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1.  Differential patterns of blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex between patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis and schizophrenia 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12107.
Despite some slight differences in symptomatology, differential diagnosis of methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MAP) versus schizophrenia can be challenging because both disorders present a large overlap in their clinical symptoms. However, a recent study has shown that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) performed during a cognitive task can be a powerful tool to differentiate between these two disorders. Here, we evaluated verbal fluency task performance during NIRS in 15 patients diagnosed with MAP and 19 with schizophrenia matched for age and sex. We used prefrontal probes and a 24-channel NIRS machine to measure the relative concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin every 0.1 s during the task. For each patient, the neurocognitive function and clinical psychopathology were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Oxyhaemoglobin changes in the prefrontal cortex were significantly higher in the MAP group compared to those in the schizophrenia group, particularly in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, we found no significant difference in PANSS and BACS scores. Our findings suggest that NIRS measurement could be applied to differentiate patients with MAP from those with schizophrenia, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar.
doi:10.1038/srep12107
PMCID: PMC4503985  PMID: 26178613
2.  Prefrontal dysfunction in pediatric Tourette’s disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy 
BMC Psychiatry  2015;15:102.
Background
Tourette’s disorder (TD) is a chronic childhood-onset disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of TD involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, in vivo imaging studies have produced conflicting results. Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology have enabled noninvasive assessment of brain function in people with psychiatric disorders.
Methods
We asked 10 individuals with pediatric TD and 10 healthy controls who were age- and sex- matched to perform the Stroop color-word task during NIRS. We used prefrontal probes and a 24-channel NIRS machine to measure the relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) every 0.1 s during the task.
Results
We found that oxy-Hb changes in the prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the TD group compared with the control group, especially in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that individuals with pediatric TD have a reduced prefrontal hemodynamic response as measured by NIRS.
doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0472-3
PMCID: PMC4422308  PMID: 25934008
Near-infrared spectroscopy; Tourette’s disorder; The Stroop Color-Word Task; Tics; Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
3.  Brain structural changes and neuropsychological impairments in male polydipsic schizophrenia 
BMC Psychiatry  2012;12:210.
Background
Polydipsia frequently occurs in schizophrenia patients. The excessive water loading in polydipsia occasionally induces a hyponatremic state and leads to water intoxication. Whether polydipsia in schizophrenic patients correlates with neuropsychological impairments or structural brain changes is not clear and remains controversial.
Methods
Eight polydipsic schizophrenia patients, eight nonpolydipsic schizophrenia patients, and eight healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Structural abnormalities were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach, and patients’ neuropsychological function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J).
Results
No significant differences were found between the two patient groups with respect to the clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, polydipsic patients showed widespread brain volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment. Furthermore, the left insula was significantly reduced in polydipsic patients compared with nonpolydipsic patients. These nonpolydipsic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups in the neuropsychological function test.
Conclusions
It is possible that polydipsia or the secondary hyponatremia might induce left insula volume reduction. Furthermore, this structural brain change may indirectly induce more severe neuropsychological impairments in polydipsic patients. Thus, we suggest that insula abnormalities might contribute to the pathophysiology of polydipsic patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-210
PMCID: PMC3532364  PMID: 23181904
Schizophrenia; Polydipsia; Volumetry; MRI; Neuropsychological impairment; Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia
4.  Transport through recycling endosomes requires EHD1 recruitment by a phosphatidylserine translocase 
The EMBO Journal  2015;34(5):669-688.
P4-ATPases translocate aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), to the cytosolic leaflet of membranes. PS is highly enriched in recycling endosomes (REs) and is essential for endosomal membrane traffic. Here, we show that PS flipping by an RE-localized P4-ATPase is required for the recruitment of the membrane fission protein EHD1. Depletion of ATP8A1 impaired the asymmetric transbilayer distribution of PS in REs, dissociated EHD1 from REs, and generated aberrant endosomal tubules that appear resistant to fission. EHD1 did not show membrane localization in cells defective in PS synthesis. ATP8A2, a tissue-specific ATP8A1 paralogue, is associated with a neurodegenerative disease (CAMRQ). ATP8A2, but not the disease-causative ATP8A2 mutant, rescued the endosomal defects in ATP8A1-depleted cells. Primary neurons from Atp8a2−/− mice showed a reduced level of transferrin receptors at the cell surface compared to Atp8a2+/+ mice. These findings demonstrate the role of P4-ATPase in membrane fission and give insight into the molecular basis of CAMRQ.
doi:10.15252/embj.201489703
PMCID: PMC4365035  PMID: 25595798
ATP8A1; EHD1; phosphatidylserine; phospholipid flippase; recycling endosomes
5.  Differences in the Spatial Variability Among CO2, CH4, and N2O Gas Fluxes from an Urban Forest Soil in Japan 
Ambio  2014;44(1):55-66.
The spatial variability of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from forest soil with high nitrogen (N) deposition was investigated at a rolling hill region in Japan. Gas fluxes were measured on July 25th and December 5th, 2008 at 100 points within a 100 × 100 m grid. Slope direction and position influenced soil characteristics and site-specific emissions were found. The CO2 flux showed no topological difference in July, but was significantly lower in December for north-slope with coniferous trees. Spatial dependency of CH4 fluxes was stronger than that of CO2 or N2O and showed a significantly higher uptake in hill top, and emissions in the valley indicating strong influence of water status. N2O fluxes showed no spatial dependency and exhibited high hot spots at different topology in July and December. The high N deposition led to high N2O fluxes and emphasized the spatial variability.
doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0521-z
PMCID: PMC4293362  PMID: 24736940
Carbon dioxide; Methane; Nitrous oxide; Rolling hill; Spatial variability; Urban forest
6.  Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation 
Kato, Norihiro | Loh, Marie | Takeuchi, Fumihiko | Verweij, Niek | Wang, Xu | Zhang, Weihua | Kelly, Tanika N | Saleheen, Danish | Lehne, Benjamin | Leach, Irene Mateo | Drong, Alexander W | Abbott, James | Wahl, Simone | Tan, Sian-Tsung | Scott, William R | Campanella, Gianluca | Chadeau-Hyam, Marc | Afzal, Uzma | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S | Bonder, Marc Jan | Chen, Peng | Dehghan, Abbas | Edwards, Todd L | Esko, Tõnu | Go, Min Jin | Harris, Sarah E | Hartiala, Jaana | Kasela, Silva | Kasturiratne, Anuradhani | Khor, Chiea-Chuen | Kleber, Marcus E | Li, Huaixing | Yu Mok, Zuan | Nakatochi, Masahiro | Sapari, Nur Sabrina | Saxena, Richa | Stewart, Alexandre F R | Stolk, Lisette | Tabara, Yasuharu | Teh, Ai Ling | Wu, Ying | Wu, Jer-Yuarn | Zhang, Yi | Aits, Imke | Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexessander | Das, Shikta | Dorajoo, Rajkumar | Hopewell, Jemma C | Kim, Yun Kyoung | Koivula, Robert W | Luan, Jian’an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Nguyen, Quang N | Pereira, Mark A | Postmus, Iris | Raitakari, Olli T | Bryan, Molly Scannell | Scott, Robert A | Sorice, Rossella | Tragante, Vinicius | Traglia, Michela | White, Jon | Yamamoto, Ken | Zhang, Yonghong | Adair, Linda S | Ahmed, Alauddin | Akiyama, Koichi | Asif, Rasheed | Aung, Tin | Barroso, Inês | Bjonnes, Andrew | Braun, Timothy R | Cai, Hui | Chang, Li-Ching | Chen, Chien-Hsiun | Cheng, Ching-Yu | Chong, Yap-Seng | Collins, Rory | Courtney, Regina | Davies, Gail | Delgado, Graciela | Do, Loi D | Doevendans, Pieter A | Gansevoort, Ron T | Gao, Yu-Tang | Grammer, Tanja B | Grarup, Niels | Grewal, Jagvir | Gu, Dongfeng | Wander, Gurpreet S | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hazen, Stanley L | He, Jing | Heng, Chew-Kiat | Hixson, James E | Hofman, Albert | Hsu, Chris | Huang, Wei | Husemoen, Lise L N | Hwang, Joo-Yeon | Ichihara, Sahoko | Igase, Michiya | Isono, Masato | Justesen, Johanne M | Katsuya, Tomohiro | Kibriya, Muhammad G | Kim, Young Jin | Kishimoto, Miyako | Koh, Woon-Puay | Kohara, Katsuhiko | Kumari, Meena | Kwek, Kenneth | Lee, Nanette R | Lee, Jeannette | Liao, Jiemin | Lieb, Wolfgang | Liewald, David C M | Matsubara, Tatsuaki | Matsushita, Yumi | Meitinger, Thomas | Mihailov, Evelin | Milani, Lili | Mills, Rebecca | Mononen, Nina | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nabika, Toru | Nakashima, Eitaro | Ng, Hong Kiat | Nikus, Kjell | Nutile, Teresa | Ohkubo, Takayoshi | Ohnaka, Keizo | Parish, Sarah | Paternoster, Lavinia | Peng, Hao | Peters, Annette | Pham, Son T | Pinidiyapathirage, Mohitha J | Rahman, Mahfuzar | Rakugi, Hiromi | Rolandsson, Olov | Ann Rozario, Michelle | Ruggiero, Daniela | Sala, Cinzia F | Sarju, Ralhan | Shimokawa, Kazuro | Snieder, Harold | Sparsø, Thomas | Spiering, Wilko | Starr, John M | Stott, David J | Stram, Daniel O | Sugiyama, Takao | Szymczak, Silke | Tang, W H Wilson | Tong, Lin | Trompet, Stella | Turjanmaa, Väinö | Ueshima, Hirotsugu | Uitterlinden, André G | Umemura, Satoshi | Vaarasmaki, Marja | van Dam, Rob M | van Gilst, Wiek H | van Veldhuisen, Dirk J | Viikari, Jorma S | Waldenberger, Melanie | Wang, Yiqin | Wang, Aili | Wilson, Rory | Wong, Tien-Yin | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Yamaguchi, Shuhei | Ye, Xingwang | Young, Robin D | Young, Terri L | Yuan, Jian-Min | Zhou, Xueya | Asselbergs, Folkert W | Ciullo, Marina | Clarke, Robert | Deloukas, Panos | Franke, Andre | Franks, Paul W | Franks, Steve | Friedlander, Yechiel | Gross, Myron D | Guo, Zhirong | Hansen, Torben | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jørgensen, Torben | Jukema, J Wouter | kähönen, Mika | Kajio, Hiroshi | Kivimaki, Mika | Lee, Jong-Young | Lehtimäki, Terho | Linneberg, Allan | Miki, Tetsuro | Pedersen, Oluf | Samani, Nilesh J | Sørensen, Thorkild I A | Takayanagi, Ryoichi | Toniolo, Daniela | Ahsan, Habibul | Allayee, Hooman | Chen, Yuan-Tsong | Danesh, John | Deary, Ian J | Franco, Oscar H | Franke, Lude | Heijman, Bastiaan T | Holbrook, Joanna D | Isaacs, Aaron | Kim, Bong-Jo | Lin, Xu | Liu, Jianjun | März, Winfried | Metspalu, Andres | Mohlke, Karen L | Sanghera, Dharambir K | Shu, Xiao-Ou | van Meurs, Joyce B J | Vithana, Eranga | Wickremasinghe, Ananda R | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H W | Yokota, Mitsuhiro | Zheng, Wei | Zhu, Dingliang | Vineis, Paolo | Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A | Kleinjans, Jos C S | McCarthy, Mark I | Soong, Richie | Gieger, Christian | Scott, James | Teo, Yik-Ying | He, Jiang | Elliott, Paul | Tai, E Shyong | van der Harst, Pim | Kooner, Jaspal S | Chambers, John C
Nature genetics  2015;47(11):1282-1293.
We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10−11 to 5.0 × 10−21). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (IGFBP3, KCNK3, PDE3A and PRDM6) and renal (ARHGAP24, OSR1, SLC22A7 and TBX2) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10−6). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation.
doi:10.1038/ng.3405
PMCID: PMC4719169  PMID: 26390057
7.  Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging 
Cell Cycle  2015;14(6):808-819.
The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.
doi:10.1080/15384101.2014.1000685
PMCID: PMC4614530  PMID: 25564963
cell cycle; chemotherapy; FUCCI; Gelfoam®; GFP; imaging; RFP; stomach cancer; Three dimensional-histoculture culture
8.  The utility of human dedifferentiated fat cells in bone tissue engineering in vitro 
Cytotechnology  2013;67(1):75-84.
We compared the osteoblastic differentiation abilities of dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a cell source for bone regeneration therapies. In addition, the utility of DFATs in bone tissue engineering in vitro was assessed by an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/collagen sponge (CS). Human DFATs were isolated from the submandibular of a patient by ceiling culture. DFATs and hMSCs at passage 3 were cultured in control medium or osteogenic medium (OM) for 14 days. Runx2 gene expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as well as osteocalcin (OCN) and calcium contents were analyzed to evaluate the osteoblastic differentiation ability of both cell types. DFATs seeded in a α-TCP/CS and cultured in OM for 14 days were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histologically. Compared with hMSCs, DFATs cultured in OM generally underwent superior osteoblastogenesis by higher Runx2 gene expression at all days tested, as well as higher ALP activity at day 3 and 7, OCN expression at day 14, and calcium content at day 7. In SEM analyses, DFATs seeded in a α-TCP/CS were well spread and covered the α-TCP/CS by day 7. In addition, numerous spherical deposits were found to almost completely cover the α-TCP/CS on day 14. Von Kossa staining showed that DFATs differentiated into osteoblasts in the α-TCP/CS and formed cultured bone by deposition of a mineralized extracellular matrix. The combined use of DFATs and an α-TCP/CS may be an attractive option for bone tissue engineering.
doi:10.1007/s10616-013-9659-y
PMCID: PMC4294844  PMID: 24306271
Dedifferentiated fat cells; Ceiling culture; Alpha-tricalcium phosphate/collagen sponge; Bone tissue engineering
9.  Color-coding cancer and stromal cells with genetic reporters in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of pancreatic cancer enhances fluorescence-guided surgery 
Cancer gene therapy  2015;22(7):344-350.
Precise fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) for pancreatic cancer has the potential to greatly improve the outcome in this recalcitrant disease. In order to achieve this goal, we have used genetic reporters to color code cancer and stroma cells in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The telomerase-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing adenovirus OBP401 was used to label the cancer cells of the pancreatic cancer PDOX. The PDOX was previously grown in a red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mouse that stably labeled the PDOX stroma cells bright red. The color-coded PDOX model enabled FGS to completely resect the pancreatic tumors including stroma. Dual-colored FGS significantly prevented local recurrence, which bright-light surgery (BLS) or single color could not. FGS, with color-coded cancer and stroma cells has important potential for improving the outcome of recalcitrant cancer.
doi:10.1038/cgt.2015.26
PMCID: PMC4523223  PMID: 26088297
fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS); patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX); adenovirus OBP-401; green fluorescent protein; GFP; red fluorescent protein; RFP; pancreatic cancer; stroma; color-coded fluorescence imaging
10.  Comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and CyberKnife® for initial solitary hepatocellular carcinoma: A pilot study 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2015;21(48):13490-13499.
AIM: To compare therapeutic outcomes and adverse events in initial solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and CyberKnife®.
METHODS: Seventy three consecutive patients with initial solitary HCC treated with RFA (38 patients; RFA group) and CyberKnife® (35 patients; CK group) were enrolled in this study. Background factors were compared between the two groups. Local and intrahepatic distant recurrence control, and cumulative survival rates were compared between the two groups. These were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of differences was analyzed by log-rank test. The presence of more grade 3 on CTCAE ver. 4.0 early and late adverse events was investigated.
RESULTS: In background factors, age was significantly higher (P = 0.005) and the tumor diameter was significantly larger (P = 0.001) in the CK group. The 1-year local recurrence control rates were 97.4% and 97.1% in the RFA and CK groups, respectively (P = 0.71); the 1-year intrahepatic distant recurrence control rates were 85.6% and 86.1%, respectively (P = 0.91); and the 1-year cumulative survival rates were 100% and 95.2%, respectively (P = 0.075), showing no significant difference in any rate between the two groups. There were no late adverse event in the RFA group, but 11.4% in the CK group had late adverse events. In the CK group, the Child-Pugh score at 12 mo after treatment was significantly higher than that in the RFA group (P = 0.003) and significantly higher than the score before treatment (P = 0.034).
CONCLUSION: The occurrence of adverse events is a concern, but CyberKnife® treatment is likely to become an important option for local treatment of early HCC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i48.13490
PMCID: PMC4690178  PMID: 26730160
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiofrequency ablation; Stereotactic body radiotherapy; CyberKnife®; Adverse event
11.  Histological evaluation for chemotherapeutic responses of metastatic lymph nodes in gastric cancer 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2015;21(48):13500-13506.
AIM: To investigate the effect of preoperative chemotherapy (pre-CTx) for metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) of gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with advanced GC, who underwent pre-CTx followed by gastrectomy, was reviewed. The histological tumor regression grade (TRG), which considered the percentage of residual cancer in the visible tumor bed, was applied to primary tumors and individual MLNs: G1a (complete response), G1b (< 10%), G2 (10%-50%) and G3 (> 50%). The clinical response to pre-CTx was retrospectively evaluated using only MLNs information, and we compared the histological and clinical evaluations of MLNs.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were enrolled. A total of 438 MLNs were retrieved, and 22 (5%), 48 (11%), 63 (14%) and 305 (70%) LNs were assigned as G1a, G1b, G2 and G3, respectively. Stratification of the residual MLNs based on the TRGs was as follows: 28 G1b MLNs (9%), 48 G2 MLNs (15%), and 253 G3 MLNs (76%) in the D1 region; 20 (23%), 15 (17%), and 52 (60%) in the D2 region, respectively. However, no significant correlation was found between TRGs in MLNs and clinical response in the subgroup for which evaluation of clinical response was available.
CONCLUSION: Pre-CTx does not provide any outstanding histological benefit for MLNs, and an appropriate D2 lymphadenectomy should routinely be performed to offer the chance of curative resection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i48.13500
PMCID: PMC4690179  PMID: 26730161
Preoperative chemotherapy; Gastric cancer; Metastatic lymph node; Histological regression grade; Lymphadenectomy
12.  Establishment of an Animal Model of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rats 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144355.
Background
We evaluated the side effects of bisphosphonate (BP) on tooth extraction socket healing in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, an established model of non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus, to develop an animal model of BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ).
Materials and Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and SDT rats were randomly assigned to the zoledronic acid (ZOL)-treated groups (SD/ZOL or SDT/ZOL) or to the control groups (SD/control or SDT/control). Rats in the SD/ZOL or SDT/ZOL groups received an intravenous bolus injection of ZOL (35 μg/kg) every 2 weeks. Each group consisted of 6 rats each. Twenty-one weeks after ZOL treatment began, the left maxillary molars were extracted. The rats were euthanized at 2, 4, or 8 weeks after tooth extraction, and the total maxillae were harvested for histological and histochemical studies.
Results
In the oral cavity, bone exposure persisted at the tooth extraction site in all rats of the SDT/ZOL group until 8 weeks after tooth extraction. In contrast, there was no bone exposure in SD/control or SDT/control groups, and only 1 of 6 rats in the SD/ZOL group showed bone exposure. Histologically, necrotic bone areas with empty lacunae, microbial colonies, and less invasion by inflammatory cells were observed. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts was lower in the SDT/ZOL group than in the SD/control group. The mineral apposition rate was significantly lower in the SDT/ZOL group compared with the SD/control group.
Conclusions
This study demonstrated the development of BRONJ-like lesions in rats and suggested that low bone turnover with less inflammatory cell infiltration plays an important role in the development of BRONJ.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144355
PMCID: PMC4684366  PMID: 26659123
13.  Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese 
Nutrients  2015;7(12):10269-10281.
Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.
doi:10.3390/nu7125530
PMCID: PMC4690082  PMID: 26690212
polyphenol; consumption; beverage; food; elderly; coffee; green tea
14.  Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion 
Pulmonary Medicine  2015;2015:416179.
There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.
doi:10.1155/2015/416179
PMCID: PMC4672131  PMID: 26689234
15.  Lymphoproliferative disorder in pleural effusion in a subject with past asbestos exposure 
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that presents as serous effusions without detectable masses or organomegaly. Here we report a case of PEL-like lymphoma in a patient with past asbestos exposure. A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion. He had been exposed to asbestos for three years in the construction industry. Chest X-ray and CT images demonstrated left pleural effusion. Cytological analysis of the pleural effusion revealed large atypical lymphocytes with distinct nuclear bodies and high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the cells were CD20+, CD3−, CD5−, and CD10−. These findings led to a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PEL or PEL-like lymphoma should be considered a potential cause of pleural effusion in subjects with past asbestos exposure.
doi:10.1016/j.rmcr.2015.11.002
PMCID: PMC4681999  PMID: 26744692
Asbestos; Lymphoma; Mesothelioma; Pleural effusion; Thoracoscopy; PEL, primary effusion lymphoma; HHV, human herpesvirus; CT, computed tomography; DLBCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
16.  ATP generation in a host cell in early-phase infection is increased by upregulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity via the p2 peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag 
Retrovirology  2015;12:97.
Background
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) must take advantage of its own proteins with two or more functions to successfully replicate. Although many attempts have been made to determine the function of viral proteins encoded in the HIV-1 genome, the role of the p2 peptide, a spacer between the capsid and the nucleocapsid in HIV-1 Gag in early-phase HIV infection still remains unclarified.
Results
In this study, we show that the p2 peptide enhances HIV-1 acute infection by increasing intracellular ATP production via the activation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (MT-CO) involved in the respiratory chain. We found that cell-permeable p2-peptide-treated cells were more effectively infected by HIV-1 than control cells. To characterize the effect of the p2 peptide on HIV-1 replication in MAGIC-5 cells, various HIV-1 cDNA products were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of the late (R/gag), 2-LTR circular (2-LTR), and integrated (Alu) forms of viral cDNAs increased in the presence of the p2 peptide. Interestingly, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a novel interaction between the p2 peptide and the mitochondrial intermembrane space domain (N214–F235) of MT-CO subunit I (MT-CO1). Mutational analysis indicated that Gln6 in the p2 peptide is important for the interaction with MT-CO1. The p2 peptide activated MT-CO1 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, and fluorescence-microscopy analysis demonstrated that the p2 peptide had a significant effect on mitochondrial targeting. Furthermore, the analysis of HIV-1 lacking a functional p2 peptide demonstrated the inhibition of intracellular ATP production in MT-4 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and a decrease in reverse transcription efficiency following infection of MT-4 cells and MDMs.
Conclusions
These findings provide evidence that the p2 peptide is a viral positive allosteric modulator of MT-CO and the increased intracellular ATP production after HIV infection in a p2-peptide-dependent manner is essential for efficient reverse transcription in early-phase HIV-1 infection.
doi:10.1186/s12977-015-0224-y
PMCID: PMC4650201  PMID: 26577226
p2 peptide; MT-CO; MT-CO1; Intracellular ATP production; HIV-1
17.  Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R decoys quiescent cancer cells to cycle as visualized by FUCCI imaging and become sensitive to chemotherapy 
Cell Cycle  2014;13(24):3958-3963.
Quiescent cancer cells are resistant to cytotoxic agents which target only proliferating cancer cells. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) decoyed cancer cells in monolayer culture and in tumor spheres to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, as demonstrated by fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging. A1-R infection of FUCCI-expressing subcutaneous tumors growing in nude mice also decoyed quiescent cancer cells, which were the majority of the cells in the tumors, to cycle from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, thereby making them sensitive to cytotoxic agents. The combination of A1-R and cisplatinum or paclitaxel reduced tumor size compared with A1-R monotherapy or cisplatinum or paclitaxel alone. The results of this study demonstrate that A1-R can decoy quiescent cancer cells to cycle to S/G2/M and sensitize them to cytotoxic chemotherapy. These results suggest a new paradigm of bacterial-decoy chemotherapy of cancer.
doi:10.4161/15384101.2014.964115
PMCID: PMC4615054  PMID: 25483077
cell cycle; chemotherapy; decoy; FUCCI; GFP; RFP; imaging; S. typhimurium A1-R; tumor-targeting bacteria
18.  Smoking bans in mental health hospitals in Japan: barriers to implementation 
Background
A number of studies have reported that smoking rates are higher and smoking cessation rates are lower in patients with mental disorders than in the general population. Despite the harmful effects of smoking, implementing total smoking bans in mental health hospitals is difficult. We investigate the status of smoking bans and the barriers to the implementation of total smoking bans in Japanese mental health hospitals.
Methods
A questionnaire survey was administered to the directors of 1242 Japanese mental health hospitals in March 2013.
Results
Forty-nine percent (n = 612) of the hospital directors responded. Of these, 24 % implemented total smoking bans and 14 % limited the bans to hospital buildings. In 66 and 68 % of the remaining hospitals, smoking rooms were located in open and closed wards, respectively, and completely separate from nonsmoking areas. Hospitals that had not implemented total smoking bans were concerned that introducing a total ban would exacerbate patients’ psychiatric symptoms (46 %) or increase the incidence of surreptitious smoking (65 %). However, of the hospitals that had implemented total smoking bans, only 2 and 30 % identified “aggravation of psychiatric symptoms” and “increased surreptitious smoking” as disadvantages, respectively. The other concerns regarding the implementation of total smoking bans were staff opposition (21 %) and incidence of smoking around hospital grounds (46 %). These concerns were overcome by educating staff about smoking and cleaning the area around the hospital.
Conclusions
There are some barriers to implementing total smoking bans in Japanese mental health hospitals. However, our study indicates that implementation of total smoking bans in mental health hospitals was minimally problematic and that barriers to the implementation of smoking bans could be overcome. As the current number of hospitals that have implemented total smoking bans is low in Japan, more hospitals should introduce total smoking bans.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0076-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0076-9
PMCID: PMC4625877  PMID: 26516338
Smoking ban; Mental health hospital; Psychiatric symptoms; Tobacco; Japan
19.  Intensity of statin therapy and new hospitalizations for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Objective
To examine a relationship between statin intensity and heart failure (HF) incidence in diabetes.
Research design and methods
We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes (n=600; age, 66.3 years; men, 68%). Patients were categorized into three groups by baseline statin treatments—moderate-intensity, low-intensity, or no statin—and the independent association between the statin category and HF hospitalization during follow-up was examined.
Results
Over the course of the median 6-year follow-up, 17.7% of the patients were hospitalized for HF. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant association between the baseline statin category and HF incidence (p=0.002), independently of age, sex, hypertension, B-type natriuretic peptide, glycated hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The moderate-intensity statin group had a significantly lower risk for HF than the low-intensity statin group with an adjusted HR of 0.31 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.65, p=0.0014). Interestingly, among patients with prevalent coronary artery diseases (CAD) and with baseline LDL controlled to less than 100 mg/dL, the frequency of HF was still significantly lower in the moderate-intensity group than in the low-intensity group or the no statin group. The effect of baseline statin category on HF was independent of incident CAD events during follow-up.
Conclusions
In type 2 diabetes, moderate-intensity statins, in comparison to low-intensity or no statin, were associated with lower HF incidence independently of LDL levels or of CAD events.
doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000137
PMCID: PMC4636543  PMID: 26566447
Heart Failure; Cardiovascular Disease Risk; Coronary Artery Disease; Cholesterol
20.  Bacterial transcriptome reorganization in thermal adaptive evolution 
BMC Genomics  2015;16:802.
Background
Evolution optimizes a living system at both the genome and transcriptome levels. Few studies have investigated transcriptome evolution, whereas many studies have explored genome evolution in experimentally evolved cells. However, a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary mechanisms requires knowledge of how evolution shapes gene expression. Here, we analyzed Escherichia coli strains acquired during long-term thermal adaptive evolution.
Results
Evolved and ancestor Escherichia coli cells were exponentially grown under normal and high temperatures for subsequent transcriptome analysis. We found that both the ancestor and evolved cells had comparable magnitudes of transcriptional change in response to heat shock, although the evolutionary progression of their expression patterns during exponential growth was different at either normal or high temperatures. We also identified inverse transcriptional changes that were mediated by differences in growth temperatures and genotypes, as well as negative epistasis between genotype—and heat shock-induced transcriptional changes. Principal component analysis revealed that transcriptome evolution neither approached the responsive state at the high temperature nor returned to the steady state at the regular temperature. We propose that the molecular mechanisms of thermal adaptive evolution involve the optimization of steady-state transcriptomes at high temperatures without disturbing the heat shock response.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that transcriptome evolution works to maintain steady-state gene expression during constrained differentiation at various evolutionary stages, while also maintaining responsiveness to environmental stimuli and transcriptome homeostasis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1999-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1999-x
PMCID: PMC4609109  PMID: 26474851
Transcriptome; Experimental evolution; Heat shock; Thermal adaptation
21.  Three-dimensional culture using human plasma-medium gel with fragmin/protamine microparticles for proliferation of various human cells 
Cytotechnology  2013;66(5):791-802.
Fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) have been used as carriers for the preservation and activation of cytokines in human plasma (HP)–Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) gels. This study investigated a three-dimensional (3D) culture system using an HP–DMEM gel with 0.1 mg/mL F/P MPs and 5 ng/mL FGF-2 for the proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells (DFCs), human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) and human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs), or 5 ng/mL interleukin (IL)-3/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a human hematopoietic cell line (TF-1 cells). DFCs, MVECs, SMCs and TF-1 cells grew rapidly under 3D culture conditions using a low-concentration HP (2 %)–DMEM gel with F/P MPs and FGF-2 (for DFCs, MVECs and SMCs) or IL-3/GM-CSF (for TF-1 cells) at doubling times of 22, 23, 25 and 18 h, respectively, without the use of animal serum, compared to under 2D culture conditions using low-concentration human serum (2 %)–DMEM with 5 ng/mL FGF-2 or IL-3/GM-CSF on F/P MP-coated plates at doubling times of approximately 26, 25, 40 and 20 h, respectively.
doi:10.1007/s10616-013-9628-5
PMCID: PMC4158012  PMID: 23955332
Cytokine carrier; Fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs); Plasma–medium gel; 3D culture
22.  Two-particle Bose–Einstein correlations in pp collisions at \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathbf {\sqrt{s} =}$$\end{document}s= 0.9 and 7 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector 
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The paper presents studies of Bose–Einstein Correlations (BEC) for pairs of like-sign charged particles measured in the kinematic range \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$p_\mathrm{T}>$$\end{document}pT> 100 MeV and \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$|\eta |<$$\end{document}|η|< 2.5 in proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 0.9 and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The integrated luminosities are approximately 7 \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\upmu $$\end{document}μb\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$^{-1}$$\end{document}-1, 190 \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\upmu $$\end{document}μb\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$^{-1}$$\end{document}-1 and 12.4 nb\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$^{-1}$$\end{document}-1 for 0.9 TeV, 7 TeV minimum-bias and 7 TeV high-multiplicity data samples, respectively. The multiplicity dependence of the BEC parameters characterizing the correlation strength and the correlation source size are investigated for charged-particle multiplicities of up to 240. A saturation effect in the multiplicity dependence of the correlation source size parameter is observed using the high-multiplicity 7 TeV data sample. The dependence of the BEC parameters on the average transverse momentum of the particle pair is also investigated.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3644-x
PMCID: PMC4591911  PMID: 26457062
23.  Erratum to: Search for supersymmetry in events containing a same-flavour opposite-sign dilepton pair, jets, and large missing transverse momentum in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sqrt{s}=8$$\end{document}s=8 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector 
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doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3661-9
PMCID: PMC4668611
24.  Rice ubiquitin ligase EL5 prevents root meristematic cell death under high nitrogen conditions and interacts with a cytosolic GAPDH 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2015;10(3):e990801.
Root formation in rice transformants overexpressing mutated EL5 (mEL5) was severely inhibited because of meristematic cell death. Cell death was caused by nitrogen sources, particularly nitrate forms, in the culture medium. Nitrite treatment increased the cytokinin contents in roots, but mEL5 contained more cytokinins than non-transformants. Transcriptome profiling showed overlaps between nitrite-responsive genes in non-transformants and genes with altered expression in untreated mEL5. These results indicate that impairment of EL5 function activates nitrogen signaling despite the absence of a nitrogen source. Physical interaction between the EL5 C-terminal region and a cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, OsGapC2, was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the role of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in oxidative cell death in plants is expected in future.
doi:10.4161/15592324.2014.990801
PMCID: PMC4623351  PMID: 25807209
cytokinin; GAPDH; nitrogen; reactive oxygen species; rice; root cell death; ubiquitin ligase
25.  Development of a combined broadband near-infrared and diffusion correlation system for monitoring cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism in preterm infants 
Biomedical Optics Express  2015;6(10):3907-3918.
Neonatal neuromonitoring is a major clinical focus of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and there is an increasing interest in measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxidative metabolism (CMRO2) in addition to the classic tissue oxygenation saturation (StO2). The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of broadband NIRS combined with diffusion correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measured changes in StO2, CBF and CMRO2 in preterm infants undergoing pharmaceutical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus. CBF was measured by both DCS and contrast-enhanced NIRS for comparison. No significant difference in the treatment-induced CBF decrease was found between DCS (27.9 ± 2.2%) and NIRS (26.5 ± 4.3%). A reduction in StO2 (70.5 ± 2.4% to 63.7 ± 2.9%) was measured by broadband NIRS, reflecting the increase in oxygen extraction required to maintain CMRO2. This study demonstrates the applicability of broadband NIRS combined with DCS for neuromonitoring in this patient population.
doi:10.1364/BOE.6.003907
PMCID: PMC4605050  PMID: 26504641
(170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics

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