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1.  Dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex PCR using tissue samples in rapid urease test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection 
AIM: To investigate whether tissue samples processed by the rapid urease test (RUT) kit are suitable for dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (DPO-PCR) to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
METHODS: A total of 54 patients with specific gastrointestinal symptom were enrolled in this study. During endoscopy, gastric biopsy specimens were taken for histology, RUT, and DPO-PCR. DPO-PCR was performed on gastric biopsy samples and tissue samples that were analyzed by RUT at 2 separate institutes. In detecting H. pylori, the concordance rate of the DPO-PCR tests between the tissue samples that had been submitted to RUT and the gastric biopsy samples was investigated.
RESULTS: H. pylori co-occurred with 76.0% (19/25) of gastric ulcers, 64.3% (9/14) of duodenal ulcers, and 33.3% (4/12) of gastritis cases. H. pylori infection was found in 100% (3/3) of the patients with both gastric and duodenal ulcers. Overall, H. pylori was detected in 35 of 54 (64.8%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivities of histology, RUT, and DPO-PCR were 85.7% (30/35), 74.3% (26/35), and 97.1% (34/35), respectively (P = 0.02). The positive predictive value (PPV) of DPO-PCR was 94.4%, whereas the negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.7%. In the rapid urease test (CLOtest)-negative cases, the frequency of positive DPO-PCR and histologic results was 20.0% (7/35). The concordance rate of the DPO-PCR tests between the tissue samples from the RUT kit and the gastric biopsy samples was 94.4% (51/54). The rate of DPO-PCR and silver stain positivity in the RUT-negative cases was 20.0% (7/35).
CONCLUSION: In diagnosing H. pylori infection, DPO-PCR can be performed on tissue samples that have been processed by the RUT kit. Particularly, in patients with RUT-negative results, DPO-PCR on these tissue samples could be helpful in detecting of H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC4047340  PMID: 24914376
Helicobacter pylori; Diagnosis; Dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction
2.  Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients 
[Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius (TaGm). [Results] Based on repeated measures analysis of variance of measurements of gait aspects comprised of gait speed, gait cycle, and step length according to the FES stimulation position, the FES stimulation significantly affected gait aspects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, stimulating the tibialis anterior and quadriceps and stimulating the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius are much more effective than stimulating only the tibialis anterior during gait training in stroke patients using FES.
PMCID: PMC3996422  PMID: 24764634
Stroke; FES; Gait
3.  Grasper type scissors for endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric epithelial neoplasia 
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of grasper type scissors (GTS) for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
METHODS: The study was performed by 4 endoscopists in 4 institutions affiliated to The Catholic University of Korea. ESD was performed in 76 consecutive patients with gastric epithelial neoplasia by using the GTS (37 patients) or the hook knife plus coagrasper (HKC) (39 patients). The complete resection rate, complication rate, total time elapsed and elapsed time per square centimeter of the dissected specimen were analyzed between the GTS and HKC group.
RESULTS: The mean age of the GTS group was 62.3 ± 11.4 years and mean age of the HKC group was 65.6 ± 10.1 years. Differentiated adenocarcinoma was found in 32.4% in the GTS group and 33.3% in the HKC group. The procedures were performed without interruption in every case in both groups. The en bloc resection rates of both groups were 100%. The total time elapsed during the procedure was 44.54 ± 21.72 min in the GTS group and 43.77 ± 21.84 min in the HKC group (P = 0.88) and the time elapsed per square centimeter of the resected lesion was 7.53 ± 6.35 min/cm2 in the GTS group and 6.92 ± 5.93 min/cm2 in the HKC group (P = 0.66). The overall complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: GTS is a safe and effective device for ESD compared with HKC. ESD can be performed with GTS alone, which can reduce the costs for ESD.
PMCID: PMC3787353  PMID: 24115820
Gastric epithelial neoplasia; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Grasper type scissors; Hook knife; Coagrasper
4.  Common bile duct stones on multidetector computed tomography: Attenuation patterns and detectability 
AIM: To investigate the attenuation patterns and detectability of common bile duct (CBD) stones by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
METHODS: Between March 2010 and February 2012, 191 patients with suspicion of CBD stones undergoing both MDCT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were classified as heavily calcified, radiopaque, less radiopaque, or undetectable. The association between the attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT and stone type consisting of pure cholesterol, mixed cholesterol, brown pigment, and black pigment and the factors related to the detectability of CBD stones by MDCT were evaluated.
RESULTS: MDCT showed CBD stones in 111 of 130 patients in whom the CBD stones were demonstrated by ERCP with 85.4% sensitivity. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were heavily calcified 34 (26%), radiopaque 31 (24%), less radiopaque 46 (35%), and undetectable 19 (15%). The radiopacity of CBD stones differed significantly according to stone type (P < 0.001). From the receiver operating characteristic curve, stone size was useful for the determination of CBD stone by MDCT (area under curve 0.779, P < 0.001) and appropriate cut-off stone size on MDCT was 5 mm. The factors related to detectability of CBD stones on MDCT were age, stone type, and stone size on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The radiopacity of CBD stones on MDCT differed according to stone type. Stone type and stone size were related to the detectability by MDCT, and appropriate cut-off stone size was 5 mm.
PMCID: PMC3607755  PMID: 23555167
Common bile duct gallstones; Gallstones; Multidetector computed tomography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
5.  Newly developed autoimmune cholangitis without relapse of autoimmune pancreatitis after discontinuing prednisolone 
A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-wk history of painless jaundice and weight loss. He had a large ill-defined enhancing mass-like lesion in the uncinate process of the pancreas with stricture of the distal common bile duct. Aspiration cytology of the pancreatic mass demonstrated inflammatory cells without evidence of malignancy. Total serum immunoglobulin G level was slightly elevated, but IgG4 level was normal. After the 2-wk 40 mg prednisolone trial, the patient’s symptoms and bilirubin level improved significantly. A follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan showed a dramatic resolution of the pancreatic lesion. A low dose steroid was continued. After six months he self-discontinued prednisolone for 3 wk, and was presented with jaundice again. A CT scan showed newly developed intrahepatic biliary dilatation and marked concentric wall thickening of the common hepatic duct and the proximal common bile duct without pancreatic aggravation. The patient’s IgG4 level was elevated to 2.51 g/L. Prednisolone was started again, after which his serum bilirubin level became normal and the thickening of the bile duct was resolved. This case suggests that autoimmune pancreatitis can progress to other organs that are not involved at the initial diagnosis, even with sustained pancreatic remission.
PMCID: PMC3491610  PMID: 23139619
Autoimmune disease; Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Prednisolone
6.  Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar 
Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely.
PMCID: PMC3471120  PMID: 23082068
Bezoar; Diverticulum; Pancreatitis; Duodenal obstruction
7.  Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(3):197-200.
We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.
PMCID: PMC3318092  PMID: 22493615
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Iodixanol; Coronary angiography
8.  Study on the Usefulness of Sit to Stand Training in Self-directed Treatment of Stroke Patients 
[Purpose] This study sought to determine the usefulness of sit to stand training in self-directed treatment of stroke patients. It examined the effect that sit to stand training has on balance and functional movement depending on the form of support surfaces. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly sampled and divided into an unstable support surface group (15) and stable support surface group (15). In order to identify the effect depending on the form of support surfaces, 15 minutes of support surface training plus + 15 minutes of free gait training was performed. [Results] The results of the unstable support surface training showed that the corresponding sample t-test results were significant for the 7-item 3-point Berg balance scale, timed Up and Go test, and 6-minute walking test. The independent samples t-test, showed that there were significant outcomes in step length on the affected side, and step length on the unaffected side. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the sit to stand training on stable support surfaces was not as effective as the training using unstable support surfaces, but it is a simple and stable exercise with less risk of falls during training. It can also be performed alone by the patient in order to increase endurance and dynamic balance ability. Therefore, it is considered a useful exercise that can be performed alone by the patient outside the treatment room.
PMCID: PMC3996404  PMID: 24764616
Stroke; Self-directed treatment; Sit to stand
9.  Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Sarcopenia in Korean Females Aged 60 Years and Older Using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008–2009 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e90105.
It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders.
We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans.
Design and Setting
We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008–9) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years) and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years) aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults.
Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL). The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1st tertile 6.3%, 2nd tertile 8.0%, 3rd tertile 12.0%; p = 0.008). Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval = 1.26–3.23) for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02–2.97) in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men.
Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in women but not in men from a representative sample of elderly Koreans.
PMCID: PMC3934984  PMID: 24587226
10.  Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87393.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.
PMCID: PMC3907538  PMID: 24498094
11.  The Effect of Ankle Joint Muscle Strengthening Training and Static Muscle Stretching Training on Stroke Patients’ C.O.P Sway Amplitude 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2014;25(12):1613-1616.
[Purpose] This study implement ankle joint dorsiflexion training for ankle muscle the weakness that impairs stroke patients’ gait performance, to examine the effect of the training on stroke patients’ plantar pressure and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 36 stroke patients diagnosed with stroke due to cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage performed the training. Static muscle stretching was performed four times a week for 20 minutes at a time for 6 weeks by the training group. Ankle dorsiflexor training was performed four times a week, two sets per time in the case of females and three sets per time in the case of males for 6 weeks, by another group. Center of pressure sway amplitude was measured using the F-scan system during gait. All subjects were assessed with the same measurements at a pre-study examination and reassessed at eight weeks. Data were analyzed statistically using the paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Among the between ankle dorsiflexor training group, static muscle stretching group, and control group, the difference before and after the training were proven to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] Compared to other training groups, the ankle muscle strength training group showed statistically significant increases of forward thrust at stroke patients’ toe-off which positively affected stroke patients’ ability to perform gait.
PMCID: PMC3885851  PMID: 24409032
Plantar pressure; Stroke; Muscle stretching
12.  Impulsive Behavior and Recurrent Major Depression Associated with Dandy-Walker Variant 
Psychiatry Investigation  2013;10(3):303-305.
Reported herein is a case of recurrent major depression with impulse control difficulty in a 33-year-old man with Dandy-Walker variant. He was diagnosed as having major depressive disorder a year before he presented himself to the authors' hospital, and had a history of three-time admission to a psychiatric unit in the previous 12 months. He was readmitted and treated with sodium valporate 1,500 mg/day, mirtazapine 45 mg/day, and quetiapine 800 mg/day during the three months that he was confined in the authors' hospital, and the symptoms were reduced within three months but remained thereafter. This is the only case so far reporting recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty associated with Dandy-Walker variant. This case implies that any cerebellar lesion may cause the appearance of recurrent depression with impulse control difficulty in major depressive disorder.
PMCID: PMC3843025  PMID: 24302956
Dandy-Walker variant; Cerebellum; Depression; Impulse control; Aggression
13.  Fluazinam 
In the asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 3-chloro-N-[3-chloro-5-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)pyridin-2-yl]-2,6-di­nitro-4-(tri­fluoro­methyl)­aniline}, C13H4Cl2F6N4O4, which is the fungicide fluazinam, the dihedral angle between the pyridine and benzene ring planes is 42.20 (4)°. In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯F hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into inversion dimers which are linked by C—Cl⋯π [Cl⋯ring centroid = 3.3618 (4) A °] and N—O⋯π [O⋯ring centroid = 3.1885 (16) Å] inter­actions into chains along [100]. In addition, short Cl⋯Cl, O⋯Cl, and F⋯F contacts [3.4676 (7), 3.2371 (13) and 2.7910 (15) Å] are present which connect the chains, yielding a three-dimensional network.
PMCID: PMC3884378  PMID: 24427089
14.  Amitraz 
In the asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: N′-(2,4-di­methyl­phen­yl)-N-[N-(2,4-di­methyl­phen­yl)carbox­imido­yl]-N-methyl­methanimidamide}, C19H23N3, which is a formamidine pesticide, there are two independent and conformationally similar mol­ecules, with the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 2,4-di­methylbenzene rings in each mol­ecule being 41.63 (6) and 42.09 (5)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by a C—H⋯N hydrogen bond, as well as weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions [ring centroid separation = 3.7409 (15) Å], giving one-dimensional chains extending down the b direction.
PMCID: PMC3793791  PMID: 24109378
15.  Bifenox: methyl 5-(2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)-2-nitro­benzoate 
In the title compound, the herbicide bifenox, C14H9Cl2NO5, the dihedral angle between the dichlorobenzene and nitro­benzene rings is 78.79 (14)°. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds give rise to a three-dimensional network structure in which there are both a π–π inter­action [ring centroid separation = 3.6212 (16) Å] and a C—Cl⋯π inter­action [Cl⋯ring centroid = 3.4754 (8) Å]. In addition, short Cl⋯Cl contacts [3.3767 (11) and 3.3946 (11) Å] are present.
PMCID: PMC3793716  PMID: 24109303
16.  Napropamide 
The title compound [systematic name: N,N-diethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl­oxy)propanamide], C17H21NO2, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit in which the dihedral angles between the naphthalene ring systems and the amide groups are 88.1 (9) and 88.7 (3)°. Four C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal structure.
PMCID: PMC3793717  PMID: 24109304
17.  Gastroprotective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts against Nonsteroid Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(3):282-289.
To investigate the gastroprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) against nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.
Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the normal control, indomethacin, low-dose GSPE, high-dose GSPE and misoprostol groups. All groups except the normal control group received pretreatment drugs for 6 consecutive days. On the 5th and 6th day, indomethacin was administered orally to all groups except for normal control group. The microscopic features of injury were analyzed. The levels of gastric mucosal glutathione, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated.
The total areas of ulceration in the GSPE and misoprostol groups were significantly decreased compared with the indomethacin group (p<0.05). However, a difference in ulcer formation among the drug treatment groups was not observed. Meanwhile, the glutathione levels in the high-dose GSPE group were higher than those of both the indomethacin and misoprostol groups (p<0.05) and were similar to those of the normal control group. Additionally, there was no difference among the groups in the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines.
High-dose GSPE has a strong protective effect against NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury, which may be associated with the antioxidant effects of GSPE.
PMCID: PMC3661959  PMID: 23710308
Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug; Grape seed proanthocyanidins; Gastropathy; Antioxidants
19.  Saccular Coronary Artery Aneurysm and Fistula with Organized Thrombi 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(2):127-131.
Saccular coronary artery aneurysm, associated with coronary artery fistula, is a very rare condition. A 48-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of an abnormal shadow on the left cardiac border from a chest X-ray film during regular medical health examination. A huge saccular aneurysm with organized thrombi in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and coronary artery fistulae from LAD and conus branch of the right coronary artery to pulmonary artery was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography, multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT), and coronary angiography. The patient received surgical treatment, including thrombectomy of aneurysm, ligation of the inlet and outlet of aneurysmal sac, coronary artery bypass graft (left internal mammary artery-to-distal LAD), and ligation of fistulae. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative echocardiography and MDCT revealed patent bypass graft; however, a small fistula from proximal LAD across aneurysmal sac to pulmonary artery was observed.
PMCID: PMC3596661  PMID: 23508346
Coronary aneurysm; Coronary vessels, arterio-arterial fistula
20.  Fenofibrate Reduces C-Reactive Protein Levels in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With High Risks for Cardiovascular Diseases 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(11):741-746.
Background and Objectives
The effects of fenofibrate on C-reactive protein (CRP) are under debate. We investigated the effect of fenofibrate on CRP levels and the variables determining changes.
Subjects and Methods
This case-control study enrolled 280 hypertriglyceridemic patients who were managed either with 200 mg of fenofibrate (Fenofibrate group, n=140) or with standard treatment (comparison group, n=140). CRP levels were measured before and after management for 2 months.
CRP levels decreased in both the fenofibrate (p=0.003) and comparison (p=0.048) groups. Changes in CRP levels were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.27) and were negatively associated with baseline CRP levels (r=-0.47, p<0.001). In patients with a baseline CRP level ≥1 mg/L, CRP levels also decreased in both groups (p=0.000 and p=0.001 respectively), however, more in the fenofibrate group than in the comparison group (p=0.025). The reduction of CRP was associated with higher baseline CRP levels (r=-0.29, p=0.001), lower body mass index (BMI, r=0.23, p=0.007), and fenofibrate therapy (r=0.19, p=0.025). CRP levels decreased more in the fenofibrate group than in the comparison group in patients with a BMI ≤26 kg/m2 with borderline significance (-1.21±1.82 mg/L vs. -0.89±1.92 mg/L, p=0.097). In patients with a high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level <40 mg/dL, CRP levels were reduced only in the fenofibrate group (p=0.006).
Fenofibrate reduced CRP levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients with high CRP and/or low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and without severe overweight. This finding suggests that fenofibrate may have an anti-inflammatory effect in selected patients.
PMCID: PMC3518707  PMID: 23236325
Fenofibric acid; C-reactive protein; Lipids; Lipoprotein
21.  Benzoximate 
In the title compound [systematic name: (3-chloro-2,6-dimeth­oxy­phen­yl)(eth­oxy­imino)­methyl benzoate], C18H18ClNO5, the phenyl and chloro­dimeth­oxy­phenyl rings are linked by the eth­oxy­imino­methyl benzoate system such that they are almost perpendicular to each other with the dihedral angle between them being 85.72 (9)°. In the crystal, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds between the phenyl and chloro­dimeth­oxy­phenyl rings generate R 2 2(8) rings which link the mol­ecules into zigzag chains along the b axis. Additional C—H⋯O contacts, together with weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions, further link the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network.
PMCID: PMC3515316  PMID: 23284536
22.  Bioresmethrin: (5-benzyl­furan-3-yl)methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl­prop-1-en-1-yl)cyclo­propane-1-carboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C22H26O3, the dihedral angle between the cyclo­propane ring and the plane of the vinyl group is 88.2 (2)°. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and furan rings is 86.09 (8)°. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π contacts together with very weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stack the mol­ecules along the a axis.
PMCID: PMC3515168  PMID: 23284395
23.  Effect of High-Dose Oral Rabeprazole on Recurrent Bleeding after Endoscopic Treatment of Bleeding Peptic Ulcers 
Background. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole versus high-dose IV PPI on rebleeding after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. This was a two-center, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients with a high-risk bleeding peptic ulcer had endoscopic hemostasis and were randomly assigned to the high-dose oral rabeprazole group (20 mg twice daily for 72 hours) or the high-dose IV omeprazole group (80 mg as a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion at 8 mg/h for 72 hours). Results. The study was stopped because of slow enrollment (total n = 106). The rebleeding rates within 3 days were 3.7% (2 of 54 patients) given oral rabeprazole and 1.9% (1 of 52 patients) given IV omeprazole (P = 1.000). The rebleeding rates after 3 days were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. The surgical intervention rates were 3.7% and 0% (P = 0.495), and the mortality rates were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. Conclusions. The effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole did not differ significantly from that of high-dose IV omeprazole on rebleeding, surgical intervention, or mortality after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers, but this requires further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3463177  PMID: 23049546
24.  Ectopic Pancreas Bleeding in the Jejunum Revealed by Capsule Endoscopy 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):194-197.
Ectopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomic location. It is often found incidentally at different sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The incidence of ectopic pancreatic tissue in autopsy series is 1% to 2%, with 70% of the ectopic lesions found in the stomach, duodenum and jejunum. Although it is usually a silent anomaly, an ectopic pancreas may become clinically evident when complicated by inflammation, bleeding, obstruction or malignant transformation. We report a case of ectopic pancreas located in the jejunum and presenting as an obscure GI bleeding, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3429734  PMID: 22977800
Capsule endoscopy; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Ectopic pancreas
25.  Relation Between RR Intervals and Early Diastolic Mitral Annular Velocities in Atrial Fibrillation 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(9):618-624.
Background and Objectives
Irregular RR intervals in atrial fibrillation (AF) make beat-to-beat changes in left ventricular (LV) systolic performance. Early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') is one of the well-established parameters for evaluating LV diastolic function. The relation between RR intervals and E's is unknown. The aim of this study was to observe the influence of continuous changes in RR interval on the parameter for diastolic function in AF.
Subjects and Methods
Echocardiography was performed in 117 patients with AF. E' was adjusted for the effect of pre-preceding RR interval (RR-2) using the logarithmic equation between RR-2 and E'. The logarithmic equation between adjusted E' and preceding RR interval (RR-1) was calculated.
The slope in the relation between RR-1 and E' varied from -2.5 to 2.6. The slope was lower (more likely negative) in patients with higher ratio of early diastolic mitral flow velocity (E) to E' (r=-0.21, p=0.023), ischemic heart disease (IHD, r=0.21, p=0.026), and higher systolic blood pressure (r=-0.19, p=0.046). When patients were divided into these 3 groups on the basis of slope, the lowest slope group (<-0.55, n=39) was associated with higher E'/E (p=0.004) and IHD (p=0.018) compared with the highest slope group (>0.57, n=39). The slope with regards to the relationship between RR-2 and E' also varied from -3.4 to 3.1.
Changes in RR intervals had variable effects on E's according to clinical variables in AF.
PMCID: PMC3467446  PMID: 23091507
Ventricular function, left; Atrial fibrillation; Electrocardiography; Pulsed Doppler echocardiography; Heart rate

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