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1.  Oxygen free radical and antioxidant status in necrotizing soft tissue infection of the lower extremity; a report of two cases with opposite outcomes 
Two cases of necrotizing soft tissue infection of the lower extremity were treated concurrently but independently. Multimodal therapy including hip joint disarticulation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy was administered, resulting in opposite outcomes: survival and death. Analysis of the relationships between patient outcome and time-course changes in serum diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs; an index of oxidative stress), antioxidative potential, and cytokines revealed that serum d-ROMs levels decreased with time, but high serum levels of interleukin-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) persisted in the patient who died. These findings may reflect an immunosuppressive status unfavorable to infection prevention. Serum d-ROMs may be a prognostic predictor in necrotizing soft tissue infections.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2012.733738
PMCID: PMC3572671  PMID: 23163625
Necrotizing soft tissue infection; oxygen free radical; antioxidant status
2.  Bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of the fourth lumbar vertebra: a case report 
Lumbar spondylolysis, a well known cause of low back pain, usually affects the pars interarticularis of a lower lumbar vertebra and rarely involves the articular processes. We report a rare case of bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4 vertebra that caused spinal canal stenosis with a significant segmental instability at L4/5 and scoliosis. A 31-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain since he was a teenager presented with numbness of the right lower leg and scoliosis. Plain X-rays revealed bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4, anterolisthesis of the L4 vertebral body, and right lateral wedging of the L4/5 disc with compensatory scoliosis in the cephalad portion of the spine. MR images revealed spinal canal stenosis at the L4/5 disc level. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the L4/5 was performed, and his symptoms were relieved.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2011.629750
PMCID: PMC3282246  PMID: 22111522
Articular process; scoliosis; spondylolysis; surgery
3.  Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2011;116(2):129-132.
Objective
To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL).
Methods
A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs.
Results
Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 cases and C4/5 in 16 cases. Distance of anterior slippage was 2 to 5 mm (average 2.9 mm) in flexion position. Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) was 11 to 15 mm (average 12.8 mm) in flexion position and 11 to 18 mm (average14.6 mm) in extension position; 11 cases were reducible and 11 cases were irreducible in extension position. Myelograms demonstrated compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position. Compression of spinal cord was not demonstrated in flexion position. C5-7 lordosis angle was lower than control. C5-7 range of motion (ROM) was reduced compared to controls. These alterations were statistically significant.
Conclusions
DSL occurs in the mid-cervical spine. Lower cervical spine demonstrated restricted ROM and lower lordosis angle. Pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy due to DSL is compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position and not by reduced SAC in flexion position.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2011.551932
PMCID: PMC3078542  PMID: 21329487
Cervical spine; degenerative spondylolisthesis; myelopathy
4.  Lumbar radiculopathy caused by foraminal stenosis in rheumatoid arthritis 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2011;116(2):133-137.
Study design
Case-series study.
Objective
To describe the clinical presentation, characteristic findings of imaging studies, and treatment of lumbar radiculopathy caused by foraminal stenosis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Background
Lumbar lesions in rheumatoid arthritis are relatively rare, with a limited number of systemic reports.
Methods
Six patients with lumbar radiculopathy caused by foraminal stenosis in rheumatoid arthritis were treated. The patients were all women with a mean age of 69 years and mean rheumatoid arthritis duration of 15 years. The medical records and imaging studies of all patients were reviewed.
Results
The affected nerve roots were L4 in four patients and L3 in two patients. Foraminal stenosis was not demonstrated in magnetic resonance images in four of the six patients. Selective radiculography with nerve root block reproduced pain, manifested blocking effect, and demonstrated compression of the nerve root by the superior articular process of the lower vertebra in all patients. Conservative treatment was performed on one patient, and surgery was conducted for the rest of the five patients; radiculopathy was improved in all patients.
Conclusions
Lumbar foraminal stenosis is a characteristic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis, and should be kept in mind in the diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Selective radiculography is useful in the diagnosis of affected nerve roots.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2010.526722
PMCID: PMC3078543  PMID: 21091389
Diagnosis; foraminal stenosis; lumbar spine; radiculopathy; rheumatoid arthritis; surgery

Results 1-4 (4)