Classification methods of DNA most commonly use comparison of the differences in DNA symbolic records, which requires the global multiple sequence alignment. This solution is often inappropriate, causing a number of imprecisions and requires additional user intervention for exact alignment of the similar segments. The similar segments in DNA represented as a signal are characterized by a similar shape of the curve. The DNA alignment in genomic signals may adjust whole sections not only individual symbols. The dynamic time warping (DTW) is suitable for this purpose and can replace the multiple alignment of symbolic sequences in applications, such as phylogenetic analysis.
The proposed method is composed of three main parts. The first part represent conversion of symbolic representation of DNA sequences in the form of a string of A,C,G,T symbols to signal representation in the form of cumulated phase of complex components defined for each symbol. Next part represents signals size adjustment realized by standard signal preprocessing methods: median filtration, detrendization and resampling. The final part necessary for genomic signals comparison is position and length alignment of genomic signals by dynamic time warping (DTW).
The application of the DTW on set of genomic signals was evaluated in dendrogram construction using cluster analysis. The resulting tree was compared with a classical phylogenetic tree reconstructed using multiple alignment. The classification of genomic signals using the DTW is evolutionary closer to phylogeny of organisms. This method is more resistant to errors in the sequences and less dependent on the number of input sequences.
Classification of genomic signals using dynamic time warping is an adequate variant to phylogenetic analysis using the symbolic DNA sequences alignment; in addition, it is robust, quick and more precise technique.
Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids.
voltammetry; highly pathogenic influenza; antiviral resistance; paramagnetic particles; hybridization; quantum dots; automated separation; electrochemistry
Magnetic particle mediated transport in combination with nanomaterial based drug carrier has a great potential for targeted cancer therapy. In this study, doxorubicin encapsulation into the apoferritin and its conjugation with magnetic particles was investigated by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The quantification of encapsulated doxorubicin was performed by fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to CE-LIF. Moreover, the significant enhancement of the doxorubicin signal was observed by addition of methanol into the sample solution.
cancer; nanomedicine; magnetic particles; doxorubicin; nanoparticles
Electrochemical detection of quantum dots (QDs) has already been used in numerous applications. However, QDs have not been well characterized using voltammetry, with respect to their characterization and quantification. Therefore, the main aim was to characterize CdTe QDs using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. The obtained peaks were identified and the detection limit (3 S/N) was estimated down to 100 fg/mL. Based on the convincing results, a new method for how to study stability and quantify the dots was suggested. Thus, the approach was further utilized for the testing of QDs stability.
quantum dot; electrochemistry; differential pulse voltammetry; cyclic voltammetry; in vivo imaging
Polymers are currently widely used to replace a variety of natural materials with respect to their favourable physical and chemical properties, and due to their economic advantage. One of the most important branches of application of polymers is the production of different products for medical use. In this case, it is necessary to face a significant disadvantage of polymer products due to possible and very common colonization of the surface by various microorganisms that can pose a potential danger to the patient. One of the possible solutions is to prepare polymer with antibacterial/antimicrobial properties that is resistant to bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of antimicrobial polymeric material ideal for covering vascular implants with subsequent use in transplant surgery. Therefore, the complexes of polymeric substances (hyaluronic acid and chitosan) with silver nitrate or silver phosphate nanoparticles were created, and their effects on gram-positive bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus were monitored. Stages of formation of complexes of silver nitrate and silver phosphate nanoparticles with polymeric compounds were characterized using electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of complexes was determined using the methods of determination of growth curves and zones of inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the complex of chitosan, with silver phosphate nanoparticles, was the most suitable in order to have an antibacterial effect on bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus. Formation of this complex was under way at low concentrations of chitosan. The results of electrochemical determination corresponded with the results of spectrophotometric methods and verified good interaction and formation of the complex. The complex has an outstanding antibacterial effect and this effect was of several orders higher compared to other investigated complexes.
polymers; antimicrobial activity; silver ions; silver phosphate nanoparticles; hyaluronic acid; chitosan
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common type of tumour disease in men. Early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate is very important, because the sooner the cancer is detected, the better it is treated. According to that fact, there is great interest in the finding of new markers including amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used and is the most important biomarker of CaP. This marker can only be detected in blood and its sensitivity is approximately 80%. Moreover, early stages cannot be diagnosed using this protein. Currently, there does not exist a test for diagnosis of early stages of prostate cancer. This fact motivates us to find markers sensitive to the early stages of CaP, which are easily detected in body fluids including urine. A potential is therefore attributed to the non-protein amino acid sarcosine, which is generated by glycine-N-methyltransferase in its biochemical cycle. In this review, we summarize analytical methods for quantification of sarcosine as a CaP marker. Moreover, pathways of the connection of synthesis of sarcosine and CaP development are discussed.
cancer of prostate; biomarkers; early diagnostic; prostatic specific antigen; non-invasive markers; urine; amino acids
Metallothioneins (MT) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins maintaining metal ions homeostasis. They play a role in carcinogenesis and may also cause chemoresistance. The aim of the study was to explore the importance of MT serum levels in children suffering from malignant tumours. This prospective study involves examination of 865 samples from 172 patients with malignant tumours treated from 2008 to 2011 at University Hospital Motol. MT serum levels were determined using differential pulse voltammetry–Brdicka reaction. Mean MT level was 2.7 ± 0.5 μM. There was no statistically significant difference between MT levels in different tumours. We also did not find any correlation between MT levels and response to therapy or clinical stages. However, we found a positive correlation between MT levels and age (p = 0.009) and a negative correlation with absolute lymphocyte number (p = 0.001). The fact that patients who had early disease recurrence had lower MT levels during the treatment (complete remission 2.67 vs. recurring 2.34, p = 0.001) seems to be important for clinical practice. Accordingly we believe that there is benefit in further studies of serum MT levels in tumours.
serum metallothioneins; children; solid tumours; treatment; differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction
In this study, in vitro formed Cd-phytochelatin (PC2) complexes were characterized using ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The ratio of both studied compounds as well as experimental conditions were optimized. The highest yield of the complex was observed under an applied concentration of 100 µg·mL−1 PC2 and 100 µg·mL−1 of CdCl2. The data obtained show that IEC in combination with MALDI-TOF is a reliable and fast method for the determination of these complexes.
ion exchange chromatography; mass spectrometry; MALDI-TOF; phytochelatin; cadmium; intramolecular complex
Free radicals are chemical particles containing one or more unpaired electrons, which may be part of the molecule. They cause the molecule to become highly reactive. The free radicals are also known to play a dual role in biological systems, as they can be either beneficial or harmful for living systems. It is clear that there are numerous mechanisms participating on the protection of a cell against free radicals. In this review, our attention is paid to metallothioneins (MTs) as small, cysteine-rich and heavy metal-binding proteins, which participate in an array of protective stress responses. The mechanism of the reaction of metallothioneins with oxidants and electrophilic compounds is discussed. Numerous reports indicate that MT protects cells from exposure to oxidants and electrophiles, which react readily with sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, MT plays a key role in regulation of zinc levels and distribution in the intracellular space. The connections between zinc, MT and cancer are highlighted.
metallothionein; free radicals; cellular oxidative stress; zinc; transcription factor; cancer
Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures.
Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after CaNa2EDTA therapy, while oxidised glutathione was significantly lower in both pre- and post-treatment birds. A chick in an egg produced by a Cinereous Vulture female two months after lead toxicosis died on day 40 of artificial incubation. Lead concentrations in foetal tissues were consistent with levels causing avian mortality.
The reported blood parameters and reproduction impairment in captive birds may have implications for professionals dealing with lead exposure in wild birds.
Aegypius monachus; Neophron percnopterus; Plumbism; Haematology; Biochemistry; Oxidative stress; Reproduction impairment; Treatment
Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The obtained results are discussed, especially in connection with already published data. Possible mechanisms of NPs’ and MNPs’ toxicity are introduced.
nanoparticles; plant cell; thiol compounds; glutathione; phytochelatin
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=−0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/μl) between the two groups of animals was for GR.
haloperidol; guinea pig; oxidative stress; superoxide dismutase; glutathione reductase; glutathione-S-transferase
Proteomics and metalloproteomics are rapidly developing interdisciplinary fields providing enormous amounts of data to be classified, evaluated and interpreted. Approaches offered by bioinformatics and also by biostatistical data analysis and treatment are therefore of extreme interest. Numerous methods are now available as commercial or open source tools for data processing and modelling ready to support the analysis of various datasets. The analysis of scientific data remains a big challenge, because each new task sets its specific requirements and constraints that call for the design of a targeted data pre-processing approach.
This study proposes a mathematical approach for evaluating and classifying datasets obtained by electrochemical analysis of metallothionein in rat 9 tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, spleen, gonad, blood, liver and femoral muscle). Tissue extracts were heated and then analysed using the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. The voltammograms were subsequently processed. Classification models were designed making separate use of two groups of attributes, namely attributes describing local extremes, and derived attributes resulting from the level = 5 wavelet transform.
On the basis of our results, we were able to construct a decision tree that makes it possible to distinguish among electrochemical analysis data resulting from measurements of all the considered tissues. In other words, we found a way to classify an unknown rat tissue based on electrochemical analysis of the metallothionein in this tissue.
Members the Potyviridae family belong to a group of plant viruses that are causing devastating plant diseases with a significant impact on agronomy and economics. Plum pox virus (PPV), as a causative agent of sharka disease, is widely discussed. The understanding of the molecular biology of potyviruses including PPV and the function of individual proteins as products of genome expression are quite necessary for the proposal the new antiviral strategies. This review brings to view the members of Potyviridae family with respect to plum pox virus. The genome of potyviruses is discussed with respect to protein products of its expression and their function. Plum pox virus distribution, genome organization, transmission and biochemical changes in infected plants are introduced. In addition, techniques used in PPV detection are accentuated and discussed, especially with respect to new modern techniques of nucleic acids isolation, based on the nanotechnological approach. Finally, perspectives on the future of possibilities for nanotechnology application in PPV determination/identification are outlined.
viruses; plant; Potyviridae; plum pox virus; sharka; polymerase chain reaction; immune detection; ELISA; nanotechnology
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of molds on levels of low molecular mass thiols in grasses. For this purpose, the three grass species Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii were cultivated and sampled during four months, from June to September. The same species were also grown under controlled conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for quantification of cysteine, reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and phytochelatins (PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5). Data were statistically processed and analyzed. Thiols were present in all examined grass species. The effect of fungicide treatments applied under field conditions on the content of the evaluated thiols was shown to be insignificant. Species influenced (p < 0.05) PC3 and GSSG content. F. pabulare, an intergeneric hybrid of drought- and fungi-resistant Festuca arundinacea, was comparable in PC3 content with L. perenne and F. braunii under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, however, F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) PC3 content than did L. perenne and F. braunii. Under field conditions, differences between the evaluated species were recorded only in GSSG content, but only sampling in June was significant. F. pabulare had higher (p < 0.05) GSSG content in June than did L. perenne and F. braunii.
grass; mold; thiols; glutathione; phytochelatin
Oxidative stress causes profound alterations of various biological structures, including cellular membranes, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and it is involved in numerous malignancies. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is considered to be one of the most important scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and its ratio with oxidised glutathione (GSSG) may be used as a marker of oxidative stress. The main aim of this study was to determine GSH:GSSG ratio in the blood serum of paediatric cancer patients to use this ratio as a potential marker of oxidative stress. The whole procedure was optimised and the recoveries for both substances were greater than 80% under the optimised conditions. We analysed a group of paediatric patients (n=116) with various types of cancer, including neuroblastoma, anaplastic ependymoma, germ cell tumour, genital tract tumour, lymphadenopathy, rhabdomyosarcoma, nephroblastoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, medulloblastoma and retinoblastoma. We simultaneously determined the levels of reduced and oxidised glutathione, and thus, its ratio in the blood serum of the patients. The highest ratio was observed in retinoblastoma patients and the lowest in anaplastic ependymoma. We were able to distinguish between the diagnoses based on the results of the obtained GSH:GSSG ratio.
glutathione; paediatric tumour patients; oxidative stress; high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection
The template-based methods belong to low-cost and rapid preparation techniques for various nanostructures like nanowires, nanotubes, and nanodots or even quantum dots [QDs]. The nanostructured surfaces with QDs are very promising in the application as a sensor array, also called 'fluorescence array detector.' In particular, this new sensing approach is suitable for the detection of various biomolecules (DNA, proteins) in vitro (in clinical diagnostics) as well as for in vivo imaging.
The paper deals with the fabrication of TiO2 planar nanostructures (QDs) by the process of titanium anodic oxidation through an alumina nanoporous template on a silicon substrate. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the average diameter of TiO2 QDs is less than 10 nm. Raman spectroscopic characterization of self-organized titania QDs confirmed the presence of an anatase phase after annealing at 400°C in vacuum. Such heat-treated TiO2 QDs revealed a broad emission peak in the visible range (characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy).
quantum dots; biosensing; TiO2; template methods; nanoporous mask
The requirements for early diagnostics as well as effective treatment of insidious diseases such as cancer constantly increase the pressure on development of efficient and reliable methods for targeted drug/gene delivery as well as imaging of the treatment success/failure. One of the most recent approaches covering both the drug delivery as well as the imaging aspects is benefitting from the unique properties of nanomaterials. Therefore a new field called nanomedicine is attracting continuously growing attention. Nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) and magnetic nanoparticles, have proven their excellent properties for in vivo imaging techniques in a number of modalities such as magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging, respectively. In this article, we review the main properties and applications of nanoparticles in various in vitro imaging techniques, including microscopy and/or laser breakdown spectroscopy and in vivo methods such as magnetic resonance imaging and/or fluorescence-based imaging. Moreover the advantages of the drug delivery performed by nanocarriers such as iron oxides, gold, biodegradable polymers, dendrimers, lipid based carriers such as liposomes or micelles are also highlighted.
imaging techniques; nanoparticles; fluorescence; magnetic resonance imaging
Ellipticine is a potent antineoplastic agent exhibiting multiple mechanisms of action. This anticancer agent should be considered a pro-drug, whose pharmacological efficiency and/or genotoxic side effects are dependent on its cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and/or peroxidase-mediated activation to species forming covalent DNA adducts. Ellipticine can also act as an inhibitor or inducer of biotransformation enzymes, thereby modulating its own metabolism leading to its genotoxic and pharmacological effects. Here, a comparison of the toxicity of ellipticine to human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, leukemia HL-60 and CCRF-CEM cells, neuroblastoma IMR-32, UKF-NB-3 and UKF-NB-4 cells and U87MG glioblastoma cells and mechanisms of its action to these cells were evaluated. Treatment of all cells tested with ellipticine resulted in inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. This effect was associated with formation of two covalent ellipticine-derived DNA adducts, identical to those formed by 13-hydroxy- and 12-hydroxyellipticine, the ellipticine metabolites generated by CYP and peroxidase enzymes, in MCF-7, HL-60, CCRF-CEM, UKF-NB-3, UKF-NB-4 and U87MG cells, but not in neuroblastoma UKF-NB-3 cells. Therefore, DNA adduct formation in most cancer cell lines tested in this comparative study might be the predominant cause of their sensitivity to ellipticine treatment, whereas other mechanisms of ellipticine action also contribute to its cytotoxicity to neuroblastoma UKF-NB-3 cells.
Ellipticine; cancer cell lines; DNA adducts; mechanims of acticancer effects of ellipticine
The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode.
Cadmium, as a hazardous pollutant commonly present in the living environment, represents an important risk to human health due to its undesirable effects (oxidative stress, changes in activities of many enzymes, interactions with biomolecules including DNA and RNA) and consequent potential risk, making its detection very important. New and unique technological and biotechnological approaches for solving this problems are intensely sought. In this study, we used the commonly occurring potential pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus for the determination of markers which could be used for sensing of cadmium(II) ions. We were focused on monitoring the effects of different cadmium(II) ion concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 μg mL−1) on the growth and energetic metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus. Highly significant changes have been detected in the metabolism of thiol compounds—specifically the protein metallothionein (0.79–26.82 mmol/mg of protein), the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (190–5,827 μmol/min/mg of protein), and sulfhydryl groups (9.6–274.3 μmol cysteine/mg of protein). The ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione indicated marked oxidative stress. In addition, dramatic changes in urease activity, which is connected with resistance of bacteria, were determined. Further, the effects of cadmium(II) ions on the metabolic pathways of arginine, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, N-acetyl β-d-glucosamine, sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, maltose, lactose, fructose and total proteins were demonstrated. A metabolomic profile of Staphylococcus aureus under cadmium(II) ion treatment conditions was completed seeking data about the possibility of cadmium(II) ion accumulation in cells. The results demonstrate potential in the application of microorganisms as modern biosensor systems based on biological components.
biosensor; cadmium; Staphylococcus aureus; metabolic activity; metabolome; microbiome; electrochemistry; voltammetry; Brdicka reaction; spectrophotometry; high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.
graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry; high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection; plant tissues; heavy metal; plant; nettle; selenium
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect corn, wheat, oats, barley, rice, and other grains in the field or during storage. The exposure risk to human is directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains) or indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs). It has been detected in buckwheat, popcorn, sorgum, triticale, and other food products including flour, bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, infant foods, pancakes, malt and beer. DON affects animal and human health causing acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever. This review briefly summarizes toxicities of this mycotoxin as well as effects on reproduction and their antagonistic and synergic actions.
Deoxynivalenol (DON); Fusarium; grain; mycotoxin; toxicity
Thiol-rich peptides and proteins possess a large number of biological activities and may serve as markers for numerous health problems including cancer. Metallothionein (MT), a small molecular mass protein rich in cysteine, may be considered as one of the promising tumour markers. The aim of this paper was to employ chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CPSA) for highly sensitive detection of MT.
In this study, we used adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with CPSA for detection of cysteine, glutathione oxidized and reduced, phytochelatin, bovine serum albumin, and metallothionein. Under the optimal conditions, we were able to estimate detection limits down to tens of fg per ml. Further, this method was applied to detect metallothioneins in blood serum obtained from patients with breast cancer and in neuroblastoma cells resistant and sensitive to cisplatin in order to show the possible role of metallothioneins in carcinogenesis. It was found that MT level in blood serum was almost twice higher as compared to the level determined in healthy individuals.
This paper brings unique results on the application of ultra-sensitive electroanalytical method for metallothionein detection. The detection limit and other analytical parameters are the best among the parameters of other techniques. In spite of the fact that the paper is mainly focused on metallothionein, it is worth mentioning that successful detection of other biologically important molecules is possible by this method. Coupling of this method with simple isolation methods such as antibody-modified paramagnetic particles may be implemented to lab–on-chip instrument.
Neuroblastoma, a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, is the most frequent solid extra cranial tumor in children and is a major cause of death from neoplasia in infancy. Still little improvement in therapeutic options has been made, requiring a need for the development of new therapies. In our laboratory, we address still unsettled questions, which of mechanisms of action of DNA-damaging drugs both currently use for treatment of human neuroblastomas (doxorubicin, cis-platin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide) and another anticancer agent decreasing growth of neuroblastomas in vitro, ellipticine, are predominant mechanism(s) responsible for their antitumor action in neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro. Because hypoxia frequently occurs in tumors and strongly correlates with advanced disease and poor outcome caused by chemoresistance, the effects of hypoxia on efficiencies and mechanisms of actions of these drugs in neuroblastomas are also investigated. Since the epigenetic structure of DNA and its lesions play a role in the origin of human neuroblastomas, pharmaceutical manipulation of the epigenome may offer other treatment options also for neuroblastomas. Therefore, the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on growth of neuroblastoma and combination of these compounds with doxorubicin, cis-platin, etoposide and ellipticine as well as mechanisms of such effects in human neuroblastona cell lines in vitro are also investigated. Such a study will increase our knowledge to explain the proper function of these drugs on the molecular level, which should be utilized for the development of new therapies for neuroblastomas.
neuroblastoma; DNA-damaging anticancer drugs; inhibitors of histone deacetylases; mechanisms of acticancer effects of drugs