Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting multiple organ systems, such as the skin, joints, blood vessels, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal BD is characterized by intestinal ulcerations and gastrointestinal symptoms. The medical treatment of intestinal BD includes corticosteroids and immunosupressants. There have been several reports of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockers being successful in treatment of refractory intestinal BD. Here, we report on a patient who was diagnosed with intestinal BD despite treatment with the fully humanized TNF-α blocker (adalimumab) for underlying ankylosing spondylitis. This patient achieved clinical remission and complete mucosal healing through the addition of a steroid and azathioprine to the adalimumab regimen.
Intestinal Behçet’s disease; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Adalimumab
The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.
betanin; gastric lesion; Opuntia ficus indicavar. saboten; water immersion restraint stress
It has been reported that low-level semiconductor diode lasers could enhance the wound healing process. The periodontal ligament is crucial for maintaining the tooth and surrounding tissues in periodontal wound healing. While low-level semiconductor diode lasers have been used in low-level laser therapy, there have been few reports on their effects on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). We performed this study to investigate the biological effects of semiconductor diode lasers on human PDLFs.
Human PDLFs were cultured and irradiated with a gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) semiconductor diode laser of which the wavelength was 810 nm. The power output was fixed at 500 mW in the continuous wave mode with various energy fluencies, which were 1.97, 3.94, and 5.91 J/cm2. A culture of PDLFs without laser irradiation was regarded as a control. Then, cells were additionally incubated in 72 hours for MTS assay and an alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity test. At 48 hours post-laser irradiation, western blot analysis was performed to determine extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. ANOVA was used to assess the significance level of the differences among groups (P<0.05).
At all energy fluencies of laser irradiation, PDLFs proliferation gradually increased for 72 hours without any significant differences compared with the control over the entire period taken together. However, an increment of cell proliferation significantly greater than in the control occurred between 24 and 48 hours at laser irradiation settings of 1.97 and 3.94 J/cm2 (P<0.05). The highest ALPase activity was found at 48 and 72 hours post-laser irradiation with 3.94 J/cm2 energy fluency (P<0.05). The phosphorylated ERK level was more prominent at 3.94 J/cm2 energy fluency than in the control.
The present study demonstrated that the GaAlAs semiconductor diode laser promoted proliferation and differentiation of human PDLFs.
Alkaline phosphatase; Extracellular signal-regulated kinases; Fibroblasts; Periodontal ligament; Semiconductor diode lasers
The purpose of this study was to compare the bone regeneration effects of cortical, cancellous, and cortico-cancellous human bone substitutes on calvarial defects of rabbits.
Four 8-mm diameter calvarial defects were created in each of nine New Zealand white rabbits. Freeze-dried cortical bone, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous bone, and demineralized bone matrix with freeze-dried cancellous bone were inserted into the defects, while the non-grafted defect was regarded as the control. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of healing, the experimental animals were euthanized for specimen preparation. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was performed to calculate the percent bone volume. After histological evaluation, histomorphometric analysis was performed to quantify new bone formation.
In micro-CT evaluation, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed the highest percent bone volume value among the experimental groups at week 4. At week 8 and week 12, freeze-dried cortical human bone showed the highest percent bone volume value among the experimental groups. In histologic evaluation, at week 4, freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed more prominent osteoid tissue than any other group. New bone formation was increased in all of the experimental groups at week 8 and 12. Histomorphometric data showed that freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed a significantly higher new bone formation percentile value than any other experimental group at week 4. At week 8, freeze-dried cortical human bone showed the highest value, of which a significant difference existed between freeze-dried cortical human bone and demineralized bone matrix with freeze-dried cancellous human bone. At week 12, there were no significant differences among the experimental groups.
Freeze-dried cortico-cancellous human bone showed swift new bone formation at the 4-week healing phase, whereas there was less difference in new bone formation among the experimental groups in the following healing phases.
Bone Substitutes; Osteogenesis; Transplantation; X-Ray Microtomography
The colonic epithelium is composed of a polarized monolayer sheathed by a layer of pericryptal myofibroblasts (PCMFs). We mimicked these cellular compartments in vitro to assess the effects of paracrine-acting PCMF-derived factors on tight junction (TJ) integrity, as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Co-culture with 18Co PCMFs, or basolateral administration of 18Co conditioned medium (CM), significantly reduced TER of polarized Caco-2 cells. Amongst candidate paracrine factors, only keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) reduced Caco-2 TER; basolateral KGF treatment led to time- and concentration-dependent increases in claudin-2 levels. We also demonstrate amphiregulin (AREG), produced largely by Caco-2 cells, increased claudin-2 levels, leading to epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated TER reduction. We propose that colonic epithelial TJ integrity can be modulated by paracrine KGF and autocrine AREG through increased claudin-2 levels. KGF-regulated claudin-2 induction may have implications for inflammatory bowel disease, where both KGF and claudin-2 are upregulated.
Tight junction; pericryptal myofibroblasts; keratinocyte growth factor; amphiregulin; claudin-2
Evaluating predictive factors for high-risk adenomas at the third colonoscopy based on two prior colonoscopies may help evaluate high-risk adenoma at the third colonoscopy. We analyzed clinical data of 131 patients at Severance Hospital from January 1997 to January 2011. All of them underwent two subsequent colonoscopies after removal of adenomas during an initial colonoscopy. Among 20 patients with high-risk adenoma at the first and second colonoscopies, 10 (50%) patients had high-risk adenoma at the third colonoscopy. Among the 67 patients who had high-risk adenoma only once at the first or second colonoscopy, 15 (22.4%) patients had high-risk adenoma at the third colonoscopy but among the 44 patients without high-risk adenoma at the first and second colonoscopies, only 1 (2.3%) patient had high-risk adenoma at the third colonoscopy (P < 0.001). A multivariate time dependent covariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that high-risk adenoma at the first and/or second colonoscopy (HR, 9.56; 95% CI, 2.37-38.54; P = 0.002) was independent predictor of high-risk adenoma at the third colonoscopy. Given these findings, data from two prior colonoscopies, not one prior examination, may help identify high-risk populations at the third colonoscopy who require careful colonoscopic surveillance.
High-Risk Adenoma; Predictor; Third Colonoscopy; Multiple Surveillance Colonoscopies
An animal periodontitis model is essential for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontal disease. In this study, we have introduced a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a periodontal pathogen to the alveolar bone defect of experimental animals and investigated its suitability as a periodontitis model.
Alveolar bone defects were made in both sides of the mandibular third premolar region of nine beagle dogs. Then, the animals were divided into the following groups: silk ligature tied on the cervical region of tooth group, Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (P.g. LPS)-saturated collagen with silk ligature group, and no ligature or P.g. LPS application group as the control. The plaque index and gingival index were measured at 0 and 4 weeks postoperatively. The animals were then euthanized and prepared for histologic evaluation.
The silk ligature group and P.g. LPS with silk ligature group showed a significantly higher plaque index at 4 weeks compared to the control (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the plaque index between the silk ligature group and P.g. LPS with silk ligature group. The P.g. LPS with silk ligature group showed a significantly higher gingival index compared to the silk ligature group or the control at 4 weeks (P<0.05). Histologic examination presented increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingival tissue and alveolar bone of the P.g. LPS with silk ligature group.
An additional P.g. LPS-saturated collagen with silk ligature ensured periodontal inflammation at 4 weeks. Therefore, P.g. LPS with silk ligature application to surgically created alveolar bone defects may be a candidate model for experimental periodontitis.
Animal models; Lipopolysaccharides; Periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis
AIM: To increase satisfaction and diminish anxiety and shame during colonoscopy, we developed novel double pants (NDP) which consist of doubled fabrics with an inner hole. The aim of study was to compare satisfaction, anxiety and shame between NDP and conventional single pants (CSP).
METHODS: Total 160 consecutive examinees were randomly divided into NDP and CSP group. Before colonoscopy, questionnaires identifying state and trait anxiety were completed. After colonoscopy, questionnaires for overall satisfaction (Group Health Association of America 9) and pants-specific satisfaction (5-20), state anxiety (20-80), and shame (6-24) were interviewed.
RESULTS: Pants-specific satisfaction scores regarding willingness to repeat colonoscopy using same pants (3.3 ± 0.8 vs 2.1 ± 0.9, P < 0.001) and recommendation of same pants to other people (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 2.0 ± 1.0, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in NDP than CSP groups. State anxiety (33.0 ± 7.0 vs 35.4 ± 6.9, P = 0.028) and shame (6.6 ± 1.5 vs 8.1 ± 3.2, P = 0.001) after colonoscopy was lower in NDP group compared with CSP group.
CONCLUSION: The NDP contribute to increase satisfaction and decrease anxiety and shame after colonoscopy.
Pants; Colonoscopy; Satisfaction; Shame; Anxiety
Recently, placement of self-expandable metallic stents has been used for the treatment of colorectal obstruction. As domestic awareness of colorectal cancer has increased, the number of colorectal stenting procedures performed has also increased. We aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for colorectal stenting to aid gastroenterologists in making informed decisions regarding the management of patients who present with colorectal obstruction. The working group consisted of eight gastroenterologists who actively practice and conduct research in the field of colorectal stenting and are the members of the Stent Study Group of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, KoreaMed, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant articles published between January 2001 and June 2012. Based on the modified Delphi process, 10 recommendation statements regarding indications, usefulness, methodology and complications of colorectal stenting, and alternative treatments for malignant colorectal obstruction were determined. The contents will be widely distributed, and periodically revised to reflect the latest knowledge. These evidence-based recommendations for colorectal stenting will provide gastroenterologists and patients with appropriate and balanced information, and will improve the quality of care.
Colorectal obstruction; Colorectal stenting; Recommendation; Self-expandable metallic stents
Erythropoietin (EPO) plays a key regulatory role in the formation of new red blood cells (RBCs). Erythropoietin may also have a role as a therapeutic agent to counteract ischemic injury in neural, cardiac and endothelial cells. One of the limitations preventing the therapeutic application of EPO is its short half-life. The goal of this study was to develop a gene delivery system for the prolonged and controlled release of EPO. The arginine grafted bioreducible polymer (ABP) and its PEGylated version, ABP-PEG10, were utilized to study the expression efficiency and therapeutic effectiveness of this erythropoietin gene delivery system in vitro. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification of the ABP was employed to inhibit the particle aggregation resulting from the interactions between cationic polyplexes and the negatively charged proteins typically present in serum. Both the ABP and the ABPPEG10 carriers demonstrated efficient transfection and long-term production of EPO in a variety of cell types. The expressed EPO protein stimulated hematopoietic progenitor cells to form significant numbers of cell colonies in vitro. These data confirm that this EPO gene delivery system using a bioreducible polymeric carrier, either ABP or ABP-PEG 10, merits further testing as a potential therapeutic modality for a variety of clinically important disease states.
Erythropoietin; Bioreducible Polymer; PEG; Gene Therapy; Hemolysis
Implant stability at the time of surgery is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. Primary stability is considered of paramount importance to achieve osseointegration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using artificial bone blocks with different bone densities and compositions to mimic different circumstances that are encountered in routine daily clinical settings.
In order to validate the objectives, various sized holes were made in bone blocks with different bone densities (#10, #20, #30, #40, and #50) using a surgical drill and insertion torque together with implant stability quotient (ISQ) values that were measured using the Osstell Mentor. The experimental groups under evaluation were subdivided into 5 subgroups according to the circumstances.
In group 1, the mean insertion torque and ISQ values increased as the density of the bone blocks increased. For group 2, the mean insertion torque values decreased as the final drill size expanded, but this was not the case for the ISQ values. The mean insertion torque values in group 3 increased with the thickness of the cortical bone, and the same was true for the ISQ values. For group 4, the mean insertion torque values increased as the cancellous bone density increased, but the correlation with the ISQ values was weak. Finally, in group 5, the mean insertion torque decreased as the final drill size increased, but the correlation with the ISQ value was weak.
Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that primary stability does not simply depend on the insertion torque, but also on the bone quality.
Bone density; Dental implants; Torque