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1.  A comparison of trapezius muscle activities of different shoulder abduction angles and rotation conditions during prone horizontal abduction 
[Purpose] This study examined the differences in the activities of three parts of the trapezius muscle—the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT)—among three different rotation conditions of the shoulders, while subjects performed prone horizontal abduction (PHA) at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this experimental study were 16 healthy male adults. Surface electromyography was used to collect data on the activity of each part of the trapezius. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the activities of each area of the trapezius—the UT, MT, and LT—among internal rotation (IR), the neutral position (NP), and external rotation (ER) of the shoulders during PHA with shoulder abduction of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. [Results] Activity of the UT, MT, and LT significantly increased as the shoulder abduction angle increased during PHA. There was a significant difference only in the activity of the LT, with change in shoulder rotation. In addition, the muscle activity of the LT was highest during shoulder IR at 120°. [Conclusion] Although activity of the LT was the highest during IR at 120 abduction, PHA accompanied by ER at an abduction angle of 120° would be effective at eliciting high activity in the LT when PHA is performed. Nonetheless, at an early stage of rehabilitation, PHA accompanied by ER at low abduction angles of 30° and 60° would be desirable to elicit low activity of the UT and high activity of the LT.
PMCID: PMC4305608  PMID: 25642047
Prone horizontal abduction; Trapezius muscle activity; Electromyography
2.  Undiagnosed Borrmann type II gastric cancer due to necrosis and regenerative epithelium 
Endoscopic biopsy is essential to the proper diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Unfortunately, the results of endoscopic biopsy are not always the same as what is expected based on gross endoscopic findings. The results of endoscopic biopsy can be negative for malignancy in Borrmann type IV advanced gastric cancer (AGCa) or gastric lymphoma. However, in the case of type II AGCa, repeated biopsies negative for malignancy have not been reported. A 49-year-old male patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy three times due to large gastric ulcer suspected to be Borrmann type II cancer. However, three repeat endoscopic biopsies with multiple specimens showed necrosis and superficial regenerative epithelium without malignant findings. The patient underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection. The surgical specimen revealed that the mucosal layer was completely replaced with regenerative epithelium without cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC4110598  PMID: 25071361
Endoscopy; Biopsy; Stomach neoplasm; Stomach ulcer; Regeneration
3.  Dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex PCR using tissue samples in rapid urease test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection 
AIM: To investigate whether tissue samples processed by the rapid urease test (RUT) kit are suitable for dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (DPO-PCR) to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
METHODS: A total of 54 patients with specific gastrointestinal symptom were enrolled in this study. During endoscopy, gastric biopsy specimens were taken for histology, RUT, and DPO-PCR. DPO-PCR was performed on gastric biopsy samples and tissue samples that were analyzed by RUT at 2 separate institutes. In detecting H. pylori, the concordance rate of the DPO-PCR tests between the tissue samples that had been submitted to RUT and the gastric biopsy samples was investigated.
RESULTS: H. pylori co-occurred with 76.0% (19/25) of gastric ulcers, 64.3% (9/14) of duodenal ulcers, and 33.3% (4/12) of gastritis cases. H. pylori infection was found in 100% (3/3) of the patients with both gastric and duodenal ulcers. Overall, H. pylori was detected in 35 of 54 (64.8%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivities of histology, RUT, and DPO-PCR were 85.7% (30/35), 74.3% (26/35), and 97.1% (34/35), respectively (P = 0.02). The positive predictive value (PPV) of DPO-PCR was 94.4%, whereas the negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.7%. In the rapid urease test (CLOtest)-negative cases, the frequency of positive DPO-PCR and histologic results was 20.0% (7/35). The concordance rate of the DPO-PCR tests between the tissue samples from the RUT kit and the gastric biopsy samples was 94.4% (51/54). The rate of DPO-PCR and silver stain positivity in the RUT-negative cases was 20.0% (7/35).
CONCLUSION: In diagnosing H. pylori infection, DPO-PCR can be performed on tissue samples that have been processed by the RUT kit. Particularly, in patients with RUT-negative results, DPO-PCR on these tissue samples could be helpful in detecting of H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC4047340  PMID: 24914376
Helicobacter pylori; Diagnosis; Dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction
4.  Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients 
[Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius (TaGm). [Results] Based on repeated measures analysis of variance of measurements of gait aspects comprised of gait speed, gait cycle, and step length according to the FES stimulation position, the FES stimulation significantly affected gait aspects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, stimulating the tibialis anterior and quadriceps and stimulating the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius are much more effective than stimulating only the tibialis anterior during gait training in stroke patients using FES.
PMCID: PMC3996422  PMID: 24764634
Stroke; FES; Gait
5.  Grasper type scissors for endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric epithelial neoplasia 
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of grasper type scissors (GTS) for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric epithelial neoplasia.
METHODS: The study was performed by 4 endoscopists in 4 institutions affiliated to The Catholic University of Korea. ESD was performed in 76 consecutive patients with gastric epithelial neoplasia by using the GTS (37 patients) or the hook knife plus coagrasper (HKC) (39 patients). The complete resection rate, complication rate, total time elapsed and elapsed time per square centimeter of the dissected specimen were analyzed between the GTS and HKC group.
RESULTS: The mean age of the GTS group was 62.3 ± 11.4 years and mean age of the HKC group was 65.6 ± 10.1 years. Differentiated adenocarcinoma was found in 32.4% in the GTS group and 33.3% in the HKC group. The procedures were performed without interruption in every case in both groups. The en bloc resection rates of both groups were 100%. The total time elapsed during the procedure was 44.54 ± 21.72 min in the GTS group and 43.77 ± 21.84 min in the HKC group (P = 0.88) and the time elapsed per square centimeter of the resected lesion was 7.53 ± 6.35 min/cm2 in the GTS group and 6.92 ± 5.93 min/cm2 in the HKC group (P = 0.66). The overall complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: GTS is a safe and effective device for ESD compared with HKC. ESD can be performed with GTS alone, which can reduce the costs for ESD.
PMCID: PMC3787353  PMID: 24115820
Gastric epithelial neoplasia; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Grasper type scissors; Hook knife; Coagrasper
6.  Common bile duct stones on multidetector computed tomography: Attenuation patterns and detectability 
AIM: To investigate the attenuation patterns and detectability of common bile duct (CBD) stones by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
METHODS: Between March 2010 and February 2012, 191 patients with suspicion of CBD stones undergoing both MDCT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were classified as heavily calcified, radiopaque, less radiopaque, or undetectable. The association between the attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT and stone type consisting of pure cholesterol, mixed cholesterol, brown pigment, and black pigment and the factors related to the detectability of CBD stones by MDCT were evaluated.
RESULTS: MDCT showed CBD stones in 111 of 130 patients in whom the CBD stones were demonstrated by ERCP with 85.4% sensitivity. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were heavily calcified 34 (26%), radiopaque 31 (24%), less radiopaque 46 (35%), and undetectable 19 (15%). The radiopacity of CBD stones differed significantly according to stone type (P < 0.001). From the receiver operating characteristic curve, stone size was useful for the determination of CBD stone by MDCT (area under curve 0.779, P < 0.001) and appropriate cut-off stone size on MDCT was 5 mm. The factors related to detectability of CBD stones on MDCT were age, stone type, and stone size on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The radiopacity of CBD stones on MDCT differed according to stone type. Stone type and stone size were related to the detectability by MDCT, and appropriate cut-off stone size was 5 mm.
PMCID: PMC3607755  PMID: 23555167
Common bile duct gallstones; Gallstones; Multidetector computed tomography; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
7.  Newly developed autoimmune cholangitis without relapse of autoimmune pancreatitis after discontinuing prednisolone 
A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-wk history of painless jaundice and weight loss. He had a large ill-defined enhancing mass-like lesion in the uncinate process of the pancreas with stricture of the distal common bile duct. Aspiration cytology of the pancreatic mass demonstrated inflammatory cells without evidence of malignancy. Total serum immunoglobulin G level was slightly elevated, but IgG4 level was normal. After the 2-wk 40 mg prednisolone trial, the patient’s symptoms and bilirubin level improved significantly. A follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan showed a dramatic resolution of the pancreatic lesion. A low dose steroid was continued. After six months he self-discontinued prednisolone for 3 wk, and was presented with jaundice again. A CT scan showed newly developed intrahepatic biliary dilatation and marked concentric wall thickening of the common hepatic duct and the proximal common bile duct without pancreatic aggravation. The patient’s IgG4 level was elevated to 2.51 g/L. Prednisolone was started again, after which his serum bilirubin level became normal and the thickening of the bile duct was resolved. This case suggests that autoimmune pancreatitis can progress to other organs that are not involved at the initial diagnosis, even with sustained pancreatic remission.
PMCID: PMC3491610  PMID: 23139619
Autoimmune disease; Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Prednisolone
8.  Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar 
Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely.
PMCID: PMC3471120  PMID: 23082068
Bezoar; Diverticulum; Pancreatitis; Duodenal obstruction
9.  Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(3):197-200.
We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.
PMCID: PMC3318092  PMID: 22493615
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Iodixanol; Coronary angiography
10.  Crystal structure of chlorfluazuron 
The title compound (systematic name: 1-{3,5-di­chloro-4-[3-chloro-5-(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)pyridin-2-yl­oxy]phen­yl}-3-(2,6-difluoro­benzo­yl)urea), C20H9Cl3F5N3O3, is a benzoyl­phenyl­urea insecticide. The dihedral angles between the planes of the central di­chloro­phenyl and the terminal di­fluoro­phenyl and chloro­pyridyl rings are 79.51 (6) and 78.84 6)°, respectively. In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules, forming R 2 2(8) inversion dimers. In addition, the dimers are linked by short F⋯Cl [3.1060 (16) Å] and Cl⋯Cl [3.2837 (7) Å] contacts, as well as weak inter­molecular π–π inter­actions [ring centroid separation = 3.6100 (11) and 3.7764 (13) Å], resulting in a two-dimensional architecture parallel to (111).
PMCID: PMC4331875
crystal structure; chlorfluazuron; urea; insecticidal properties; Cl⋯Cl contacts
11.  Crystal structure of cyprodinil 
In the title compound, C14H15N3 (systematic name: 4-cyclo­propyl-6-methyl-N-phenyl­pyrimidin-2-amine), which is the anilino­pyrimidine fungicide cyprodinil, the dihedral angles between the planes of the central pyrimidine ring and the terminal phenyl ring and the mean plane of the cyclo­propane ring system are 14.52 (11) and 88.79 (10)°, respectively. In the crystal, weak π–π inter­actions [3.8551 (11) Å] connect the dimers into chains along the b-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC4331914
crystal structure; cyprodinil; pyrimidin-2-amine; fungicide; hydrogen bonding; π–π inter­actions
12.  Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery 
An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries.
PMCID: PMC4279831  PMID: 25551074
Congenital heart disease (CHD); Great vessel anomalies; Transposition; Coronary vessels
13.  Crystal structure of fenpropathrin 
In the title compound [systematic name: cyano­(3-phen­oxy­phen­yl)methyl 2,2,3,3-tetra­methyl­cyclo­propane­carboxyl­ate], C22H23NO3, which is the pyrethroid insecticide fenpropathrin, the dihedral angle between the cyclo­propane ring plane and the carboxyl­ate group plane is 88.25 (11)°. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings in the phen­oxy­benzyl group is 82.99 (4)°. In the crystal, C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯π inter­actions link adjacent mol­ecules, forming loop chains along the b-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC4257423  PMID: 25553036
crystal structure; fenpropathrin; cyclo­propane­carboxyl­ate; pyrethroid insecticide; C—H⋯π inter­actions
14.  Crystal structure of propaquizafop 
The title compound, C22H22ClN3O5 {systematic name: 2-(propan-2-yl­idene­amino­oxy)ethyl (R)-2-[4-(6-chloro­quin­oxalin-2-yl­oxy)phen­oxy]propionate}, is a herbicide. The asymmetric unit comprises two independent mol­ecules in which the dihedral angles between the phenyl ring and the quinoxaline ring plane are 75.93 (7) and 82.77 (8)°. The crystal structure features C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N, and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, as well as weak π–π inter­actions [ring-centroid separation = 3.782 (2) and 3.5952 (19) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.
PMCID: PMC4257450  PMID: 25553037
crystal structure; propaquizafop; herbicide; hydrogen bonding; π–π inter­actions
15.  Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(11):2289-2296.
Nitric oxide (NO), a short-lived gaseous free radical, is a potent mediator of biological responses involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nitric oxide also serves as an important signal in physiological processes, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, and bone turnover, which are known to be related to the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. We investigated whether NOS3 gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).
Five polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene were genotyped using TaqMan assays in 306 controls, 150 SLE patients, and 50 SLE patients with ONFH (SLE_ONFH).
We found that Asp258Asp and Glu298Asp (G894T) polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene were significantly associated with risk of ONFH. Additionally, we calculated haplotype frequencies of a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in NOS3 (rs1799983 − rs1800780) and tested for haplotype associations. The haplotypes G-A and T-A showed significant protective (P = 1.6 × 10-3; OR 0.39, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.22–0.7) and increased risk (P = 2.0 x 10-5–6.0 x 10-4; OR 3.17−3.73) effects for ONFH, respectively.
These results suggest that exonic NOS3 polymorphisms may increase the risk of ONFH in Korean SLE patients
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1966-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3824903  PMID: 23775455
16.  Crystal structure of difenoconazole 
In the title compound difenoconazole [systematic name: 1-({2-[2-chloro-4-(4-chloro­phen­oxy)phen­yl]-4-methyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl}meth­yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole], C19H17Cl2N3O3, the dihedral angle between the planes of the 4-chloro­phenyl and 2-chloro­phenyl rings is 79.34 (9)°, while the dihedral angle between the planes of the triazole ring and the dioxolanyl group is 59.45 (19)°. In the crystal, pairs of C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules, forming dimers with R 2 2(6) loops. In addition, the dimers are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional architecture. Disorder was modeled for one C atom of the dioxolanyl group over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.566 (17):0.434 (17).
PMCID: PMC4257337  PMID: 25484812
crystal structure; difenoconazole; triazole fungicide; hydrogen bonds
17.  Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling 
Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-κB, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-κB activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption.
PMCID: PMC4227250  PMID: 25334060
fucoidan; osteoclastogenesis; sulfated polysaccharide; bone resorption; RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand)
18.  Crystal structure of 3,6-bis­(2-chloro­phen­yl)-1,2,4,5-tetra­zine: the acaricide clofentezine 
The whole molecule of the title compound, C14H8Cl2N4, is generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the 2-chloro­phenyl ring and the tetra­zine ring is 47.65 (5)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8199 (5), normal distance = 3.3127 (8), slippage 1.902 Å] forming columns along the a-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC4257200  PMID: 25484714
crystal structure; clofentezine; acaricide; π–π inter­actions
19.  Crystal structure of tolyl­fluanid 
The title compound, C10H13Cl2FN2O2S2 {systematic name: N-[(di­chloro­fluoro­methyl)­sulfanyl]-N′,N′-dimethyl-N-p-tolyl­sulfamide}, is a well known fungicide. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the di­methyl­amino group and that of the benzene ring is 32.3 (3)°. One Cl atom and one F atom of the di­chloro­fluoro­methyl­thio group are disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.605 (9):0.395 (9). In the crystal structure, two C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules, forming dimers with R 2 2(14) loops. C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link pairs of dimers into chains along the b-axis direction. These chains are joined by an additional C—H⋯O contact, generating a sheet in the ab plane.
PMCID: PMC4257202  PMID: 25484703
crystal structure; tolyl­fluanid; fungicide; hydrogen bonds
20.  Crystal structure of flufenoxuron: a benzoyl­urea pesticide 
The title compound, C21H11ClF6N2O3 (systematic name: 1-{4-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-fluorophenyl}-3-(2,6-di­fluoro­benzo­yl)urea), is a benzoyl­urea pesticide. The dihedral angles between the central fluoro­benzene ring and the terminal di­fluoro­phenyl ring and chloro­phenyl ring system are 62.15 (5) and 88.03 (5)°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules, forming R 2 2(8) inversion dimers that pack into loop chains along the a-axis direction by short F⋯F contacts [2.729 (2) Å]. In addition, the chains are linked by weak C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.661 (2) and 3.535 (12) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.
PMCID: PMC4257195  PMID: 25484700
crystal structure; benzoyl­urea; pesticide; N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds; C—H⋯π inter­actions; π–π inter­actions
21.  Crystal structure of triclopyr 
In the title compound {systematic name: 2-[(3,5,6-tri­chloro­pyridin-2-yl)­oxy]acetic acid}, the herbicide triclopyr, C7H4Cl3NO3, the asymmetric unit comprises two independent mol­ecules in which the dihedral angles between the mean plane of the carb­oxy­lic acid group and the pyridyl ring plane are 79.3 (6) and 83.8 (5)°. In the crystal, pairs of inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form dimers through an R 2 2(8) ring motif and are extended into chains along [100] by weak π–π inter­actions [ring centroid separations = 3.799 (4) and 3.810 (4) Å]. In addition, short inter­molecular Cl⋯Cl contacts [3.458 (2) Å] connect the chains, yielding a two-dimensional architecture extending parallel to (020). The crystal studied was found to be non-merohedrally twinned with the minor component being 0.175 (4).
PMCID: PMC4186132  PMID: 25309266
crystal structure; herbicide; triclopyr; hydrogen-bonded dimers; π–π inter­actions; non-merohedral twinning
22.  Crystal structure of anilazine 
The title compound [systematic name: 4,6-di­chloro-N-(2-chloro­phen­yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine], C9H5Cl3N4, is a triazine fungicide. The dihedral angle between the planes of the triazine and benzene rings is 4.04 (8)°. In the crystal, two weak C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and short Cl⋯Cl contacts [3.4222 (4) Å] link adjacent mol­ecules, forming two-dimensional networks parellel to the (112) plane. The planes are linked by weak inter­molecular π–π inter­actions [3.6428 (5) and 3.6490 (5) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.
PMCID: PMC4186163  PMID: 25309255
crystal structure; anilazine; 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine; triazine fungicides; hydrogen bonding; Cl⋯Cl contacts; weak π–π inter­actions
23.  Influence of Previous Statin Therapy on Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Ezetimibe 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(4):227-232.
Background and Objectives
The inhibition of cholesterol absorption by ezetimibe increases cholesterol synthesis. The effect of inhibition of cholesterol synthesis on cholesterol absorption is controversial. The influence of these interactions on cholesterol levels is unknown. We investigated on the extent to which cholesterol levels were affected by the reaction of one pathway to the inhibition of the other pathway.
Subjects and Methods
This case-controlled study enrolled 198 patients who needed cholesterol-lowering drugs. Ezetimibe (10 mg) was administered to the patients with (n=58) and without on-going statin therapy (n=58). Simvastatin (20 mg) was administered to the patients treated with (n=41) and without ezetimibe (n=41).
Ezetimibe without statin lowered the total cholesterol by 13.3±8.8% (p<0.001) and the low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) by 18.7±15.3% (p<0.001). Ezetimibe added to statin decreased the total cholesterol by 21.1±7.7% (p<0.001) and the LDL-C by 29.9±12.6% (p<0.001). The total cholesterol and LDL-C were reduced more by ezetimibe in patients with statin therapy than in those without statin therapy (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The differences in the effect of simvastatin on total cholesterol and LDL-C between the patients with and without ezetimibe showed borderline significance (p=0.10 and p=0.055, respectively).
A prior inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by statin enhanced the effect of ezetimibe on total cholesterol and LDL-C by 7.8% and 11.2%, respectively. This finding suggests that ezetimibe increased cholesterol synthesis, resulting in a significant elevation of cholesterol levels.
PMCID: PMC4117843  PMID: 25089134
Ezetimibe; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors; Lipids; Lipoproteins
24.  Diafenthiuron: 1-tert-butyl-3-(2,6-diisopropyl-4-phen­oxy­phen­yl)thio­urea 
The title compound, C23H32N2OS, is a thio­urea-based insecticide. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the diisopropyl benzene ring plane is 73.18 (6)°, while that between the plane of the thio­urea group and the diisopropyl benzene ring is 86.00 (5)°. Disorder was modelled for the S atom and the two methyl C atoms of the isopropyl group over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.742 (4):0.258 (4). In the crystal, N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol­ecules, forming R 2 2(8) inversion dimers that pack into chains along the b-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC4120544  PMID: 25161588
crystal structure
25.  Vinclozolin: 3-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­yl)-5-ethenyl-5-methyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione 
In the title compound, C12H9Cl2NO3, which is the fungicide vinclozolin, the dihedral angle between the oxazolidine ring mean plane [r.m.s. deviation = 0.029 Å] and the benzene ring is 77.55 (8)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. The chains are linked by short Cl⋯Cl contacts [3.4439 (3) and 3.5798 (3) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.
PMCID: PMC4120555  PMID: 25161548

Results 1-25 (85)