Genetic test results can have considerable importance for patients, their parents and more remote family members. Clinical therapy and surveillance, reproductive decisions and genetic diagnostics in family members, including prenatal diagnosis, are based on these results. The genetic test report should therefore provide a clear, concise, accurate, fully interpretative and authoritative answer to the clinical question. The need for harmonizing reporting practice of genetic tests has been recognised by the External Quality Assessment (EQA), providers and laboratories. The ESHG Genetic Services Quality Committee has produced reporting guidelines for the genetic disciplines (biochemical, cytogenetic and molecular genetic). These guidelines give assistance on report content, including the interpretation of results. Selected examples of genetic test reports for all three disciplines are provided in an annexe.
The role of folate deficiency and associated hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not fully established. In the current study, we analyzed the role of folate deficiency in pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).
Metabolic and hemodynamic traits were assessed in SHR/Ola rats fed either folate-deficient or control diet for 4 weeks starting at the age of 3 months.
Compared to SHRs fed a folate-replete diet, SHRs fed a folate-deficient diet showed significantly reduced serum folate (104±5 vs. 11±1 nmol/L, P < 0.0005) and urinary folate excretion (4.3±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.1 nmol/16h, P < 0.0005) together with a near 3-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine concentration (4.5±0.1 vs 13.1±0.7 μmol/L, P < 0.0005), ectopic fat accumulation in liver, and impaired glucose tolerance. Folate deficiency also increased systolic blood pressure by approximately 15mm Hg (P < 0.01). In addition, the low-folate diet was accompanied by significantly reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of lipoperoxidation products in liver, renal cortex, and heart.
These findings demonstrate that the SHR model is susceptible to the adverse metabolic and hemodynamic effects of low dietary intake of folate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that folate deficiency can promote oxidative stress and multiple features of the metabolic syndrome that are associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
blood pressure; ectopic fat accumulation; folate deficiency; homocysteine; hypertension; oxidative stress; spontaneously hypertensive rat.
Protein misfolding due to missense mutations is a common pathogenic mechanism in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In our previous studies, we have successfully expressed, purified and characterized nine CBS mutant enzymes containing the following patient mutations: P49L, P78R, A114V, R125Q, E176K, R266K, P422L, I435T and S466L. These purified mutants exhibited full heme saturation, normal tetrameric assembly and high catalytic activity. In this work, we used several spectroscopic and proteolytic techniques to provide a more thorough insight into the conformation of these mutant enzymes. Far-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence and second derivative-UV spectroscopy revealed that the spatial arrangement of these CBS mutants is similar to the wild-type although the microenvironment of the chromophores may be slightly altered. Using proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions, we found that the majority of the studied mutants is more susceptible towards cleavage suggesting their increased local flexibility or propensity to local unfolding. Interestingly, the presence of the CBS allosteric activator, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), increased the cleavage rate of wild-type and the AdoMet-responsive mutants, while the proteolytic rate of the AdoMet-unresponsive mutants was not significantly changed. Pulse proteolysis analysis suggested that the protein structure of the R125Q and E176K mutants is significantly less stable than that of wild-type and the other mutants. Taken together, the proteolytic data show that the conformation of pathogenic mutants is altered despite retained catalytic activity and normal tetrameric assembly. This study demonstrates that the proteolytic techniques are a useful tool for the assessment of the biochemical penalty of missense mutations in CBS.
CBSs (cystathionine β-synthases) are eukaryotic PLP (pyridoxal 5 *-phosphate)-dependent proteins that maintain cellular homocysteine homoeostasis and produce cystathionine and hydrogen sulfide. In the present study, we describe a novel structural arrangement of the CBS enzyme encoded by the cbs-1 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The CBS-1 protein contains a unique tandem repeat of two evolutionarily conserved catalytic regions in a single polypeptide chain. These repeats include a catalytically active C-terminal module containing a PLP-binding site and a less conserved N-terminal module that is unable to bind the PLP cofactor and cannot catalyse CBS reactions, as demonstrated by analysis of truncated variants and active-site mutant proteins. In contrast with other metazoan enzymes, CBS-1 lacks the haem and regulatory Bateman domain essential for activation by AdoMet (S-adenosylmethionine) and only forms monomers. We determined the tissue and subcellular distribution of CBS-1 and showed that cbs-1 knockdown by RNA interference leads to delayed development and to an approximately 10-fold elevation of homocysteine concentrations in nematode extracts. The present study provides the first insight into the metabolism of sulfur amino acids and hydrogen sulfide in C. elegans and shows that nematode CBSs possess a structural feature that is unique among CBS proteins.
cystathionine β-synthase (CBS); Caenorhabditis elegans; domain architecture; homocysteine; hydrogen sulfide; knockdown; AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; BN, blue native; BS3, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate; CBS, cystathionine β-synthase; CGL, cystathionine γ-lyase; DTT, dithiothreitol; EST, expressed sequence tag; GFP, green fluorescent protein; LC–MS/MS, liquid chromatography–tandem MS; PLP, pyridoxal 5*-phosphate; RNAi, RNA interference; RT, reverse transcription; SEC, size-exclusion chromatography; UTR, untranslated region; WT, wild-type
Protein misfolding has been proposed to be a common pathogenic mechanism in many inborn errors of metabolism including cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In this work, we describe the structural properties of nine CBS mutants that represent a common molecular pathology in the CBS gene. Using thermolysin in two proteolytic techniques, we examined conformation of these mutants directly in crude cell extracts after expression in E. coli. Proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions appeared to be a useful technique even for very unstable mutant proteins, whereas pulse proteolysis in a urea gradient had limited values for the study of the majority of CBS mutants due to their instability. Mutants in the active core had either slightly increased unfolding (p.A114V, p.E302K and p.G307S) or extensive unfolding with decreased stability (p.H65R, p.T191M, p.I278T and p.R369C). The extent of the unfolding inversely correlated with the previously determined degree of tetrameric assembly and with the catalytic activity. In contrast, mutants bearing aminoacid substitutions in the C-terminal regulatory domain (p.R439Q and p.D444N) had increased global stability with decreased flexibility. This study shows that proteolytic techniques can reveal conformational abnormalities even for CBS mutants that have activity and/or a degree of assembly similar to the wild-type enzyme. We present here a methodological strategy that may be used in cell lysates to evaluate properties of proteins that tend to misfold and aggregate and that may be important for conformational studies of disease-causing mutations in the field of inborn errors of metabolism.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9407-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine (Hcy) and serine to cystathionine, which is then hydrolyzed to cysteine by cystathionine gamma-lyase. Inactivation of CBS results in CBS-deficient homocystinuria more commonly referred to as classical homocystinuria, which, if untreated, results in mental retardation, thromboembolic complications, and a range of connective tissue disorders. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of this disease are poorly understood. We report here the generation of a new mouse model of classical homocystinuria in which the mouse cbs gene is inactivated and that exhibits low-level expression of the human CBS transgene under the control of the human CBS promoter. This mouse model, designated “human only” (HO), exhibits severe elevations in both plasma and tissue levels of Hcy, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine and a concomitant decrease in plasma and hepatic levels of cysteine. HO mice exhibit mild hepatopathy but, in contrast to previous models of classical homocystinuria, do not incur hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, or neonatal death with approximately 90% of HO mice living for at least 6 months. Tail bleeding determinations indicate that HO mice are in a hypercoagulative state that is significantly ameliorated by betaine treatment in a manner that recapitulates the disease as it occurs in humans. Our findings indicate that this mouse model will be a valuable tool in the study of pathogenesis in classical homocystinuria and the rational design of novel treatments.
BHMT, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; HCU, classical homocystinuria; CBS, cystathionine beta-synthase; CGL, cystathionine gamma-lyase; Hcy, homocysteine; MTHFR, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; AdoHcy, S-adenosylhomocysteine; tHcy, total homocysteine; Betaine; Coagulation; Cystathionine; Cystathionine beta-synthase; Cystathionine gamma-lyase; Homocystinuria; Homocysteine
Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficient homocystinuria is an inherited metabolic defect that if untreated typically results in mental retardation, thromboembolism and a range of connective tissue disturbances. A knockout mouse model has previously been used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms in classical homocystinuria (Watanabe et al., PNAS 92 (1995) 1585–1589). This mouse model exhibits a semi-lethal phenotype and the majority of mice do not survive the early neonatal period. We report here that the birth incidence of cbs (−/−) mice produced from heterozygous crosses is non-Mendelian and not significantly improved by treatment with either the Hcy lowering compound betaine or the cysteine donor N-acetylcysteine. Betaine treatment did improve survival of cbs (−/−) mice and restored fertility to female cbs (−/−) mice but did so without significantly lowering Hcy levels. Surviving cbs (−/−) mice failed to show any alteration in coagulation parameters compared to wild-type controls. Moribund cbs (−/−) mice exhibited severe liver injury and hepatic fibrosis while surviving cbs (−/−) mice although less severely affected, still exhibited a level of severe liver injury that is not found in the human disease. The hepatopathy observed in this model may offer an explanation for the failure of cbs (−/−) mice to respond to betaine or exhibit a hypercoagulative phenotype. We conclude that although this model provides useful data on the biochemical sequelae of classical homocystinuria, it does not successfully recapitulate a number of important features of the human disease and its use for studying mechanisms in homocystinuria should be treated with caution as the hepatopathy produces changes which could influence the results.
ALT, Alanine aminotransferase; aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; BHMT, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; HCU, classical homocystinuria; CBS, cystathionine beta-synthase; CGL, cystathionine gamma-lyase; DMG, dimethylglycine; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; fHcy, free homocysteine; Hcy, homocysteine; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MG, methylglycine; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; PT, prothrombin time; AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; AdoHcy, S-adenosylhomocysteine; tHcy, total homocysteine; Betaine; Coagulation; Cystathionine; Cystathionine beta-synthase; Cystathionine gamma-lyase; Homocystinuria; Homocysteine
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-2H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-2H-cystathionine, using LC-MS/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol/h/L (range 66–1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol/ho/L (range 0–9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol/hour/L (range 0–358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-2H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10545-010-9178-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
We report studies of six individuals with marked elevations of cystathionine in plasma and/or urine. Studies of CTH, the gene that encodes cystathionine γ-lyase, revealed the presence among these individuals of either homozygous or compound heterozygous forms of a novel large deletion, p.Gly57_Gln196del, two novel missense mutations, c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys) and c.932C>T (p.Thr311Ile), and one previously reported alteration, c.200C>T (p.Thr67Ile). Another novel missense mutation, c.185G>T (p.Arg62His), was found in heterozygous form in three mildly hypercystathioninemic members of a Taiwanese family. In one severely hypercystathioninemic individual no CTH mutation was found. Brief clinical histories of the cystathioninemic/cystathioninuric patients are presented. Most of the novel mutations were expressed and the CTH activities of the mutant proteins determined. The crystal structure of the human enzyme, hCTH, and the evidence available as to the effects of the mutations in question, as well as those of the previously reported p.Gln240Glu, on protein structure, enzymatic activity, and responsiveness to vitamin B6 administration are discussed. Among healthy Czech controls, 9.3% were homozygous for CTH c.1208G>T (p.Ser403Ile), previously found homozygously in 7.5% of Canadians for whom plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) had been measured. Compared to wild-type homozygotes, among the 55 Czech c.1208G>T (p.Ser403Ile) homozygotes a greater level of plasma cystathionine was found only after methionine loading. Three of the four individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for inactivating CTH mutations had mild plasma tHcy elevations, perhaps indicating a cause-and-effect relationship. The experience with the present patients provides no evidence that severe loss of CTH activity is accompanied by adverse clinical effects.
Several recent studies describing a solely vascular presentation of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency in adulthood prompted us to analyze the frequency of patients manifesting with vascular complications in the Czech Republic. Between 1980 and 2009, a total of 20 Czech patients with CBS deficiency have been diagnosed yielding an incidence of 1:311,000. These patients were divided into three groups based on symptoms leading to diagnosis: those with vascular complications, with connective tissue manifestation and with neurological presentation. A vascular event such as a clinical feature leading to diagnosis of homocystinuria was present in five patients, while two of them had no other symptoms typical for CBS deficiency at the time of diagnosis. All patients with the vascular manifestation were diagnosed only during the past decade. The median age of diagnosis was 29 years in the vascular, 11.5 years in the connective tissue and 4.5 years in the neurological group. The ratio of pyridoxine responsive to nonresponsive patients was higher in the vascular (4 of 5 patients) and connective tissue groups (6 of 7 patients) than in the neurological group (2 of 8 patients). Mutation c.833T>C (p.I278T) was frequent in patients with vascular (6/10 alleles) and connective tissue presentation (8/14 alleles), while it was not present in patients with neurological involvement (0/16 alleles). During the last decade, we have observed patients with homocystinuria diagnosed solely due to vascular events; this milder form of homocystinuria usually manifests at greater ages, has a high ratio of pyridoxine responsiveness/nonresponsiveness, and the mutation c.833T>C (p.I278T) is often present.
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in the Czech Republic. The data on cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2008 were collected and analyzed. The overall prevalence of LSDs in the Czech population (12.25 per 100,000) is comparable to that reported for the countries with well-established and advanced diagnostics of LSDs such as the Netherlands (14 per 100,000), Australia (12.9 per 100,000) and Italy (12.1 per 100,000). Relatively higher prevalence of LSDs was reported in the north of Portugal (25 per 100,000). Thirty-four different LSDs were diagnosed in a total of 478 individuals. Gaucher disease was the most frequent LSD with a birth prevalence of 1.13 per 100,000 births. The most frequent LSD groups were lipidoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, with combined prevalences of 5.0, 3.72, and 2.29 per 100,000 live births, respectively. Glycoproteinoses (0.57 per 100,000 live births), glycogenosis type II (0.37), and mucolipidoses (0.31) rarely occur in the Czech population, and a range of other LSDs have not been detected at all over the past three decades. Knowledge of the birth prevalence and carrier frequency of particular disorders is important in genetic counselling for calculation of the risk for the disorder in the other members of affected families. Earlier diagnosis of these disorders will permit timely intervention and may also result in lowering of the number of newborns with LSDs.
Misfolding and aggregation of mutant enzymes have been proposed to play role in the pathogenesis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. Chemical chaperones have been recently shown to facilitate proper assembly of several CBS mutants. To asses the number of patients that may respond to chaperone therapy, we examined the effect of selected CBS ligands and osmolytes on assembly and activity of 27 CBS mutants that represent 70% of known CBS alleles. The mutant enzymes were expressed in a bacterial system, and their properties were assessed by native Western blotting and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay, respectively. We studied the chaperoning activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA)—a heme precursor—and of three osmolytes betaine, 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine), and glycerol. Fourteen mutants responded by at least 30% increase in the amount of correctly assembled tetramers and enzymatic activity to the coexpressional presence of either 0.5 mM δ-ALA, 100 mM betaine, and/or 750 mM glycerol. Eight of these mutants (p.R266K, p.P49L, p.R125Q, p.K102N, p.R369C, p.V180A, p.P78R, p.S466L) were rescuable by all of these three substances. Four mutants showed increased formation of tetramers that was not accompanied by changes in activity. Topology of mutations appeared to determine the chaperone responsiveness, as 11 of 14 solvent-exposed mutations were substantially more responsive than three of 13 buried mutations. This study identified chaperone-responsive mutants that represent 56 of 713 known patient-derived CBS alleles and may serve as a basis for exploring pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting misfolding in homocystinuria.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10545-010-9087-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Conserved non-coding regions (CNR) have been shown to harbor gene expression regulatory elements. Genetic variations in these regions may potentially contribute to complex disease susceptibility.
We targeted CNRs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) candidate gene, Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) with polymorphism screening among CVD patients (n = 46) using DHPLC technology. The flanking region (348 bp) of the 14 bp indel in intron 2 was further genotyped by DGGE assay in two Eastern-European CVD samples: essential hypertension (HYPEST; 470 cases, 652 controls) and coronary artery disease, CAD (CADCZ; 257 cases, controls 413). Genotype-phenotype associations were tested by regression analysis implemented in PLINK. Alignments of primate sequences were performed by ClustalW2.
Nine of the identified NCX1 variants were either singletons or targeted by commercial platforms. The 14 bp intronic indel (rs11274804) was represented with substantial frequency in HYPEST (6.82%) and CADCZ (14.58%). Genotyping in Eastern-Europeans (n = 1792) revealed hypervariable nature of this locus, represented by seven alternative alleles. The alignments of human-chimpanzee-macaque sequences showed that the major human variant (allele frequency 90.45%) was actually a human-specific deletion compared to other primates. In humans, this deletion was surrounded by other short (5-43 bp) deletion variants and a duplication (40 bp) polymorphism possessing overlapping breakpoints. This indicates a potential indel hotspot, triggered by the initial deletion in human lineage. An association was detected between the carrier status of 14 bp indel ancestral allele and CAD (P = 0.0016, OR = 2.02; Bonferroni significance level alpha = 0.0045), but not with hypertension. The risk for the CAD development was even higher among the patients additionally diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.0014, OR = 2.34). Consistent with the effect on metabolic processes, suggestive evidence for the association with heart rate, serum triglyceride and LDL levels was detected (P = 0.04).
Compared to SNPs targeted by large number of locus-specific and genome-wide assays, considerably less attention has been paid to short indel variants in the human genome. The data of genome dynamics, mutation rate and population genetics of short indels, as well as their impact on gene expressional profile and human disease susceptibility is limited. The characterization of NCX1 intronic hypervariable non-coding region enriched in human-specific indel variants contributes to this gap of knowledge.
S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) serves as a methyl donor in biological transmethylation reactions. S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is the product as well as the inhibitor of transmethylations and the ratio SAM/SAH is regarded as the measure of methylating capacity (“methylation index”). We present a rapid and sensitive LC–MS/MS method for SAM and SAH determination in mice tissues. The method is based on chromatographic separation on a Hypercarb column (30 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm particle size) filled with porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Sufficient retention of SAM and SAH on the chromatographic packing allows simple sample preparation protocol avoiding solid phase extraction step. No significant matrix effects were observed by analysing the tissue extracts on LC–MS/MS. The intra-assay precision was less than 9%, the inter-assay precision was less than 13% and the accuracy was in the range 98–105% for both compounds. Stability of both metabolites during sample preparation and storage of tissue samples was studied: the SAM/SAH ratio in liver samples dropped by 34% and 48% after incubation of the tissues at 4 °C for 5 min and at 25 °C for 2 min, respectively. Storage of liver tissues at −80 °C for 2 months resulted in decrease of SAM/SAH ratio by 40%. These results demonstrate that preanalytical steps are critical for obtaining valid data of SAM and SAH in tissues.
S-Adenosylmethionine; S-Adenosylhomocysteine; Mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography; Mouse tissues
To estimate the frequency of the cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency caused by c.1105C>T mutation in Central Europe compared to Norway, and to examine the pathogenicity of the corresponding p.R369C mutant enzyme.
Mutation c.1105C>T was analyzed in 600 anonymous Czech newborn blood spots. Catalytic activity and quaternary structure of the p.R369C mutant was evaluated after expression in 2 cellular systems.
Population frequency of the c.1105C>T mutation was 0.005, predicting the birth prevalence of homocystinuria of 1:40 000, which increased to 1:15 500 in a model including 10 additional mutations. In Escherichia coli the p.R369C mutant misfolded, and its activity was severely reduced, and expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells enabled proper folding with activity decreased to 63% of the wild-type enzyme. This decreased activity was not due to impaired Km for both substrates but resulted from Vmax lowered to 55% of the normal cystathionine beta-synthase enzyme.
The c.1105C>T (p.R369C) allele is common also in the Czech population. Although the p.R369C mutation impairs folding and decreases velocity of the enzymatic reaction, our data are congruent with rather mild clinical phenotype in homozygotes or compound heterozygotes carrying this mutation.
CBS, Cystathionine beta-synthase; CHO, Chinese hamster ovary; PAGE, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PBS, Phosphate buffered saline solution; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAH, S-adenosylhomocysteine; SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Missense mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene, such as I278T, are responsible for CBS deficiency, the most common inherited disorder in sulfur metabolism. Expression of human mutant CBS proteins in S. cerevisiae reveals that most disease causing mutations severely inhibit enzyme activity and cannot support growth of yeast on cysteine-free media. Here we show that the osmolyte chemical chaperones glycerol, trimethyl-N-oxide, dimethylsulfoxide, proline or sorbitol, when added to yeast media, allows growth on cysteine-free media and causes increased enzyme activity from I278T and three other mutant CBS proteins. Rescuable mutants are ones that are predicted to cause a decrease in solvent accessible surface area. The increase in enzyme activity is associated with stabilization of the tetramer form of the enzyme. This effect is not specific to yeast, as addition of the chaperone glycerol resulted in increased I278T activity when the enzyme is produced either in E. coli or in a coupled in vitro transcription/translation reaction. However, no stimulation of specific activity was observed when chaperones were added directly to purified I278T indicating that the presence of chemical chaperones is required during translation. We also found that by mixing different chaperones we could achieve rescue at significantly lower chaperone concentrations. Taken together, our data show that chemical chaperones present during the initial folding process can facilitate proper folding of several mutant CBS proteins and suggest it may be possible to treat some inborn errors of metabolism with agents that enhance proper protein folding.
Homocystinuria; Methionine metabolism; osmolytes; chaperone; mutation
Missense mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene, such as I278T, are responsible for CBS deficiency, the most common inherited disorder in sulfur metabolism. Expression of human mutant CBS proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals that most disease causing mutations severely inhibit enzyme activity and cannot support growth of yeast on cysteine-free media. Here, we show that the osmolyte chemical chaperones glycerol, trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylsulfoxide, proline or sorbitol, when added to yeast media, allows growth on cysteine-free media and causes increased enzyme activity from I278T and three other mutant CBS proteins. Rescuable mutants are ones that are predicted to cause a decrease in solvent accessible surface area. The increase in enzyme activity is associated with stabilization of the tetramer form of the enzyme. This effect is not specific to yeast, as addition of the chaperone glycerol resulted in increased I278T activity when the enzyme is produced either in Escherichia coli or in a coupled in vitro transcription/translation reaction. However, no stimulation of specific activity was observed when chaperones were added directly to purified I278T indicating that the presence of chemical chaperones is required during translation. We also found that by mixing different chaperones we could achieve rescue at significantly lower chaperone concentrations. Taken together, our data show that chemical chaperones present during the initial folding process can facilitate proper folding of several mutant CBS proteins and suggest it may be possible to treat some inborn errors of metabolism with agents that enhance proper protein folding.
Homocystinuria; Methionine metabolism; Osmolytes; Chaperone; Mutation
Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for the c.833T>C transition (p.I278T) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene represents the most common cause of pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria in Western Eurasians. However, the frequency of the pathogenic c.833C allele, as observed in healthy newborns from several European countries (qc.833C ≊ 3.3 × 10–3), is ∼20-fold higher than expected on the basis of the observed number of symptomatic homocystinuria patients carrying this mutation (qc.833C ≊ 0.18 × 10–3), implying clinical underascertainment. Intriguingly, the c.833C mutation is also present in combination with a 68-bp insertion, c.[833C; 844_845ins68], in a substantial proportion of chromosomes from nonhomocystinuric individuals worldwide. We have sought to study the relationship between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic c.833C-bearing chromosomes and to determine whether the pathogenic c.[833C; −] chromosomes are identical-by-descent or instead arose by recurrent mutation. Initial haplotype analysis of 780 randomly selected Czech and sub-Saharan African wild-type chromosomes, employing 12 intragenic markers, revealed 29 distinct CBS haplotypes, of which 10 carried the c.[833C; 844_845ins68] combination; none carried an isolated c.833C or c.844_845ins68 mutation. Subsequent examination of 69 pathogenic c.[833C; −] chromosomes, derived from homocystinuria patients of predominantly European origin, disclosed three unrelated haplotypes that differed from their wild-type counterparts by virtue of the presence of c.833C, thereby indicating that c.833T>C transition has occurred repeatedly and independently in the past. Since c.833T does not reside within an obvious mutational hotspot, we surmise that the three pathogenic and comparatively prevalent c.[833C; −] chromosomes may have originated by recurrent gene conversion employing the common nonpathogenic c.[833C; 844_845ins68] chromosomes as templates. Hum Mutat 28(3), 255–264, 2007. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.†
homocysteine; homocystinuria; haplotype; pyridoxal 5′phosphate; cystathionine beta-synthase; CBS; gene conversion
Missense mutations in the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene are the most common cause of clinical homocystinuria in humans. The p.S466L mutation was identified in a homocystinuric patient, but enzymatic studies with recombinant protein show this mutant to be highly active. To understand how this mutation causes disease in vivo, we have created mice lacking endogenous mouse CBS and expressing either wild-type (Tg-hCBS) or p.S466L (Tg-S466L) human CBS under control of zinc inducible metallothionein promoter. In the presence of zinc, we found that the mean serum total homocysteine (tHcy) of Tg-S466L mice was 142 ± 55 µM compared to 16 ± 13 µM for hCBS mice. Tg-S466L mice also had significantly higher levels of total free homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in liver and kidney. Only 48% of Tg-S466L mice had detectable CBS protein in the liver, whereas all the Tg-hCBS animals had detectable protein. Surprisingly, CBS mRNA was significantly elevated in Tg-S466L animals compared to Tg-hCBS, implying that the reduction in p.S466L protein was occurring due to posttranscriptional mechanisms. In Tg-S466L animals with detectable liver CBS, the enzyme formed tetramers and was active, but lacked inducibility by S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). However, even in Tg-S466L animals that had in vitro liver CBS activity equivalent to Tg-hCBS animals there was significant elevation of serum tHcy. Our results show that p.S466L causes homocystinuria by affecting both the steady state level of CBS protein and by reducing the efficiency of the enzyme in vivo. Hum Mutat 29(8), 1048–1054, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
inborn error; metabolism; mouse model; homocystinuria; CBS
Misfolding of mutant enzymes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. We examined properties of a series of 27 mutant variants, which together represent 70% of known alleles observed in patients with homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency. The median amount of SDS-soluble mutant CBS polypeptides in the pellet after centrifugation of bacterial extracts was increased by 50% compared to the wild type. Moreover, mutants formed on average only 12% of tetramers and their median activity reached only 3% of the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to the wild-type CBS about half of mutants were not activated by S-adenosylmethionine. Expression at 18°C substantially increased the activity of five mutants in parallel with increasing the amounts of tetramers. We further analyzed the role of solvent accessibility of mutants as a determinant of their folding and activity. Buried mutations formed on average less tetramers and exhibited 23 times lower activity than the solvent exposed mutations. In summary, our results show that topology of mutations predicts in part the behavior of mutant CBS, and that misfolding may be an important and frequent pathogenic mechanism in CBS deficiency. Hum Mutat 31:1–11, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
homocysteine; cystathionine β-synthase deficiency; CBS; homocystinuria; folding; misfolding; topology; E. coli
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a modular enzyme which catalyzes condensation of serine with homocysteine. Cross-talk between the catalytic core and the C-terminal regulatory domain modulates the enzyme activity. The regulatory domain imposes an autoinhibition action that is alleviated by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) binding, by deletion of the C-terminal regulatory module, or by thermal activation. The atomic mechanisms of the CBS allostery have not yet been sufficiently explained. Using pulse proteolysis in urea gradient and proteolytic kinetics with thermolysin under native conditions, we demonstrated that autoinhibition is associated with changes in conformational stability and with sterical hindrance of the catalytic core. To determine the contact area between the catalytic core and the autoinhibitory module of the CBS protein, we compared side-chain reactivity of the truncated CBS lacking the regulatory domain (45CBS) and of the full-length enzyme (wtCBS) using covalent labeling by six different modification agents and subsequent mass spectrometry. Fifty modification sites were identified in 45CBS, and four of them were not labeled in wtCBS. One differentially reactive site (cluster W408/W409/W410) is a part of the linker between the domains. The other three residues (K172 and/or K177, R336, and K384) are located in the same region of the 45CBS crystal structure; computational modeling showed that these amino acid side chains potentially form a regulatory interface in CBS protein. Subtle differences at CBS surface indicate that enzyme activity is not regulated by conformational conversions but more likely by different allosteric mechanisms.
Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4 cause familial hypertension, the Gordon syndrome. WNK1 and WNK4 conserved noncoding regions were targeted to polymorphism screening using DHPLC and DGGE. The scan identified an undescribed polymorphic AluYb8 insertion in WNK1 intron 10. Screening in primates revealed that this Alu-insertion has probably occurred in human lineage. Genotyping in 18 populations from Europe, Asia, and Africa (n = 854) indicated an expansion of the WNK1 AluYb8 bearing chromosomes out of Africa. The allele frequency in Sub-Saharan Africa was ∼3.3 times lower than in other populations (4.8 vs. 15.8%; P = 9.7 × 10−9). Meta-analysis across three European sample sets (n = 3,494; HYPEST, Estonians; BRIGHT, the British; CADCZ, Czech) detected significant association of the WNK1 AluYb8 insertion with blood pressure (BP; systolic BP, P = 4.03 × 10−3, effect 1.12; diastolic BP, P = 1.21 × 10−2, effect 0.67). Gender-stratified analysis revealed that this effect might be female-specific (n = 2,088; SBP, P = 1.99 × 10−3, effect 1.59; DBP P = 3.64 × 10−4, effect 1.23; resistant to Bonferroni correction), whereas no statistical support was identified for the association with male BP (n = 1,406). In leucocytes, the expressional proportions of the full-length WNK1 transcript and the splice-form skipping exon 11 were significantly shifted in AluYb8 carriers compared to noncarriers. The WNK1 AluYb8 insertion might affect human BP via altering the profile of alternatively spliced transcripts. Hum Mutat 32:1–9, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
WNK1; polymorphism screening; AluYb8; blood pressure; meta-analysis