AIM: To determine the efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) who have failed prior chemotherapy without bevacizumab.
METHODS: Between March 2002 and June 2010, 40 patients in South Korea with MCRC who were treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as a second or later-line treatment were analyzed retrospectively for their overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). The tumor responses were assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines.
RESULTS: All of the patients had progressed under prior chemotherapy without bevacizumab. Three patients (7.5%) exhibited an ORR, twenty one patients (52.5%) exhibited stable disease (SD), and fifteen patients (37.5%) exhibited disease progression. The median duration of the OS and PFS were 14.0 mo and 6.13 mo respectively. The median OSs were 16.60, 14.07 and 13.00 mo for second-line, third-line and fourth- or later-line treatments, respectively. The median PFSs were 7.23, 7.30 and 3.87 mo for the second-line, third-line and fourth- or later-line treatments, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In patients with MCRC, bevacizumab combined chemotherapy may be beneficial during second- or later-line treatment.
Colorectal cancer; Metastasis; Bevacizumab; Efficacy; Second- or later-line
To investigate the impact of penicillin nonsusceptibility on clinical outcomes of patients with nonmeningeal Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB), a retrospective cohort study was performed. The characteristics of 39 patients with penicillin-nonsusceptible SPB (PNSPB) were compared to those of a group of age- and sex-matched patients (n = 78) with penicillin-susceptible SPB (PSSPB). Susceptibility to penicillin was redetermined by using the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) penicillin breakpoints in CLSI document M100-S18. Although the PNSPB group tended to have more serious initial manifestations than the PSSPB group, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their 30-day mortality rates (30.8% versus 23.1%; P = 0.37) or the duration of hospital stay (median number of days, 14 versus 12; P = 0.89). Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins, vancomycin, and carbapenem, were frequently used in both the PNSPB and PSSPB groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 22.27; P = 0.041) was one of the independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Thus, when the 2008 CLSI penicillin breakpoints are applied and the current clinical practice of using wide-spectrum empirical antimicrobial agents is pursued, fatal outcomes in patients with nonmeningeal SPB that can be attributed to penicillin nonsusceptibility are likely to be rare. Further studies that examine the clinical impact of ceftriaxone nonsusceptibility in nonmningeal SPB may be warranted.
Anthracycline can effectively treat hematologic malignancies, but has significant risk of cardiotoxicity. We measured the clinical correlation between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.
Materials and Methods
Between March 2005 and March 2007, 86 patients with acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma, or multiple myeloma receiving systemic chemotherapy with anthracycline were enrolled in the Department of Hemato-oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital. We investigated the relationship between BNP level and cardiotoxicity through echocardiography, electrocardiography, BNP levels, and symptoms of heart failure at each chemotherapy cycle.
Of the 86 participants (mean age, 48.5 years; range 20~65 years), cardiotoxicity developed in 21 patients (24.4%), with 2 patients showing arrhythmia only, 17 patients with transient aspects of heart failure, and 2 patients with chronic heart failure. Cardiotoxicity related to serum BNP level, age, cumulative dose of anthracycline, accompanying chronic disease, and elevated level of troponin-I. Heart failure was more common if BNP levels reached 100 pg/ml at least once.
The clinical correlation between BNP and cardiotoxicity was significant in patients with systemic anthracycline chemotherapy. A prospective clinical trial will be needed to identify the causal relationship between serum BNP level and cardiotoxicity.
Hematologic neoplasms; Anthracycline; BNP; Cardiac toxicity
Novel agents to treat multiple myeloma (MM) have increased complete respone (CR) rates compared with conventional chemotherapy, and the quality of the response to treatment has been correlated with survival. The purpose of our study was to show how of early response to bortezomib combined chemotherapy influences survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. We assessed patient responses to at least four cycles of bortezomib using the International Myeloma Working Group response criteria. The endpoints were comparisons of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between early good response group (A group) and poor response group (B group). We retrospectively analyzed data from 129 patients registered by the Korean Multiple Myeloma Working Party, a nationwide registration of MM patients. The 3 yr PFS for the A and B groups was 55.6% and 18.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 3 yr OS for the A and B groups was 65.3% and 52.9%, respectively (P = 0.078). The early response to at least four cycle of bortezomib before next chemotherapy may help predict PFS in patients with MM who are ineligible stem cell transplantation.
Early Response; Multiple Myeloma; Bortezomib; Survival
A prospective multicenter observational study was performed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock. Subjects included 1,192 adult patients admitted to the 22 participating intensive care units (ICUs) of 12 university hospitals in the Korean Sepsis Registry System from April, 2005 through February, 2009. Male accounted for 656 (55%) patients. Mean age was 65.0 ± 14.2 yr. Septic shock developed in 740 (62.1%) patients. Bacteremia was present in 422 (35.4%) patients. The 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 23.0% and 28.0%, respectively. Men were more likely to have comorbid illnesses and acute organ dysfunctions, and had higher mortality and clinical severity compared to women. While respiratory sources of sepsis were common in men, urinary sources were predominant in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, cancer (odds ratio 1.89; 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.17), urinary tract infection (0.25; 0.13-0.46), APACHE II score (1.05; 1.02-1.09), SOFA score on day 1 (1.13; 1.06-1.21) and metabolic dysfunction (2.24, 1.45-3.45) were independent clinical factors for gender-related in-hospital mortality. This study provided epidemiological and clinical characteristics of community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock in ICUs in Korea, and demonstrated the impact of clinical factors on gender difference in mortality.
Epidemiology; Severe Sepsis; Septic Shock; Mortality; Risk Factor; Gender
Preemptive ganciclovir (GCV) therapy is adopted increasingly in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients, but occasional cases of increasing cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia levels occur during preemptive GCV therapy. This prospective study investigated the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of paradoxical responses during GCV therapy. Adult patients receiving allogeneic HCTs during a 24-month period were enrolled. Patients were prospectively monitored for CMV antigenemia once a week until 3 months after engraftment. Paradoxical responders were defined as patients exhibiting CMV antigenemia levels elevated from the baseline after the first week of preemptive GCV therapy. Of 252 HCT recipients, 97 (38%) received preemptive GCV therapy due to CMV infection. Of these 97 patients, 23 (24%) were classified as paradoxical responders. Risk factors for paradoxical response were a low white blood cell (WBC) count (P = 0.02) and a prolonged duration of CMV antigenemia (P = 0.04) before preemptive therapy. There were no significant differences in rates of successful viral clearance and secondary episodes of CMV infection between paradoxical responders (87% [20/23] and 26% [6/23]) and nonparadoxical responders (95% [70/74] and 23% [17/74], respectively). However, breakthrough CMV disease during preemptive GCV therapy was significantly more frequent in paradoxical responders (17% [4/23]) than in nonparadoxical responders (3% [2/74], P = 0.03). Paradoxical responses occurred in one-quarter of the HCT recipients receiving preemptive GCV therapy. A low WBC count and a long duration of CMV antigenemia before GCV therapy were associated with paradoxical responses, and breakthrough CMV disease during preemptive GCV therapy occurred more frequently in paradoxical responders.
While it is well-known that adjunctive corticosteroid use improves the outcome of moderate-to-severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there are limited data on its efficacy in non-HIV-infected patients with PcP. Patients undergoing fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected PcP from January 2007 through December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes in 88 non-HIV-infected patients with moderate-to-severe PcP with (n = 59) and without (n = 29) adjunctive corticosteroid use. Outcomes of PcP were assessed by respiratory failure and 30-day and 90-day all-cause mortality. Survival curves were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and estimated by the log rank test. All-cause mortality of moderate-to-severe PcP at 90 days was lower in the solid-organ transplant recipients than in all other patients (6/26 [23%] versus 34/62 [55%], respectively; P = 0.006), and mortality at 30 days was lower in patients with hematologic malignancies than in all other patients (4/26 [15%] versus 24/62 [39%], respectively; P = 0.03). The outcomes of PcP were not significantly different in moderate-to-severe PcP patients with and without adjunctive corticosteroid use, regardless of recent corticosteroid use. Survival analysis of PcP patients with and without corticosteroid use by the Kaplan-Meier method also did not reveal any difference (log rank test; P = 0.81). There again was no difference within the subgroup of PcP patients with solid-organ transplants. Adjunctive corticosteroid use may not improve the outcome of moderate-to-severe PcP in non-HIV-infected patients.
Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii presents with diverse clinical and pathological features including subclinical or cholestatic hepatitis. However, the pathological features of liver biopsies from patients with Q fever have not been well described.
Clinical features and pathological findings of liver biopsies were reviewed in seven cases of Q fever that were confirmed by serological, microbiological, or molecular tests.
All cases presented with fever. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated except one case with marked hyperbilirubinemia. Characteristic fibrin ring granulomas were present in three cases, epithelioid granulomas with eosinophilic infiltration in two cases, extensive extravasated fibrins without ring configuration mimicking necrotizing granuloma in one case, and acute cholangitis without granuloma in one case. All cases were treated with antibiotics for 20 days. Six cases were completely cured, but one suffered from multiorgan failure.
C. burnetii infection is uncommon, but should always be considered in patients with acute hepatitis and fever. Because variable-sized circumferential or radiating fibrin deposition was a consistent feature of the present cases, Q fever can be strongly suggested by pathological features and confirmed by serological and/or molecular tests.
Coxiella burnetii; Q fever; Hepatitis; Liver biopsy; Granuloma
We reported a case in which a nasogastric tube was inserted into the gastrocutaneous fistula, diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography. A 78-year-old man with a history of recurrent cerebral hemorrhage had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube due to dysphagia for 2 years. However, soft tissue infection at the gastrostomy site caused the removal of the tube. Immediately, antibiotic agents were infused. For appropriate hydration and medication, a nasogastric tube was inserted. However, there was no significant improvement of the soft tissue infection. Moreover, the amount of bloody exudate increased. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the nasogastric tube placed under the patient's skin via gastrocutaneous fistula. The nasogastric tube was removed, and an antibiotic agents were maintained. After 3 weeks, the signs of infection fully improved, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed again. This case shows necessities of an appropriate interval between removal of the gastrostomy tube and insertion of a nasogastric tube, and suspicion of existence of gastrocutaneous fistula.
Gastrocutaneous fistula; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Nasogastric tube
Of 522 patients with Propionibacterium acnes bacteremia (PAB), 18 (3.5%) had clinically significant PAB. Of these 18 patients, 10 (55.6%) had hospital-acquired bacteremia and 6 (33.3%) had undergone invasive procedures before development of PAB. One patient with a ventricular septal defect presented with infective endocarditis. After the exclusion of 1 patient whose outcome was not available, the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (1/17).
To evaluate the test-retest reliability of supraspinatus cross-sectional area measurement by ultrasonography.
Both shoulders of 11 normal subjects (22 shoulders in total) were included in this study. The supraspinatus muscle was examined with the arm alongside the body in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. The occupational ratio of the supraspinatus fossa was measured. To calculate the occupational ratio, the Y view of MRI was reproduced with sonography by locating the suprascapular notch in the coronal oblique plane (in the plane of the scapula) and then rotating the transducer 90° to that plane. The cross-sectional area was measured using the tracing and ellipse tool. The second measurement was performed 7 days after the initial measurement.
The Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient between the first and the second occupational ratio measurements were 0.43 and 0.44, respectively, for the tracing method, and 0.53 and 0.47, respectively, for the ellipsoidal method. The difference between the first and second occupational ratio measurement was 4.1±3.9% (0.1-13.2%) for the tracing method, and 4.5±3.4% (0.01-10.5%) for the ellipsoidal method. The maximum difference was 13.2%. The occupational ratio was 86.2±5.3% (70.6-95.8%) for the tracing method and 85.0±5.2% (69.3-96.1%) for the ellipsoidal method.
Supraspinatus occupational ratio by sonography is a low to moderately reliable intrarater method. However, the maximum difference was not significant. The main reason for its low to moderate reliability was the narrow value range. Therefore, the study method should be re-evaluated in stroke patients and in patients with rotator cuff disease. Knowledge of the anatomy is a prerequisite to attain intrarater reliability.
Supraspinatus; Ultrasonography; Test-retest reliability
Of 63 patients with Staphylococcus lugdunensis bacteremia, 15 (23.8%) had clinically significant bacteremia, with an incidence of 1.3 cases per 100,000 admissions. Of the five patients with community-acquired S. lugdunensis bacteremia, three had endocarditis. Catheters were the most common portal of entry for health-care-associated or hospital-acquired bacteremia. Only one patient died of bacteremia-related causes.
Despite the identification of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates that demonstrate susceptibility to only colistin, this antimicrobial agent was not available in Korea until 2006. The present study examined the outcomes of patients with multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species bloodstream infection and who were treated with or without colistin as part of their regimen. The colistin group was given colistin as part of therapy once colistin became available in 2006. The non-colistin group was derived from the patients who were treated with other antimicrobial regimens before 2006. Mortality within 30 days of the onset of bacteremia occurred for 11 of 31 patients in the colistin group and for 15 of 39 patients in the non-colistin group (35.5% vs 38.5%, respectively, P = 0.80). Renal dysfunction developed in 50.0% of the 20 evaluable patients in the colistin group, but in 28.6% of the 35 evaluable patients in the non-colistin group (P = 0.11). On multivariate analysis, only an Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥ 21 was associated with mortality at 30 days. This result suggests that administering colistin, although it is the sole microbiologically appropriate agent, does not influence the 30 day mortality of patients with a MDR Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infection.
Acinetobacter; Colistin; Bacteremia; Drug Resistance, Multiple
Cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) have been reported frequently in patients with otherwise typical aplastic anemia (AA), but their implications in the prognosis and in the evolution to hematologic malignancies are controversial.
We retrospectively analyzed 127 adult AA patients who had successful cytogenetic analysis at initial diagnosis.
The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the initial and follow-up results of cytogenetic profiles. Group 1 included patients who had persistent AA with normal cytogenetic profiles (N=117); Group 2, those who had a normal cytogenetic profile at initial diagnosis but later acquired CA (N=4, 3.1%); and Group 3, those who had CA at the initial diagnosis, regardless of follow-up cytogenetic status (N=6,4.7%). In Group 2, 2 patients later developed CA without progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); the other 2 patients later progressed to AML. None of the patients in Group 3 progressed to AML or MDS. There was no significant difference in overall survival between Groups 1 and 3.
AA patients with CA at initial diagnosis or follow-up may not be at greater risk for evolution to AML or MDS, or show shorter survival periods. Prospective studies and a larger patient samples are needed to establish the clinical relevance of CA.
Aplastic anemia; Cytogenetic abnormality
We report a patient with microbiologically documented tuberculous meningitis showing that the therapeutic paradox, a therapy-induced switch to a neutrophil-predominant situation in the differential cell counts of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, had a correlation with an immunologic paradox, an increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific gamma interferon-producing T-cell response.
The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has been confirmed; however, no clear evidence for the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication on ITP exists thus far. The purpose of this study was to investigate platelet recovery in chronic ITP after H. pylori eradication.
A total of 25 patients (18 male, 7 female; the median age of 55 years) diagnosed with ITP, whose platelet counts were less than 100×103/µL, were enrolled. They were tested for H. pylori infection by the rapid urea test or urea breath test. All patients received triple therapy for 7 or 14 days to eradicate H. pylori infection.
Of the 25 patients, 23 (92%) were diagnosed with H. pylori infection. Of all the ITP patients, 11 (44%) exhibited a complete response (CR) to H. pylori eradication therapy; 6 (24%), a partial response (PR); and 8 (32%) were nonresponsive (NR). Predictive factors of response after H. pylori eradication therapy were platelet counts at the initial response (27.3% responders among patients with platelet counts <100×103/µL vs 100% responders among patients with platelet counts ≥100×103/µL, P<0.001) and H. pylori infectivity (73.9% responders among the H. pylori positive patients vs 0% responders among the H. pylori negative patients, P=0.032).
This study confirmed the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in increasing the platelet count in ITP patients. Further studies with a larger number of patients are necessary to identify the crucial predictive factors responsible for platelet recovery in chronic ITP patients with the H. pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Platelet counts
The aac(6′)-Ib gene was detected in 86 of 555 (15.5%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Among these 86 aac(6′)-Ib-positive isolates, 19 (22.0%) were positive for aac(6′)-Ib-cr: 4 of 31 (12.9%) Enterobacter spp., 7 of 13 (53.8%) Escherichia coli isolates, and 8 of 42 (19.0%) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. There was a strong association between aac(6′)-Ib-cr and OXA-1 and CTX-M-1 group β-lactamase genes. One aac(6′)-Ib-positive K. pneumoniae isolate carried both aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qnrS.
To date, an effective salvage chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of refractory or relapsing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has not been discovered. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, etoposide, cisplatin, and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory NHL patients.
All patients had histologically proven relapsed or refractory NHL. Treatments consisted of gemcitabine 700 mg/m2 by continuous i.v. on days 1 and 8; etoposide 40 mg/m2 by i.v. on days 1-4; cisplatin 60 mg/m2 by i.v. on day 1; or dexamethasone 40 mg by i.v. on days 1-4 (GEPD) every 21 days. The primary end point was the patient response rate following two cycles of treatment. After two cycles, stem cells were harvested using mobilizing regimens (ESHAP or GEPD plus filgrastim), and this was followed by autologous stem cell transplantation or four additional cycles of GEPD.
Between January 2005 and January 2006, 20 patients (13 males and 7 females) were enrolled in the study. The median age was 53 (range 16-75) years. The most common histology was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=10). The median follow-up duration was 5.2 (range 1.0-16.0) months. After two cycles, the overall response rate was 50.0% (10/20), including two complete responses and eight partial responses. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression. Grade IV neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 13 (65.0%) and 6 patients (30.0%), respectively. The median number of CD34-positive cells collected was 6.0 (range, 2.8-11.6) ×106/kg. Of the 17 patients < 66 years of age, 4 (23.5%) proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation.
GEPD chemotherapy in patients with refractory or relapsed NHL was effective as a salvage therapy and helpful for stem cell harvest followed by autologous transplantation.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Refractory or relapsed; Gemcitabine
We wanted to evaluate the MR findings for differentiating between necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and pyomyositis (PM).
Materials and Methods
The MR images of 19 patients with surgically confirmed NF (n = 11) and pathologically confirmed PM (n = 8) were retrospectively reviewed with regard to the presence or absence of any MRI finding criteria that could differentiate between them.
The patients with NF had a significantly greater prevalence of the following MR findings (p < 0.05): a peripheral band-like hyperintense signal in muscles on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (73% of the patients with NF vs. 0% of the patients with PM), peripheral band-like contrast enhancement (CE) of muscles (82% vs. 0%, respectively) and thin smooth enhancement of the deep fascia (82% vs. 13%, respectively). The patients with PM had a significantly greater prevalence of the following MRI findings (p < 0.05): a diffuse hyperintense signal in muscles on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (27% of the patients with NF vs. 100% in the patients with PM), diffuse CE of muscles (18% vs. 100%, respectively), thick irregular enhancement of the deep fascia (0% vs. 75%, respectively) and intramuscular abscess (0% vs. 88%, respectively). For all patients with NF and PM, the superficial fascia and muscle showed hyperintense signals on T2-weighted images and CE was seen on fat-suppressed CE T1-weighted images. The subcutaneous tissue and deep fascia showed hyperintense signals on T2-weighted images and CE was seen in all the patients with NF and in seven (88%) of the eight patients with PM, respectively.
MR imaging is helpful for differentiating between NF and PM.
Soft tissue; Infection; Necrotizing fasciitis; Pyomyositis, MR
Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii are characterized by chromosomally encoded AmpC β-lactamases and possess the ability to develop resistance upon exposure to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. To determine the incidences of the emergence of resistance during antimicrobial therapy for infections caused by these organisms and the effect of the emergence of resistance on patient outcomes, all patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea) from January 2005 to June 2006 and whose clinical specimens yielded Enterobacter spp., S. marcescens, C. freundii, or M. morganii were monitored prospectively. The main end point was the emergence of resistance during antimicrobial therapy. A total of 732 patients with infections were included for analysis. The overall incidence of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance during antimicrobial therapy was 1.9% (14/732). Resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, cefepime, extended-spectrum penicillin, carbapenem, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides emerged during treatment in 5.0% (11/218), 0% (0/20), 2.0% (2/100), 0% (0/226), 0% (0/153), and 1.1% (1/89) of patients, respectively. The emergence of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins occurred more often in Enterobacter spp. (8.3%, 10/121) than in C. freundii (2.6%, 1/39), S. marcescens (0%, 0/37), or M. morganii (0%, 0/21). Biliary tract infection associated with malignant bile duct invasion was significantly associated with the emergence of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins (P = 0.024 at a significance level of 0.042, by use of the Bonferroni correction). Only 1 of the 14 patients whose isolates developed resistance during antimicrobial therapy died. The emergence of resistance was more frequently associated with broad-spectrum cephalosporins than with the other antimicrobial agents tested, especially in Enterobacter spp. However, the emergence of resistance was associated with a low risk of mortality.
We report a case of pyomyositis due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in a renal transplant recipient. M. haemophilum was identified by PCR-mediated sequence analysis of the heat shock protein gene in the DNA of the specimen. The patient was successfully treated with repeated surgical debridement and prolonged antimycobacterial therapy.
Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and it has shown promise as a clinical agent against metastatic colorectal cancer, and particularly in combination with chemotherapy. Bowel perforation is a known risk that's associated with bevacizumab use, but the etiology is unknown. Here we report on two cases of metastatic colorectal cancer in which the patients suffered from intestinal perforation after chemotherapy with bevacizumab. For the first case, a 47 year-old man had rectal cancer with concurrent liver and lung metastasis. He underwent chmotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and bevacizumab. Fever and abdominal pain developed seven days later, and rectal perforation was identified upon exploration 13 days later. For the second case, a 48 year-old woman had sigmoid colon cancer with peritoneal and ovary metastases. After seven days of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab, exploratory surgery revealed a perforation at the ileum.
Bevacizumab; Intestinal perforation; Colorectal neoplasms
In this study, we compared the paramedian interfascial approach (PIA) and the traditional midline approach (MA) for lumbar fusion to determine which approach resulted in the least amount of postoperative back muscle atrophy. We performed unilateral transforaminal posterior lumbar interbody fusion via MA on the symptomatic side and pedicle screw fixation via PIA on the other side in the same patient. We evaluated the damage to the paraspinal muscle after MA and PIA by measuring the preoperative and postoperative paraspinal muscle volume in 26 patients. The preoperative and postoperative cross-sectional area, thickness, and width of the multifidus muscle were measured by computed tomography. The degree of postoperative paraspinal muscle atrophy was significantly greater on the MA side than on the contralateral PIA side (-20.7% and -4.8%, respectively, p<0.01). In conclusion, the PIA for lumbar fusion yielded successful outcomes for the preservation of paraspinal muscle in these 26 patients. We suggest that the success of PIA is due to less manipulation and retraction of the paraspinal muscle and further studies on this technique may help confirm whether less muscle injury has positive effects on the long-term clinical outcome.
Paraspinal Muscle; Paramedian Approach; Muscle Atrophy; Lumbar Spine
qnr was detected in 2 of 260 Escherichia coli clinical isolates collected from a Korean hospital during the period 2001 to 2003. The two strains were not clonally related. qnr was located in In4 family class 1 integrons of original structure, downstream of orf513 and upstream from another resistance gene (dfrA3b) and a gene of unknown function (orf105). Transfer of the qnr determinant by conjugation could be detected from only one strain.