation. Their World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade was V; one patient was resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The mean times from onset to arrival and to CTA were 43.7 minutes and 71.8 minutes, respectively. Ten patients (62.5%) had episodes suggestive of aneurysm re-rupture before 3D-CTA. Surgical clipping, evacuation of hematoma and wide decompressive craniectomy was completed in six patients and one underwent coil embolization. Two of 16 patients survived: one with moderate disability and one made a good recovery.
Contrast extravasation was detected by 3D-CTA in 4.5% of cases despite intensive resuscitation, suggesting that continuous or intermittent rebleeding may occur frequently in the hyperacute phase. The consequences of rebleeding are devastating; however, favorable results can be obtained with immediate aneurysm repair with decompression and intensive neurocritical care.
B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a cytokine belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It has been reported that BAFF is elevated in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and contributes to the malignant potential of blood cancers and solid tumors. In this study, clinical evidence of increased BAFF levels in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was obtained, and the roles and mechanisms of BAFF in PDAC were clarified in human tissues of PDAC and from in vitro data of PDAC cell lines. Serum levels of BAFF in patients with PDAC were significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.0121). Patients with UICC stage IV PDAC (T1-4, N0-1, M1) had significantly higher levels of serum BAFF compared to patients with PDAC (p = 0.0182). BAFF was remarkably expressed in infiltrating B lymphocytes surrounding pancreatic cancer in human pancreatic tissues, suggesting that BAFF may play a role in progression of pancreatic cancer. PDAC cell lines were cultured with human recombinant BAFF, and morphology and gene expression were analyzed; pancreatic cancer cells changed to a fibroblast-like morphology, and showed altered gene expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and Snail. These BAFF-induced changes reflect enhanced cell motility and invasion. BAFF-R-overexpressing cell clones confirmed the association between these BAFF-induced changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes. BAFF was elevated in patients with metastatic advanced PDAC and induced alterations in PDAC cells via regulation of EMT-related genes. Elucidation of the precise role and mechanism of control of BAFF may lead to new therapeutic approaches with the aim of improving pancreatic cancer survival.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology. The disease is characterized histologically by interface hepatitis, biochemically by increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, and serologically by increased autoantibodies and immunoglobulin G levels. Here we discuss AIH in a previously healthy 37-year-old male with highly elevated serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and markedly enlarged hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes (HLLNs, diameter, 50 mm). Based on these observations, the differential diagnoses were AIH, lymphoma, or Castleman’s disease. Liver biopsy revealed the features of interface hepatitis without bridging fibrosis along with plasma cell infiltration which is the typical characteristics of acute AIH. Lymph node biopsy revealed lymphoid follicles with inflammatory lymphocytic infiltration; immunohistochemical examination excluded the presence of lymphoma cells. Thereafter, he was administered corticosteroid therapy: after 2 mo, the enlarged liver reached an almost normal size and the enlarged HLLNs reduced in size. We could not find AIH cases with such enlarged lymph nodes (diameter, 50 mm) in our literature review. Hence, we speculate that markedly enlarged lymph nodes observed in our patient may be caused by a highly activated, humoral immune response in AIH.
Autoimmune hepatitis; Humoral immune response; Hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes; Corticosteroid; Hepatomegaly
Many glycosidases, which work as useful reagents for the studies of structures and functions of free and conjugated oligosaccharides, have been found and thoroughly purified. These enzymes are classified into exo- and endoglycosidases by their glycon specificities. Their usefulness and limits as reagents are explained in detail in this review.
Endoglycosidases, which were originally found in the culture fluid of bacteria and in the extracts of plants, are now widely found in the mammals including humans. The physiological roles of these enzymes are discussed in relation to the oligosaccharides accumulated in the urine of patients with exoglycosidase deficiencies. Furthermore, PNGase is found to play important roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway of glycoproteins.
Recent studies of the glycosidases in Bifidobacteria have revealed that GNB/LNB pathway, which uniquely exist in this bacteria, works for the expression of Bifidus factor activity of human milk oligosaccharides, an important topic in the baby nutrition. This interesting field will be introduced in detail in one section of this article.
aglycon specificity; Bifidus factor; glycon specificity; glycosidase-deficiencies; GNB/LNB pathway; human milk oligosaccharides
Whether parapsoriasis represents an early stage of T-cell cutaneous lymphoma is still
the subject of controversy. We evaluated the efficacy of phototherapy in the
treatment of parapsoriasis and its relation with TCCL. Patients diagnosed with
parapsoriasis and treated with phototherapy PUVA or UVB-NB were selected. Between 1
to 8 years following treatment the evolution of their disease was evaluated. In 62
patients the cure rate was 79.3% and 17.2% showed improvement of the lesions. Only
two patients developed full blown T-cell cutaneous lymphoma. Phototherapy is an
excellent treatment for parapsoriasis, with high cure rates, regardless of the type
of phototherapy employed. Of the 62 patients under study, parapsoriasis showed no
general tendency to progress to T-cell cutaneous lymphoma.
Parapsoriasis; Phototherapy; PUVA therapy; Ultraviolet therapy
Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice.
Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion.
The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 μg/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 μg dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1β-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1β-activated cell proliferation.
We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1β-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.
Hypoxia inducible factor –1α (HIF-1α) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis and energy supply by glycolysis in many cell types. We previously reported that HIF-1α gene deficiency caused abnormal B cell development and autoimmunity. Here we show that HIF-1α-enabled glycolysis during B cell development is required in a developmental stage-specific manner. Supporting this conclusion are observations that the glycolytic pathway in HIF-1α deficient B220+ bone marrow cells is much less functionally effective than in wild-type control cells. The expression of genes encoding the glucose transporters and the key glycolytic enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bishosphatase 3 (pfkfb3), was greatly reduced in HIF-1α deficient cells. The compensatory adaptation to the defect of glycolysis was reflected in higher levels of expression of respiratory-chain related genes and TCA-cycle related genes in HIF-1α deficient cells than in wild-type cells. In agreement with these findings, HIF-1α deficient cells utilized pyruvate more efficiently than wild-type cells. The key role of HIF-1α-enabled glycolysis in bone marrow B cells was also demonstrated by glucose deprivation during in vitro bone marrow cell culture and by using a glycolysis inhibitor in the bone marrow cell culture. Taken together, these findings indicate that glucose dependency differs at different B cell developmental stages and that HIF-1α plays important role in the B cell development.
Rodent; B Cells; Cell Differentiation
Comparative study of the oligosaccharide profiles of individual human milk revealed the presence of three different patterns. Four oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-2Gal group were missing in the milk of non-secretor, and three oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-4GlcNAc group were missing in the milk of Lewis negative individuals. Disappearance of some major oligosaccharides in these samples led to the finding of five novel minor oligosaccharides, which were hidden under the missing oligosaccharides. Following these studies, structures of many novel milk oligosaccharides were elucidated. At least 13 core oligosaccharides were found in these oligosaccharides. By adding α-fucosyl residues and sialic acid residues to these core oligosaccharides, more than one hundred oligosaccharides were formed. All these oligosaccharides contain lactose at their reducing termini. This evidence, together with the deletion phenomena found in the milk oligosaccharides of non-secretor and Lewis negative individuals, suggested that the oligosaccharides are formed from lactose by the concerted action of glycosyltransferases, which are responsible for elongation and branching of the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the surface of epithelial cells. Therefore, oligosaccharides in human milk could include many structures, starting from the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of various glycoconjugates. Many lines of evidence recently indicated that virulent enteric bacteria and viruses start their infection by binding to particular sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the target cell surfaces. Therefore, milk oligosaccharides could be useful for developing drugs, which inhibit the infection of bacteria and viruses.
blood types; Bifidus factor; enteric bacteria; human; milk; oligosaccharides
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood.
We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS) elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome.
These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.
We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. Due to the slow growing of the tumor, the patient noticed the presence of tumor mass in his forearm after several months from the initial onset of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8 × 4 cm mass involving the median nerve in the middle part of the forearm, and histological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma. Radical surgical resection was performed in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy. The function of the flexors were restored by the multiple tendon transfers (EIP → FDS; ECRL → FDP; BrR → FPL; EDM → opponens) with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. The patient returned to his original vocation and alive with continuous disease free at 3.5-year follow-up since initial treatment.
The present study aimed to determine the indications for free vascularized fibular grafting for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Seventy-one hips (60 patients) were clinically followed for a minimum of 3 years. Average follow-up period was 7 years. Etiologies were alcohol abuse in 31 hips, steroid use in 27, idiopathic in 7 and trauma in 6. Preoperative staging of the necrotic lesion was done using the Steinberg's classification system. The outcomes of free vascularized fibular grafting were determined clinically using the Harris hip-scoring system, radiographically by determining progression, and survivorship by lack of conversion to total hip replacement.
The average preoperative Harris hip score was 56 points and the average score at the latest follow-up examination was 78 points. Forty-seven hips (67%) were clinically rated good to excellent, 4 hips (6%) were rated fair, and 20 hips (28%) were rated poor. Thirty-six hips (51%) did not show radiographic progression while 35 hips (49%) did, and with an overall survivorship of 83% at 7 years. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was significantly associated with poor scores and survival rate (68%). Preoperative collapse was significantly associated with poor scores, radiographic progression and poor survival rate (72%). A large extent of osteonecrosis greater than 300 degrees was significantly associated with poor scores, radiographic progression and poor survival rate (67%). There was no relationship between the distance from the tip of the grafted fibula to the subchondral bone of the femoral head and postoperative radiographic progression.
In conclusion, small osteonecrosis (less than 300 degrees of the femoral head) without preoperative collapse (Steinberg's stages I and II) is the major indication for free vascularized fibular grafting. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis is a relative contraindication. Large osteonecrosis (greater than 300 degrees) with severe preoperative collapse (greater than 3 mm) is a major contraindication. Hips with 2 negative factors such as severe preoperative collapse and a large extent of osteonecrosis, require hip replacements.
An 8 month old male infant with Erb's birth palsy was treated with two peripheral nerve transfers. Except for rapid motor reinnervations, elbow flexion was obtained by an Oberlin's partial ulnar nerve transfer, while shoulder abduction was restored by an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer. The initial contraction of the biceps muscle occurred two months after surgery. Forty months after surgery, elbow flexion reached M5 without functional loss of the ulnar nerve. This case demonstrates an excellent result of an Oberlin's nerve transfer for restoration of flexion of the elbow joint in Erb's birth palsy. However, at this time partial ulnar nerve transfer for Erb's birth palsy is an optional procedure; a larger number of cases will need to be studied for it to be widely accepted as a standard procedure for Erb's palsy at birth.
OBJECTIVE—Recent studies have suggested that interleukin (IL) 15 induces T cell accumulation in synovial lesions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at determining whether this cytokine could explain in vivo T cell clonality in RA.
METHODS—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with RA were stimulated in vitro with IL15 or IL2. After isolation of mRNA from stimulated cells and synovial T cells, genes coding the V-D(N)-J (CDR3) region of T cell receptor β chains were amplified by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A single strand conformation polymorphism analysis was used to detect the clonotype(s) of accumulating T cells. Nucleotide and amino acid sequencing was also performed.
RESULTS—Stimulation of PBMC with IL15 resulted in oligoclonal expansion of T cells. However, IL15 induced clones from PBMC were mostly different from the dominantly expanding T cell clones in synovial fluid. Furthermore, IL15 and IL2 responding clones were only partially identical.
CONCLUSIONS—Although IL15 results in clonal accumulation of T cells, T cell clonality in rheumatoid joints could not be explained by the effect of IL15 alone. The results indicated the requirement of other factor(s), in addition to IL15, in the pathological process affecting RA joints. The results also suggested different responses by each T cell clone to IL15 or IL2.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether identical T cell clonotypes accumulate in multiple rheumatoid joints, the clonality of T cells that had infiltrated into synovial tissue (ST) samples simultaneously obtained from multiple joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was analysed.
METHODS—T cell receptor (TCR) β gene transcripts, amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from ST and peripheral blood lymphocytes of five RA patients, were subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing.
RESULTS—Approximately 40% of accumulated T cell clonotypes found in one joint of a patient were found in multiple joints in the same patient. Furthermore, identical amino acid sequences were found in TCR β junctional regions of these clonotypes from different patients with at least one HLA molecule match.
CONCLUSIONS—The T cell clonotypes accumulating in multiple rheumatoid joints may be involved in the perpetuation of polyarthritis by reacting to antigens common to these multiple joints.
OBJECTIVE—To characterise the type and kinetics of T cell clones in synovial lesions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Mononuclear cells from serial samples of synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood from nine RA patients were separated phenotypically using antibody coated magnetic beads. After mRNA preparation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to amplify V-D(N)-J (that is, the third complementarity determining, CDR3) regions of their T cell receptor beta chain genes. This was followed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to detect the clonotypes of accumulating T cells. Amino acid sequences of the dominant clones were also determined.
RESULTS—Although peripheral T cells were heterogeneous, accumulation of oligoclonal T cells was detected in SF. The predominant accumulating clone was the CD8 subset, which was persistently present in serial samples obtained over almost one year of follow up. A proportion of these cells expressed CD25 or CD45RO, or both, suggesting they are `memory' clones.
CONCLUSION—The persistent presence of CD8+ T cell clones in RA joints indicates that they may be involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory process in RA joints.
We isolated a toluene-sensitive mutant, named mutant No. 32, which showed unchanged antibiotic resistance levels, from toluene-tolerant Pseudomonas putida IH-2000 by transposon mutagenesis with Tn5. The gene disrupted by insertion of Tn5 was identified as cyoC, which is one of the subunits of cytochrome o. The membrane protein, phospholipid, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of IH-2000 and that of mutant No. 32 were examined and compared. Some of the outer membrane proteins showed a decrease in mutant No. 32. The fatty acid components of LPS were found to be dodecanoic acid, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid in both IH-2000 and No. 32; however, the relative proportions of these components differed in the two strains. Furthermore, cell surface hydrophobicity was increased in No. 32. These data suggest that mutation of cyoC caused the decrease in outer membrane proteins and the changing fatty acid composition of LPS. These changes in the outer membrane would cause an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity, and mutant No. 32 is considered to be sensitive to toluene.
We have recently demonstrated Fas-mediated apoptosis in the synovium, of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and suggested that it may be one factor responsible for the regression of RA. To examine whether the induction of apoptosis caused by anti-Fas mAb may play a potential role as a new therapeutic strategy for RA, we investigated the effect of anti-Fas mAb (RK-8) on synovitis in an animal model of RA, the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) tax transgenic mice. We report here that administration of anti-Fas mAb into mice intra-articularly improved the paw swelling and arthritis within 48 h. Immunohistochemical study and in vitro culture studies showed that 35% of synovial fibroblasts, 75% of mononuclear cells, and some of polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrating in synovium underwent apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb. In situ nick end labeling analysis and electron microscope analysis clearly showed that many cells in synovium were induced apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb administration. However, local administration of anti-Fas mAb did not produce systemic side effects. Results demonstrated that administration of anti-Fas mAb in arthritic joints of the HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice produced improvement of arthritis. These findings suggest that local administration of anti-Fas mAb may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for proliferative synovitis such as RA.
Type 1 fimbriae with mannose-specific lectins are widely distributed among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and confer the ability to attach to a range of host cells, including colonic epithelial cells. The mucosal surfaces are protected by secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which agglutinates microorganisms and prevents their attachment to host epithelial cells. This action has been attributed to a specificity of the antigen-combining site of mucosal immunoglobulins for bacterial and viral surface components. Here, we report a novel mechanism for the antibacterial effect of secretory IgA. Secretory IgA and IgA myeloma proteins, especially those of the IgA2 subclass, were shown to possess carbohydrate receptors for the mannose-specific lectin of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli. The presence of the high-mannose oligosaccharide chain Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)Man beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-4GlcNAc correlated with binding activity. The interaction between bacterial mannose-specific lectins and IgA receptor oligosaccharide resulted in agglutination of the bacteria and in inhibition of bacterial attachment to colonic epithelial cells. Thus, this interaction could form the basis for a broad antibacterial function of secretory IgA against enterobacteria regardless of the specificity of antibody molecules.
Pneumocystis carinii is a pathogen which causes fatal pneumonia in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. To facilitate the basic study of P. carinii, we analyzed the major surface proteins by immunochemical and biochemical methods. The major protein components of both cysts (resting form) and trophozoites (vegetative form) are part of a group of proteins called P115 with apparent masses of 105 to 120 kilodaltons. They represent an unusually large portion of the total proteins of this organism. The purified proteins exhibited six isoelectric variants when analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A monoclonal antibody raised against cysts recognized all six variants and reacted with epitopes that were located in the cell wall, thereby indicating that P115 is an immunoreactive surface component. Data are presented that the isoelectric variants contain identical or closely related protein components and that they are mannose-rich glycoproteins. Deglycosylated P115 migrates primarily as a single more acidic protein in two-dimensional gels, suggesting that the isoelectric variants may be due primarily to differences in glycosylation. The majority of sera tested from humans with diagnosed pneumocystosis reacted strongly with the P115 proteins.
Milk from women with blood type Le(a+) or Le(b+) contains a specific fucosyltransferase not found in the milk of women with blood type Le(a- b-). The enzyme, a guanosine diphosphate L-fucose: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylsaccharide α-4-L-fucosyltransferase is apparently required for the synthesis of the structural determinants of Lea and Leb specificity, both of which contain fucose in an α-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine. The same enzyme is also involved in the synthesis of milk oligosaccharides, as two oligosaccharides which contain this linkage are absent from the milk of women with Le(a- b-) blood type.