Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) contributes to the progression of visual defects such as glaucoma. This study determined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with IOP in South Korean men.
We analyzed data on 4875 men who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010. We recorded the values for age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), non-HDL-C (NHDL-C), and TG/HDL-C, as well as sociodemographic factors. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry.
Weight, BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C, TG, NHDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and the prevalence of MetS differed significantly among the three groups with IOP (P<0.05). Mean IOP was higher in subjects who were obese and had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, MetS, abdominal obesity, high TG, high FBG, or high BP compared with normal subjects (P<0.005). Analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that all cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005), with the exception of WC and HDL-C. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed that IOP was positively correlated with BMI, SBP, DBP, FBG, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C, TG, NHDL-C, and TG/HDL-C after adjusting for all covariates (all P<0.05).
Cardiometabolic risk factors, including the components of MetS, are associated with increased IOP.