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1.  Modifiable Risk Factors Identify People Who Transition from Non-fallers to Fallers in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Prospective Study 
Physiotherapy Canada  2010;62(4):358-367.
ABSTRACT
Purpose: To identify modifiable risk factors associated with the transition from non-faller to faller in community-dwelling older adults.
Method: A prospective study design was used. Adults aged 60 to 90 years (n=90, mean age=79.7 years, 63% male) who did not report falling in the past year were included. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at study baseline, and daily falls data were collected monthly for 1 year. Multivariable regression using a modified Poisson model on fall status (yes/no) and a Cox proportional hazards model for time to first fall were used to identify risk factors.
Results: Twenty-four people (27%) fell. Modifiable risk factors were present in 67% of study participants, and fall risk increased as the number of risk factors increased. The most common activities performed prior to falling were walking and using stairs. Fall risk doubled ([relative risk=2.00; 95%CI: 1.13–3.56) per unit increase in the number of risk factors (lower-extremity weakness, balance impairment, and ≥4 prescription medications).
Conclusions: Among older adults who were self-reported non-fallers, falls were a common outcome, and modifiable risk factors were present in the majority of the sample. The absence of a fall history does not rule out the need to screen for other risk factors for falls. Functional lower-extremity weakness, balance impairment as measured by the Berg Balance Scale (score <50), and number of risk factors were independent predictors for the transition in status from non-faller to faller. Further research is required to define effective interventions to prevent first falls.
doi:10.3138/physio.62.4.358
PMCID: PMC2958069  PMID: 21886376
accidental falls; aged; geriatric assessment; postural balance; prospective study; risk factors; aînés; chutes accidentelles; équilibre postural; étude prospective; évaluation gériatrique; facteurs de risque
2.  A blended knowledge translation initiative to improve colorectal cancer staging [ISRCTN56824239] 
Background
A significant gap has been documented between best practice and the actual practice of surgery. Our group identified that colorectal cancer staging in Ontario was suboptimal and subsequently developed a knowledge translation strategy using the principles of social marketing and the influence of expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer.
Methods/Design
Opinion leaders were identified using the Hiss methodology. Hospitals in Ontario were cluster-randomized to one of two intervention arms. Both groups were exposed to a formal continuing medical education session given by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer. In the treatment group the local Opinion Leader for colorectal cancer was detailed by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer and received a toolkit. Forty-two centres agreed to have the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer come and give a formal continuing medical education session that lasted between 50 minutes and 4 hours. No centres refused the intervention. These sessions were generally well attended by most surgeons, pathologists and other health care professionals at each centre. In addition all but one of the local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer met with the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer for the academic detailing session that lasted between 15 and 30 minutes.
Discussion
We have enacted a unique study that has attempted to induce practice change among surgeons and pathologists using an adapted social marketing model that utilized the influence of both expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in a large geographic area with diverse practice settings.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-4
PMCID: PMC1395360  PMID: 16412251
3.  A Canadian national survey of attitudes and knowledge regarding preventive vaccines 
Background
Vaccines have virtually eliminated many diseases, but public concerns about their safety could undermine future public health initiatives.
Objective
To determine Canadians' attitudes and knowledge about vaccines, particularly in view of increasing public concern about bioterrorism and the possible need for emergency immunizations after weaponized anthrax incidents and the events of September 11, 2001.
Method
A 20-question survey based on well-researched dimensions of vaccine responsiveness was telephone-administered to a random sample of N = 1330 adult Canadians in January, 2002.
Results
1057 (79.5%) completed the survey. Respondents perceived vaccines to be highly effective and demonstrated considerable support for further vaccine research. However, results also indicate a lack of knowledge about vaccines and uncertainty regarding the safety.
Conclusions
Support for vaccines is broad but shallow. While Canadians hold generally positive attitudes about vaccines, support could be undermined by widely publicized adverse events. Better public education is required to maintain support for future public health initiatives.
doi:10.1186/1476-8518-1-3
PMCID: PMC280696  PMID: 14613575
preventive vaccines; attitudes; knowledge; nationwide Canadian survey

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