Polydipsia frequently occurs in schizophrenia patients. The excessive water loading in polydipsia occasionally induces a hyponatremic state and leads to water intoxication. Whether polydipsia in schizophrenic patients correlates with neuropsychological impairments or structural brain changes is not clear and remains controversial.
Eight polydipsic schizophrenia patients, eight nonpolydipsic schizophrenia patients, and eight healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Structural abnormalities were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach, and patients’ neuropsychological function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J).
No significant differences were found between the two patient groups with respect to the clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, polydipsic patients showed widespread brain volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment. Furthermore, the left insula was significantly reduced in polydipsic patients compared with nonpolydipsic patients. These nonpolydipsic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups in the neuropsychological function test.
It is possible that polydipsia or the secondary hyponatremia might induce left insula volume reduction. Furthermore, this structural brain change may indirectly induce more severe neuropsychological impairments in polydipsic patients. Thus, we suggest that insula abnormalities might contribute to the pathophysiology of polydipsic patients.
Schizophrenia; Polydipsia; Volumetry; MRI; Neuropsychological impairment; Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia
Tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in a wide variety of human cancers and plays a critical role in anoikis, which is essential for preventing tumorigenesis. Recently, we found that a nucleolar protein, Myb-binding protein 1a (MYBBP1A), was involved in p53 activation. However, the function of MYBBP1A in cancer prevention has not been elucidated.
Relationships between MYBBP1A expression levels and breast cancer progression were examined using patient microarray databases and tissue microarrays. Colony formation, xenograft, and anoikis assays were conducted using cells in which MYBBP1A was either knocked down or overexpressed. p53 activation and interactions between p53 and MYBBP1A were assessed by immunoprecipitation and western blot.
MYBBP1A expression was negatively correlated with breast cancer tumorigenesis. In vivo and in vitro experiments using the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75-1, which expresses wild type p53, showed that tumorigenesis, colony formation, and anoikis resistance were significantly enhanced by MYBBP1A knockdown. We also found that MYBBP1A binds to p53 and enhances p53 target gene transcription under anoikis conditions.
These results suggest that MYBBP1A is required for p53 activation during anoikis; therefore, it is involved in suppressing colony formation and the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that MYBBP1A plays a role in tumor prevention in the context of p53 activation.
Breast cancer; Tumorigenesis; Anoikis; p53; MYBBP1A
Purpose of review
Excessive bone mineral density (BMD) loss has been associated with schizophrenia, but its mechanisms and clinical implications are less clear. The aim of this review was to summarize the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, we aimed to examine the impact of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone metabolism.
Fifteen of 16 studies (93.8%) reported lower BMD or higher prevalence of osteoporosis in at least one region, or in at least one subgroup of schizophrenia patients compared with controls, but results were inconsistent across measured areas. Higher fracture risk was associated with schizophrenia in 2/2 studies (independently: n = 1), and 3/4 studies with antipsychotics. Reasons for this difference include insufficient exercise, poor nutrition, smoking, alcohol use, and low vitamin D levels. Altogether, 9/15 (60.0%) studies examining the relationship between antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and BMD loss found some effects of hyperprolactinemia. However, results were mixed, samples and effects were small, and only two studies were prospective.
Schizophrenia is associated with reduced BMD and fracture risk. Prevention, early detection, and intervention are required. The relative contributions of antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors remain unclear, needing to be assessed in well designed, prospective studies, including bone turnover markers as intermediary endpoints.
bone mineral density; fracture; osteoporosis; prolactin; schizophrenia
Aims: In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized gaseous molecule that acts as an important signaling molecule in the living body. Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to respond to intracellular reduced oxygen (O2) availability, which is regulated by an elaborate balance between O2 supply and demand. However, the effect of H2S on HIF-1 activity under hypoxic conditions is largely unknown in mammalian cells. In this study, we tried to elucidate the effect of H2S on hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation adopting cultured cells and mice. Results: The H2S donors sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide in pharmacological concentrations reversibly reduced cellular O2 consumption and inhibited hypoxia- but not anoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation and expression of genes downstream of HIF-1 in established cell lines. H2S did not affect HIF-1 activation induced by the HIF-α hydroxylases inhibitors desferrioxamine or CoCl2. Experimental evidence adopting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)- or mitochondria-deficient cells indicated that H2S did not affect neosynthesis of HIF-1α protein but destabilized HIF-1α in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that exogenously administered H2S inhibited HIF-1–dependent gene expression in mice. Innovation: For the first time, we show that H2S modulates intracellular O2 homeostasis and regulates activation of HIF-1 and the subsequent gene expression induced by hypoxia by using an in vitro system with established cell lines and an in vivo system in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate that H2S inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 203–216.
We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum; anaplasmosis; human granulocytic anaplasmosis; Rickettsia japonica; Orientia tsutsugamushi; rickettsiosis; p44/msp2; 16S rDNA; coinfection; Japan; spotted fever group rickettsia; ticks; bacteria
Rickettsiales; Rickettsia; rickettsiae; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Ehrlichia; tickborne infections; spotted fever group; Japanese spotted fever; gltA; 16S rDNA; ompA; p44/msp2; p28/omp-1; bacteria; surveillance; epidemiology; Japan
Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)–a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes–is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions–ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements.
AIM: To investigate the utility of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with an antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis (TB).
METHODS: We retrospectively identified 10 patients (4 males and 6 females; mean age = 65.1 ± 13.6 years) with intestinal TB. Clinical characteristics, including age, gender, underlying disease, and symptoms were obtained. Chest radiograph and laboratory tests, including sputum Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, M. tuberculosis culture, and sputum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for tubercle bacilli DNA, as well as Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT), were examined. Colonoscopic records recorded on the basis of Sato’s classification were also reviewed, in addition to data from intestinal biopsies examined for histopathological findings, including hematoxylin and eosin staining, and ZN staining, as well as M. tuberculosis culture, and PCR for tubercle bacilli DNA. For the present study, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) intestinal tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained using a commercially available species-specific monoclonal antibody to the 38-kDa antigen of the M. tuberculosis complex. These sections were also stained with the pan-macrophage marker CD68 antibody.
RESULTS: From the clinical data, we found that no patients were immunocompromised, and that the main symptoms were diarrhea and weight loss. Three patients displayed active pulmonary TB, six patients (60%) had a positive TST, and 4 patients (40%) had a positive QFT. Colonoscopic findings revealed that all patients had type 1 findings (linear ulcers in a circumferential arrangement or linear ulcers arranged circumferentially with mucosa showing multiple nodules), all of which were located in the right hemicolon and/or terminal ileum. Seven patients (70%) had concomitant healed lesions in the ileocecal area. No acid-fast bacilli were detected with ZN staining of the intestinal tissue samples, and both M. tuberculosis culture and PCR for tubercle bacilli DNA were negative in all samples. The histopathological data revealed that tuberculous granulomas were present in 4 cases (40%). IHC staining in archived FFPE samples with anti-M. tuberculosis monoclonal antibody revealed positive findings in 4 patients (40%); the same patients in which granulomas were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. M. tuberculosis antigens were found to be mostly intracellular, granular in pattern, and primarily located in the CD68+ macrophages of the granulomas.
CONCLUSION: IHC staining with a monoclonal antibody to M. tuberculosis may be an efficient and simple diagnostic tool in addition to classic examination methods for the diagnosis of intestinal TB.
Colonoscopy; Intestinal tuberculosis; Immunohistochemistry; Monoclonal antibody; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Host proteins are incorporated inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions during assembly and can either positively or negatively regulate HIV-1 infection. Although the identification efficiency of host proteins is improved by mass spectrometry, how those host proteins affect HIV-1 replication has not yet been fully clarified.
In this study, we show that virion-associated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) does not allosterically inactivate HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) but decreases the efficiency of reverse transcription reactions by decreasing the packaging efficiency of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) and tRNALys3 into HIV-1 virions. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis demonstrated that some isozymes of GAPDH with different isoelectric points were expressed in HIV-1-producing CEM/LAV-1 cells, and a proportion of GAPDH was selectively incorporated into the virions. Suppression of GAPDH expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in decreased GAPDH packaging inside the virions, and the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus maintained at least control levels of viral production but increased the infectivity. Quantitative analysis of reverse transcription products indicated that the levels of early cDNA products of the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus were higher than those of the control virus owing to the higher packaging efficiencies of LysRS and tRNALys3 into the virions rather than the GAPDH-dependent negative allosteric modulation for RT. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assay using an anti-GAPDH antibody showed that GAPDH directly interacted with Pr55gag and p160gag-pol and the overexpression of LysRS in HIV-1-producing cells resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of GAPDH packaging in HIV particles. In contrast, the viruses produced from cells expressing a high level of GAPDH showed decreased infectivity in TZM-bl cells and reverse transcription efficiency in TZM-bl cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
These findings indicate that GAPDH negatively regulates HIV-1 infection and provide insights into a novel function of GAPDH in the HIV-1 life cycle and a new host defense mechanism against HIV-1 infection.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Lysyl-tRNA synthetase; tRNALys3; Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Despite their origins in different germ layers, pancreatic islet cells share many common developmental features with neurons, especially serotonin-producing neurons in the hindbrain. Therefore, we tested whether these developmental parallels have functional consequences.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used transcriptional profiling, immunohistochemistry, DNA-binding analyses, and mouse genetic models to assess the expression and function of key serotonergic genes in the pancreas.
We found that islet cells expressed the genes encoding all of the products necessary for synthesizing, packaging, and secreting serotonin, including both isoforms of the serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase and the archetypal serotonergic transcription factor Pet1. As in serotonergic neurons, Pet1 expression in islets required homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 but not Nkx6.1. In β-cells, Pet1 bound to the serotonergic genes but also to a conserved insulin gene regulatory element. Mice lacking Pet1 displayed reduced insulin production and secretion and impaired glucose tolerance.
These studies demonstrate that a common transcriptional cascade drives the differentiation of β-cells and serotonergic neurons and imparts the shared ability to produce serotonin. The interrelated biology of these two cell types has important implications for the pathology and treatment of diabetes.
To optimize the management of patients with schizophrenia, quantification of treatment effects is crucial. While in research studies, the use of quantitative assessments is ubiquitous; this is not the case in routine clinical practice, creating an important translational practice gap.
To examine the relevance, methodology, reporting and application of measurement based approaches in the management of schizophrenia.
We summarize methodological aspects in the assessment of therapeutic and adverse antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia, including definitions and methods of measurement based assessments and factors that can interfere with the valid quantification of treatment effects. Finally, we propose pragmatic and clinically meaningful ways to measure and report treatment outcomes.
While rating scales are ubiquitous in schizophrenia research and provide the evidence base for treatment guidelines, time constraints, lack of familiarity with and/or training in validated assessment tools limits their routine clinical use. Simple, but valid assessment instruments need to be developed and implemented to bridge this research-practice gap. Moreover, results from research trials need to be communicated in clinically meaningful ways. This includes the reporting of effect sizes, numbers-needed-to-treat and -harm, confidence intervals and absolute risk differences. Some important outcomes, such as treatment response, should be reported in escalating intervals using incrementally more stringent psychopathology improvements. Nevertheless, even with quantification, it remains challenging to weigh individual efficacy and adverse effect outcomes against each other and to decide on the targeted/desired improvement or outcome, while also incorporating that in patient-centered and shared decision methods.
Quantification of treatment effects in schizophrenia is relevant for patient management, research, and the evaluation of health care systems. Beyond consensus about meaningful outcome definitions, reporting strategies, pragmatic tool development and implementation, the discovery of novel treatment mechanisms and related biomarkers is hoped to advance measurement based approaches in schizophrenia and thereby improve patient outcomes.
Schizophrenia; Measurement; Quantification; Efficacy; Effectiveness; Adverse Effects; Real World
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA), a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is characterized by systemic features, such as spiking fever, salmon-colored macular rash, serositis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and joint inflammation. It is also often complicated with growth retardation, osteoporosis, and sometimes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) develops, a potentially fatal disease. Pathogenesis of SJIA and MAS is not yet fully understood, but activation of the innate immune system, which causes phagocytosis by dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β and IL-18, is thought to be a primary abnormality associated with SJIA. Dysregulated production of IL-6 plays a major role in the development of systemic clinical features. The blockade of IL-6 might thus represent a novel strategy for the treatment of SJIA. Several phase II and III clinical trials of a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, proved its outstanding efficacy and tolerable safety profile for SJIA refractory to conventional treatment regimens. This resulted in the approval of tocilizumab for the treatment of SJIA in Japan, India, the EU and the USA.
Interleukin-6; a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody; systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; tocilizumab
Fragmin/protamine nanoparticles (F/P NPs) have been used as carriers for the preservation and controlled release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and various cytokines in human plasma (HP). This study tested an HP–Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) gel as a three-dimensional (3D) culture for the expansion of adipose tissue-derived multilineage stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The growth of these cells improved in 3D culture using low-concentration HP (2%)–DMEM gel with 0.1 mg/mL F/P NPs and 5 ng/mL FGF-2 without animal serum in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) culture using a low-concentration human serum (2%)–DMEM containing 5 ng/mL FGF-2 on F/P NPs-coated plates. ASCs and BMSCs, which were expanded in the low-concentration HP–DMEM gel with F/P NPs and FGF-2, maintained their multilineage potential for differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts similar to the 2D cultured cells. Furthermore, flow cytometric analyses showed that the phenotypic markers which were positive for CD44, CD90, and CD105 (>80%) and negative for CD34 and CD45 (<1%) were well maintained in both 2D and 3D cultures after 7 days. Thus, this 3D culture system in low-concentration HP–DMEM gel with F/P NPs and FGF-2 provided an effective and safe method for the expansion of both cell types without using animal serum.
cytokine carrier; fragmin/protamine nanoparticles (F/P NPs); plasma-medium gel; three-dimensional (3D) culture
Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with cancer progression. In mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the activities of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial proliferation. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PGC-1α leads to mitochondrial proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2) to rat skeletal muscle induces PGC-1α expression and causes an increase in mitochondrial proliferation. In this study, we utilized a murine model of human MFH to determine the effect of transcutaneous CO2 exposure on PGC-1α expression, mitochondrial proliferation and cellular apoptosis. PGC-1α expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, while mitochondrial proliferation was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was assessed by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine mitochondrial apoptosis. We also evaluated the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins, such as caspases, cytochorome c and Bax, by immunoblot analysis. We show that transcutaneous application of CO2 induces PGC-1α expression, and increases mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly reducing tumor volume. Proteins involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, including caspase 3 and caspase 9, were elevated in CO2 treated tumors compared to control. We also observed an enrichment of cytochrome c in the cytoplasmic fraction and Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction of CO2 treated tumors, highlighting the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. These data indicate that transcutaneous application of CO2 may represent a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of human MFH.
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by sicca symptoms. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and tracheobronchial sicca are the most common symptoms of pulmonary involvement in primary SjS, and they are rarely accompanied by serositis such as pleuritis or pericarditis. We report a case of SS presenting initially with bilateral pleural effusions. A 63-year old man was admitted to our hospital with a one-month history of cough, dyspnea, and right chest pain. Chest-computed tomography revealed bilateral pleural effusions. Serum anti-SS-A antibody titer was 1 : 256. Ophthalmological examination revealed a positive Schirmer test. Lip biopsy showed atrophy and plasmacytic infiltration of the salivary gland. Corticosteroid treatment was initiated. Pleural effusions were almost completely resolved by day 30. The patient has not experienced any recurrence.
CD9 is involved in cell growth, adhesion and motility and its expression is reported to be of prognostic significance in various types of human malignancies. We found increased cell migration in the mesothelioma cell lines MSTO-211H and TUM1 following in vitro shRNA-mediated knockdown of CD9 expression. We investigated CD9 expression in 112 malignant pleural mesotheliomas. CD9 expression was observed in 62 of 71 epithelioid, 13 of 20 biphasic and only 1 of 21 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas. Among the epithelioid mesotheliomas (EMs), CD9 expression was observed in all of the 33 cases with a differentiated type (EM-D) and in 29 of the 38 cases with a less-differentiated type (EM-LD). Patients with CD9 expression showed higher 1- and 2-year survival rates (63 and 25%) compared to the patients without CD9 expression (39 and 11%). Univariate analysis revealed that patients with CD9 expression demonstrated a more favorable survival (P=0.0025) along with other clinicopathological factors, including age younger than 60 years, IMIG stage I–II, epithelioid histology, EM-D and patients who underwent extrapleural pneumonectomy or received chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis identified CD9 expression as an independent prognostic factor with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.99 in the analysis of all mesotheliomas (P=0.0261) and an HR of 2.60 in the analysis of EMs (P=0.0376). CD9 expression is an independent favorable prognostic marker of malignant mesothelioma.
CD9-shRNA; migration; CD9 immunohistochemistry; mesothelioma; survival
The Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that occurred in the afternoon of March 11, 2011, destroyed large parts of Japan’s Tohoku district. Owing to the unfavorable living environment, many diabetic patients in the refuges lost control of their blood glucose levels, and in addition, the high-calorie food provided led to severe postprandial hyperglycemia. We recommend that diabetic patients keep personal stocks of medical supplies and the medication that they require daily, as well as records of their medication. We also recommend the creation of basic guidelines to facilitate the practical prescription of medication for diabetic patients under various conditions that may arise in the aftermath of a natural disaster.
To examine the efficacy of sitagliptin and miglitol when added to ongoing insulin treatment in a patient with type 2 diabetes who had undergone partial gastrectomy.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed and either sitagliptin or miglitol, or both, were added to fixed-dose insulin therapy. Blood was drawn at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after breakfast, and C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured.
CGM showed that compared to insulin alone, the addition of either sitagliptin or miglitol, or both, to insulin achieved better glucose control. Compared to insulin alone, early postprandial increments in plasma C-peptide levels and suppressed glucagon levels were observed when sitagliptin was added. Glucagon suppression was even more prominent when both sitagliptin and miglitol were added. Compared to insulin alone, GLP-1 levels were higher during the early postprandial stage when sitagliptin or miglitol was added and even higher when both were added. GIP levels decreased when sitagliptin or miglitol, or both, were added to insulin therapy.
The authors showed that the addition of sitagliptin or miglitol, or both, was effective in this insulin-treated patient with diabetes who had undergone gastrectomy.
C-peptide; Continuous glucose monitoring; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; Insulin; Miglitol; Sitagliptin; Type 2 diabetes
Some prominent cultured plant cell lines, such as the BY-2 cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. ‘Bright Yellow 2’) and the T87 cell line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh., ecotype Columbia) are used as model plant cells. These suspension cell culture systems are highly applicable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, no such prominent cultured cell lines exist in bamboo species.
We standardized a novel xylogenic suspension culture model in order to unveil the process of lignification in living bamboo cells. Initial signs of lignin deposition were able to be observed by a positive phloroglucinol-HCl reaction at day 3 to 5 under lignification conditions (LG), i.e., modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (m1/2MS) containing 10 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Two types of xylogenic differentiation, both fiber-like elements (FLEs) with cell wall thickening and tracheary elements (TEs) with formation of perforations in the cell wall, were observed under these conditions. The suspension cells rapidly formed secondary cell wall components that were highly lignified, making up approximately 25% of the cells on a dry weight basis within 2 weeks. Detailed features involved in cell growth, differentiation and death during lignification were characterized by laser scanning microscopic imaging. Changes in transcript levels of xylogenesis-related genes were assessed by RT-PCR, which showed that the transcription of key genes like PAL1, C4H, CCoAOMT, and CCR was induced at day 4 under LG conditions. Furthermore, interunit linkage of lignins was compared between mature bamboo culms and xylogenic suspension cells by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy. The presence of the most common interunit linkages, including β-aryl ether (β-O-4), phenylcoumaran (β-5) and resinol (β-β) structures was identified in the bamboo cultured cell lignin (BCCL) by HSQC NMR. In addition to these common features of lignin, several differences in lignin substructures were also found between the BCCL and the bamboo milled wood lignin (BMWL).
Our xylogenic suspension culture model could be used for detailed characterization of physiological and molecular biological events in living bamboo cells.
Bamboo; Lignification; Phyllostachys; Xylogenic suspension culture
Heterotopic pancreas (HP) is typically an asymptomatic malformation that can present anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. It is often detected incidentally on surgery for other diseases or autopsy. We encountered 2 patients with jejunal HP incidentally detected by computed tomography (CT) performed for close evaluation of other diseases. In a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia on the dorsal portion of the pancreas head, CT detected a 15 mm oval-shaped submucosal lesion at the jejunum. In an 87-year-old woman diagnosed with type 2 adenocarcinoma occupying the sigmoid colon, CT detected a round-shaped submucosal tumor 15 mm in diameter in the jejunum. Both cases were histologically diagnosed as type 1 HP according to the classification by Heinrich. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed that the CT analyses of HP and pancreatic parenchyma were nearly identical in the arterial phase, but in the equilibrium phase, contrast enhancement persisted longer in HP than in the pancreatic parenchyma. There has been no report of asymptomatic jejunal HP preoperatively diagnosed by CT. These cases are presented with a review of the literature, particularly focusing on CT findings.
Heterotopic pancreas; Computed tomography; Small bowel submucosal tumor; Incidentaloma; Capsule endoscopy
Although common in psychiatric practice, reasons for antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) have remained unclear.
Single-site, semi-structured interview study of prescribers at a psychiatric teaching hospital inquiring about AAP attitudes and behaviors, including frequency, preferred combinations, rationale and concerns.
Forty-four prescribers reported using AAP in 17.0±10.0% of antipsychotic-treated patients. Although clinicians themselves initiated APP in only 23.3±27.0% of cases, they did not attempt conversion to antipsychotic monotherapy in 40.9±37.7%, despite reported successful conversion in 28.0±30.8% of cases. The following reasons justified most APP (0–10): cross-titration (9.2±1.4), failed clozapine trial (8.2±2.2), randomized controlled evidence (8.0±2.0), and clozapine intolerance (7.7±2.6). Prescribers felt “moderately” (5.0±1.9) concerned about APP (0–10), mostly due to chronic side effects (7.6±2.0), lack of evidence (7.1±2.2), non-adherence risk (6.7±2.3) and mortality risk (6.7±3.2), while increased cost (4.9±2.5) and higher total antipsychotic dose (4.2±2.9) ranked lowest. Comparing high with low APP prescribers (>10% vs. ≤10% of patients; mean: 36.1±19.8 vs. 3.4±3.4, p<0.0001), no differences emerged on 25/26 ratings regarding APP justification and 9/9 ratings regarding concerns. In a multivariate analyses, only attending status (OR=10.3, p=0.0043) and endorsing a specific APP preference (OR=21.4, p=0.011) predicted APP use >10% (r2:0.35, p<0.0001), yet no uniformly preferred APP strategy emerged.
High APP prescribers had more clinical experience, less concerns about APP and more likely a preferred APP choice, although no overall preferred strategy emerged. Otherwise, high and low APP prescribers shared attitudes toward APP. Both had inherited most of their APP cases and were reluctant to convert patients to antipsychotic monotherapy.
Antipsychotics; Polypharmacy; Schizophrenia; Reasons; Prescriber; Attitudes
The antagonism of CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with AMD3100 improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction by augmenting the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow to the regenerating vasculature. We investigated whether AMD3100 may accelerate diabetes-impaired wound healing through a similar mechanism. Skin wounds were made on the backs of leptin-receptor–deficient mice and treated with AMD3100 or saline. Fourteen days after treatment, wound closure was significantly more complete in AMD3100-treated mice (AMD3100: 87.0±2.6%, Saline: 33.1±1.8%; P<0.0001) and was accompanied by greater collagen-fiber formation, capillary density, smooth-muscle-containing vessel density, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. On day 7 after treatment, AMD3100 was associated with higher circulating EPC and macrophage counts and with significantly upregulated mRNA levels of stromal-cell–derived factor 1 and platelet-derived growth-factor B in the wound bed. AMD3100 also promoted macrophage proliferation and phagocytosis and the migration and proliferation of diabetic mouse primary dermal fibroblasts and 3T3 fibroblasts, which express very little CXCR4. In conclusion, a single topical application of AMD3100 promoted wound healing in diabetic mice by increasing cytokine production, mobilizing bone-marrow EPCs, and enhancing the activity of fibroblasts and monocytes/macrophages, thereby increasing both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Not all of the AMD3100-mediated effects evolved through CXCR4 antagonism.
Diabetes; Angiogenesis; Wound healing
We have previously developed a telomerase-specific replicating adenovirus expressing GFP (OBP-401), which can selectively label tumors in vivo with GFP. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OBP-401 specifically labeled peritoneal tumors with GFP, enabling fluorescence visualization of the disseminated disease and real-time fluorescence surgical navigation. However, the technical problems with removing all cancer cells still remain, even with fluorescence-guided surgery. In this study, we report imaging of tumor recurrence after fluorescence-guided surgery of tumors labeled in vivo with the telomerase-dependent, GFP-containing adenovirus OBP-401.. Recurrent tumor nodules brightly expressed GFP, indicating that initial OBP-401-GFP labeling of peritoneal disease was genetically stable, such that proliferating residual cancer cells still express GFP. In situ tumor labeling with a genetic reporter has important advantages over antibody and other non-genetic labeling of tumors, since residual disease remains labeled during recurrence and can be further resected under fluorescence guidance.
green fluorescent protein; adenovirus; cancer labeling; in situ; fluorescence-guided surgery; recurrence; detection
Gene downregulation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) is achieved by either hybridization around the translation initiation codon or by targeting the splice donor site. In the present study, an antisense MO method is introduced that uses a 25-mer MO against a region at least 40-nt upstream from a poly(A) tail junction in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of maternal mRNA. The MO removed the poly(A) tail and blocked zebrafish cdk9 (zcdk9) mRNA translation, showing functional mimicry between miRNA and MO. A PCR-based assay revealed MO-mediated specific poly(A) tail removal of zebrafish mRNAs, including those for cyclin B1, cyclin B2 and tbp. The MO activity targeting cyclins A and B mRNAs was validated in unfertilized starfish oocytes and eggs. The MO removed the elongated poly(A) tail from maternal matured mRNA. This antisense method introduces a new application for the targeted downregulation of maternal mRNAs in animal oocytes, eggs and early embryos.
The 22q11.2 microdeletion is one of the highest genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not well understood which interactions of deleted genes in 22q11.2 regions are responsible for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but catechol-O-methytransferase (COMT) is among the candidates. Df1/+ mice are 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) model mice with a hemizygous deletion of 18 genes in the 22q11-related region. Df1/+ mice showed enhanced response to the dopamine D1 agonist, SKF38393, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, MK801, which can be normalized by a GABAA receptor agonist, bretazenil, or a GABAA α2/α3 receptor agonist, SL651498. Here, we demonstrated the curing effects of virus-mediated reintroduction of Comt to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in Df1/+ mice. In contrast, both Comt overexpression and Comt inhibition caused an abnormal responsiveness to Bretazenil, a GABAA receptor agonist in control mice. Comt overexpression increased MK801-induced interneuronal activation and GABA release in the PFC. The expression levels of GABA-related genes such as Gabrb2 (GABAAreceptor β2), Gad2 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (Gad65)) and Reln (Reelin) correlate with a Comt expression level in PFC. Our data suggest that Comt-mediated regulation of GABAergic system might be involved in the behavioral pathogenesis of Df1/+ mice.
Comt; 22q11 deletion syndrome; interneuron; mouse models; schizophrenia