AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its target genes in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The tumor tissues of 115 patients with gastric cancer were immunohistochemically evaluated using monoclonal antibodies against NF-κB RelA. Preoperative serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed via enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were measured via immunotrubidimetry.
RESULTS: Positive rate of NF-κB RelA was 42.6%. NF-κB RelA expression in tumor tissues was also related to serum levels of IL-6 (P = 0.044) and CRP (P = 0.010). IL-6, SAA, CRP were related to depth of invasion, VEGF and SAA were correlated with lymph node metastasis. IL-6, VEGF, SAA and CRP were related to the stage. Univariate analysis demonstrated that immunostaining of NF-κB RelA, levels of IL-6, VEGF, SAA were significantly related with both disease free survival and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis verified that NF-κB RelA [hazard ratio (HR): 3.40, P = 0.024] and SAA (HR: 3.39, P = 0.045) were independently associated with OS.
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of NF-κB RelA and high levels of serum SAA were associated with poor OS in gastric cancer patients.
Nuclear factor-κB; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Interleukin-6; C-reactive protein; Serum amyloid A; Stomach; Carcinoma
The control of neurotransmitter release at nerve terminals is of profound importance for neurological function and provides a powerful control system in neural networks. We show that the balance of enzymatic activities of the alpha isoform of the phosphatase calcineurin (CNAα) and the kinase CDK5 has a dramatic influence over single AP-driven exocytosis at nerve terminals. Acute or chronic loss of these enzymatic activities results in a 7-fold impact on single action potential-driven exocytosis. We demonstrate that this control is mediated almost entirely through Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calcium channels as blocking these channels with a peptide toxin eliminates modulation by these enzymes. We found that a fraction of nerve terminals are kept in a presynaptically silent state with no measurable Ca2+ influx driven by single AP stimuli due to the balance of CNAα and CDK5 activities as blockade of either CNAα or CDK5 activity changes the proportion of presynaptically silent nerve terminals. Thus CNAα and CDK5 enzymatic activities are key determinants of release probability.
AIM: To identify the clinical features and outcomes of infrequently reported leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We analyzed 54 cases of cytologically confirmed gastric LMC at four institutions from 1994 to 2007.
RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 32:22, and the patients ranged in age from 28 to 78 years (median, 48.5 years). The majority of patients had advanced disease at initial diagnosis of gastric cancer. The clinical or pathologic tumor, node and metastasis stage of the primary gastric cancer was IV in 38 patients (70%). The median interval from diagnosis of the primary malignancy to the diagnosis of LMC was 6.3 mo, ranging between 0 and 73.1 mo. Of the initial endoscopic findings for the 45 available patients, 23 (51%) of the patients were Bormann type III and 15 (33%) patients were Bormann type IV. Pathologically, 94% of cases proved to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Signet ring cell component was also observed in 40% of patients. Headache (85%) and nausea/vomiting (58%) were the most common presenting symptoms of LMC. A gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was conducted in 51 patients. Leptomeningeal enhancement was noted in 45 cases (82%). Intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy was administered to 36 patients-primarily methotrexate alone (61%), but also in combination with hydrocortisone/± Ara-C (39%). The median number of IT treatments was 7 (range, 1-18). Concomitant radiotherapy was administered to 18 patients, and concomitant chemotherapy to seven patients. Seventeen patients (46%) achieved cytological negative conversion. Median overall survival duration from the diagnosis of LMC was 6.7 wk (95% CI: 4.3-9.1 wk). In the univariate analysis of survival duration, hemoglobin, IT chemotherapy, and cytological negative conversion showed superior survival duration (P = 0.038, P = 0.010, and P = 0.002, respectively). However, in our multivariate analysis, only cytological negative conversion was predictive of relatively longer survival duration (3.6, 6.7 and 14.6 wk, P = 0.030, RR: 0.415, 95% CI: 0.188-0.918).
CONCLUSION: Although these patients had a fatal clinical course, cytologic negative conversion by IT chemotherapy may improve survival.
Carcinomatosis; Gastric cancer; Intrathecal chemotherapy; Leptomeningeal
Several inflammatory response materials could be used for prediction of prognosis of cancer patients. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been introduced for prognostic scoring system in various cancers. The objective of this study was to determine whether the NLR or the PLR would predict the clinical outcomes in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin/ 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX).
The study population consisted of 174 advanced gastric cancer patients. Patients were treated with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin as a 2-h infusion at day 1 plus 20 mg/m2 of leucovorin over 10 min, followed by 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 and 22-h continuous infusion of 600 mg/m2 at days 1-2. Treatment was repeated in 2-week intervals. The NLR and PLR were calculated from complete blood counts in laboratory test before and after first cycle of chemotherapy.
NLR was a useful prognostic biomarker for predicting inferior overall survival (OS) (p = 0.005), but was not associated with progression free survival (PFS) (p = 0.461). The normalization of NLR after one cycle of chemotherapy was found to be in association with significant improvement in PFS (5.3 months vs. 2.4 months, p < 0.001), and OS (11.9 months vs. 4.6 months, p < 0.001). The normalization of PLR was also associated with longer PFS (5.6 months vs. 3.4 months, p = 0.006), and OS (16.9 months vs. 10.9 months, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, changes in NLR were associated with PFS (Hazard ratio (HR): 2.297, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.429-3.693, p = 0.001). The NLR, (HR: 0.245, 95% CI: 0.092-0.633, p = 0.004), PLR (HR: 0.347, 95% CI: 0.142-0.847, p = 0.020), changes in NLR (HR: 2.468, 95% CI: 1.567-3.886, p < 0.001), and changes in PLR (HR: 1.473, 95% CI: 1.038-2.090, p = 0.030) were independent prognostic markers for OS.
This study demonstrates that NLR, PLR, and changes in NLR or PLR are independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy. These specific factors may also help in identifying the patients, who are more sensitive to FOLFOX regimen.
Neutrophil; Lymphocyte; Platelet; Gastric neoplasm
RecA is a DNA-dependent ATPase and mediates homologous recombination by first forming a filament on a single-stranded (ss) DNA. RecA binds preferentially to TGG repeat sequence, which resembles the recombination hot spot Chi (5′-GCTGGTGG-3′) and is the most frequent pattern (GTG) of the codon usage in Escherichia coli. Because of the highly dynamic nature of RecA filament formation, which consists of filament nucleation, growth and shrinkage, we need experimental approaches that can resolve each of these processes separately to gain detailed insights into the molecular mechanism of sequence preference. By using a single-molecule fluorescence assay, we examined the effect of sequence on individual stages of nucleation, monomer binding and dissociation. We found that RecA does not recognize the Chi sequence as a nucleation site. In contrast, we observed that it is the reduced monomer dissociation that mainly determines the high filament stability on TGG repeats. This sequence dependence of monomer dissociation is well-correlated with that of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting that DNA sequence dictates filament stability through modulation of ATP hydrolysis.
To determine the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel as a third-line therapy for patients with relapsed gastric cancer who have undergone modified oxaliplatin-fluorouracil (m-FOLFOX)-4 and modified irinotecan-fluorouracil (m-FOLFIRI) regimens.
We analyzed 33 patients who had been histologically diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and who had progressed after m-FOLFOX-4 and m-FOLFIRI regimens. Patients were treated with cycles of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel on day 1 every 3 weeks.
The median age of the patients was 56.0 years (range, 31.0 to 74.0), and 73% of the patients (24/33) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. All patients were evaluated in terms of tumor response: five (15%), nine (27%), and 19 (58%) patients experienced a partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease, respectively. The median time to progression was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.58), and overall survival was 4.7 months (95% CI, 3.20 to 6.20), from the start of the docetaxel regimen. Assessing patients' toxicity profiles, the median number of cycles was 2.0 (range, 1.0 to 12.0). The major hematologic toxicities included grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (19/33, 58%), grade 3 to 4 thrombocytopenia (2/33, 6%), and grade 3 to 4 anemia (5/33, 15%). Neutropenic fever developed in three patients (3/33, 9%). The nonhematological toxicities were nausea and vomiting (10/33, 30%), abdominal pain (4/33, 12%), skin rash (1/33, 3%), and fluid retention (3/33, 9%).
Docetaxel is a feasible third-line therapy regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer after m-FOLFIRI and m-FOLFOX-4 regimens.
Advanced gastric cancer; Docetaxel; Salvage therapy
The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcome in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX).
Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood, and six VEGF (−2578C/A, -2489C/T, -1498 T/C, -634 G/C, +936C/T, and +1612 G/A) gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR. Levels of serum VEGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays.
Patients with G/G genotype for VEGF -634 G/C gene polymorphism showed a lower response rate (22.2%) than those with G/C or C/C genotype (32.3%, 51.1%; P = 0.034). Patients with the VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism G/C + C/C genotype had a longer progression free survival (PFS) of 4.9 months, compared with the PFS of 3.5 months for those with the G/G (P = 0.043, log-rank test). By multivariate analysis, this G/G genotype of VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism was identified as an independent prognostic factor (Hazard ratio 1.497, P = 0.017).
Our data suggest that G/G genotype of VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism is related to the higher serum levels of VEGF, and poor clinical outcome in advanced gastric cancer patients.
VEGF; Polymorphism; Gastric cancer
Novel agents to treat multiple myeloma (MM) have increased complete respone (CR) rates compared with conventional chemotherapy, and the quality of the response to treatment has been correlated with survival. The purpose of our study was to show how of early response to bortezomib combined chemotherapy influences survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. We assessed patient responses to at least four cycles of bortezomib using the International Myeloma Working Group response criteria. The endpoints were comparisons of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between early good response group (A group) and poor response group (B group). We retrospectively analyzed data from 129 patients registered by the Korean Multiple Myeloma Working Party, a nationwide registration of MM patients. The 3 yr PFS for the A and B groups was 55.6% and 18.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 3 yr OS for the A and B groups was 65.3% and 52.9%, respectively (P = 0.078). The early response to at least four cycle of bortezomib before next chemotherapy may help predict PFS in patients with MM who are ineligible stem cell transplantation.
Early Response; Multiple Myeloma; Bortezomib; Survival
Oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the inflamed joint have been indicated as being involved as inflammatory mediators in the induction of arthritis. Correlations between extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and inflammatory arthritis have been shown in several animal models of RA. However, there is a question whether the over-expression of EC-SOD on arthritic joint also could suppress the progression of disease or not. In the present study, the effect on the synovial tissue of experimental arthritis was investigated using EC-SOD over-expressing transgenic mice. The over-expression of EC-SOD in joint tissue was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The degree of the inflammation in EC-SOD transgenic mice was suppressed in the collagen-induced arthritis model. In a cytokine assay, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, IL-1β, TNFα, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was decreased in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) but not in peripheral blood. Histological examination also showed repressed cartilage destruction and bone in EC-SOD transgenic mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that the over-expression of EC-SOD in FLS contributes to the activation of FLS and protection from joint destruction by depressing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs. These results provide EC-SOD transgenic mice with a useful animal model for inflammatory arthritis research.
arthritis, experimental; reactive oxygen species; rheumatoid arthritis; superoxide dismutase; synovial membrane
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a preleukemic condition that transforms into acute myeloid leukemia. However, the genetic events underlying this transformation remain poorly understood. Aberrant DNA methylation may play a causative role in the disease and its prognosis. Thus, we compared the DNA methylation profiles in refractory anemia with excess blast (RAEB) to those in refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD).
Bone marrow samples were collected from 20 patients with primary MDS (9 with RAEB and 11 with RCMD), and peripheral blood samples were collected from 4 healthy controls. These samples were assessed using a commercial whole genome-wide methylation assay. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the methylation of candidate gene promoters in RAEB and RCMD.
Microarray data revealed significant hypermethylation in 69 genes within RAEB but not RCMD. Candidate genes were mapped to 5 different networks, and network 1 had the highest score due to its involvement in gene expression, cancer, and cell cycle. Five genes (GSTM5, BIK, CENPH, RERG, and ANGPTL2) were associated with malignant disease progression. Among them, the methylated promoter pairs of GSTM5 (55.5% and 20%), BIK (20% and 0%), and ANGPTL2 (44.4% and 10%) were observed more frequently in RAEB.
DNA methylation of GSTM5, BIK, and ANGPTL2 may induce epigenetic silencing and contribute to the increasing blasts and resulting MDS progression; however, the functions of these genes were not determined. Further study focusing on epigenetic silencing using various detection modalities is required.
Myelodysplastic syndrome; DNA methylation; GSTM5; ANGPTL2; BIK
The criteria by Camitta for diagnosis in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has been used since 1976. However, there has been no attempt to verify the Camitta's criteria, that the survival in patients with SAA may differ by absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), and corrected reticulocyte count (CRC), which are components of the Camitta's criteria.
117 SAA patients diagnosed by the Camitta's criteria were analyzed, retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the factors affecting overall survival (OS).
Response by immunosuppressive therapy (IST) or stem cell transplantation (SCT) significantly affected OS (P=0.001). Therefore, we excluded treatment responders for analysis. Finally, 92 SAA patients including treatment non-responders by IST or SCT and conservative care group were analyzed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. The median age of analyzed patients was 54.5 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The median follow-up duration was 74.23 months (range, 54.71-93.74 months). The median ANC, PLT, and CRC were 394/µL, 12,000/µL, and 0.39%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, ANC <500/µL or ≥500/µL (P=0.015, HR 2.694, 95% CI: 1.20-6.01) and age (P=0.015, HR 1.022, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04) were the significant factors for OS.
ANC could be an essential, not an optional criterion for diagnosing SAA. This study suggests the possibility that the Camitta's criteria be modified. Studies in large cohorts are needed to transform the Camitta's criteria.
Camitta's criteria; Severe aplastic anemia; Absolute neutrophil count
This study was conducted to clarify the frequency of the BRAF mutation in primary melanomas and its correlation with clinicopathologic parameters.
We analyzed the frequency of BRAF mutation in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (n=58) or non-cutaneous one (n=27) by performing dual priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction to isolate and to purify the DNA from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors.
The BRAF mutation was found in 17.2% (10/58) of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma and 11.1% (3/27) of those with non-cutaneous melanoma. The frequency of BRAF mutation was not correlated with any clinicopathologic parameters with the exception of the patient age. The frequency of the BRAF mutation was significantly higher in patients younger than 60 years as compared with those older than 60 years (p=0.005).
Compared with previous reports, our results showed that the frequency of the BRAF mutation was relatively lower in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Besides, our results also showed that the frequency of the BRAF mutation had an inverse correlation with the age. Further studies are warranted to exclude methodological bias, to elucidate the difference in the frequency of the BRAF mutation from the previous reports from a Caucasian population and to provide an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of malignant melanoma.
Melanoma; BRAF; Mutation; Frequency
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and is the second most common cause of death. Clinical studies regarding chemotherapy for CRC with PC have been classically rather limited in scope. We evaluated the efficacy of modified oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and fluorouracil (m-FOLFOX4) regimen for PC of CRC origin.
Materials and Methods
CRC patients with PC were treated with cycles of oxaliplatin at 85 mg/m2 on day 1, leucovorin 20 mg/m2 followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) via a 400 mg/m2 bolus and a 22 hours continuous infusion of 600 mg/m2 5-FU on days 1-2 at 2-week intervals.
Forty patients participated in this study. Median age was 55 years. Thirty-two patients (80.0%) received previous operation, and 60.0% of PC occurred synchronously. Thirty-five patients (87.5%) were assessable and exhibited measurable lesions. Two patients (5.7%) demonstrated complete response and five patients (14.3%) showed partial response. The median time to progression was 4.4 months (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 6.3 months), the median overall survival time was 21.5 months (95% confidence interval, 17.2 to 25.7 months). There was no treatment related death. Presence of liver metastasis (p=0.022), performance status (p=0.039), and carcinoembryonic antigen level (p=0.016) were related to the time to progression. Patients with low carcinoembryonic antigen level (37.2 months vs. 15.6 months, p=0.001) or good performance status (22.5 months vs. 6.8 months, p=0.040) showed better overall survival.
The m-FOLFOX4 regimen was determined to be effective for CRC patients with PC.
Colorectal neoplasms; Peritoneum; Carcinoma; Drug therapy
An efficient clinical process guideline (CPG) modeling service was designed that uses an enhanced intelligent search protocol. The need for a search system arises from the requirement for CPG models to be able to adapt to dynamic patient contexts, allowing them to be updated based on new evidence that arises from medical guidelines and papers.
A sentence category classifier combined with the AdaBoost.M1 algorithm was used to evaluate the contribution of the CPG to the quality of the search mechanism. Three annotators each tagged 340 sentences hand-chosen from the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) clinical guideline. The three annotators then carried out cross-validations of the tagged corpus. A transformation function is also used that extracts a predefined set of structural feature vectors determined by analyzing the sentential instance in terms of the underlying syntactic structures and phrase-level co-occurrences that lie beneath the surface of the lexical generation event.
The additional sub-filtering using a combination of multi-classifiers was found to be more effective than a single conventional Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF)-based search system in pinpointing the page containing or adjacent to the guideline information.
We found that transformation has the advantage of exploiting the structural and underlying features which go unseen by the bag-of-words (BOW) model. We also realized that integrating a sentential classifier with a TF-IDF-based search engine enhances the search process by maximizing the probability of the automatically presented relevant information required in the context generated by the guideline authoring environment.
Knowledge Bases; Data Mining; Natural Language Processing
Pyogenic spondylitis often results in acute neurological deterioration requiring adequate surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic treatment. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of the clinical effect of continuous irrigation via laminotomy in a series of patients with pyogenic spondylitis in thoracic and lumbar spine.
The authors conducted a retrospective investigation of 31 consecutive patients with pyogenic thoracic and lumbar spondylitis who underwent continuous irrigation through laminotomy from 2004 to 2008. The study included 22 men and 9 women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean 58.1 years). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 months (range, 8-34 months). We performed debridement and abscess removal after simple laminotomy, and then washed out epidural and disc space using a continuous irrigation system. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered empirically and changed according to the subsequent culture result. Clinical outcomes were based on the low back outcome scale (LBOS), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Frankel grade at the last follow-up. Radiological assessment involved plain radiographs, including functional views.
Common predisposing factors included local injection for pain therapy, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis. Causative microorganisms were identified in 22 cases (70.9%) : Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were the main organisms. After surgery, LBOS, VAS score, and Frankel grade showed significant improvement in most patients. Spinal stability was maintained during the follow-up period, making secondary reconstructive surgery unnecessary for all patients, except one.
Simple laminotomy with continuous irrigation by insertion of a catheter into intervertebral disc space or epidural space was minimally invasive and effective in the treatment of pyogenic spondylitis. This procedure could be a beneficial treatment option in patients with thoracolumbar spondylitis combined with minimal or moderate destructive change of vertebrae.
Irrigation; Laminotomy; Pyogenic; Spondylitis; Thoracolumbar
CDK5 is an important kinase in nervous system function, controlling neural development and postsynaptic signal integration. Here we show that CDK5 plays a major role in controlling neurotransmitter release. Inhibition of CDK5 activity, by either acute or genetic means leads to profound potentiation of presynaptic function, including unmasking of previously “silent” synapses. Removal of CDK5 activity additionally unlocks access to the resting synaptic vesicle pool, which normally remains recalcitrant to exocytosis and recycling even following prolonged action potential stimuli. Presynaptic CDK5 levels are additionally severely depleted by chronic neuronal silencing, a treatment that is functionally similar to CDK5 KD with regard to presynaptic potentiation. Thus CDK5 appears to be an integral element in presynaptic homeostatic scaling and the resting vesicle pool appears to provide a potent functional presynaptic homeostatic control parameter. These studies thus pinpoint CDK5 as a major control point for modulation of neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.
Recent studies indicate that patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are not expected to show positivity for anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA), which is a specific disease marker for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). A differential diagnosis between PBC and hepatic involvement of GVHD based on clinical manifestations and pathologic study is difficult because both diseases show similar results. Therefore, the presence of AMA may be important for distinguishing each disease. Here, we report a case of hepatic involvement of chronic GVHD with positive AMA, in which the pathologic findings and initial presentation of clinical findings were compatible with both PBC and chronic GVHD.
Autoantibody; Anti-mitochondrial antibody; Chronic graft-versus-host disease; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
To assess the usefulness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) results in advanced gastric cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
Sixty-two patients underwent curative surgical resection between January, 2006 and December, 2008. Their highly purified surgical specimens were evaluated by ATP-CRAs. Of the 62, 49 had successful assay results and they received either oral 5-fluorouracil or other chemotherapies. We retrospectively analyzed data for 24 patients who were treated with oral 5-fluorouracil and whose assays were successful.
The median observation time was 24.6 months (range, 10.1 to 40.9 months). The median treatment time was 11.2 months (range, 1.2 to 17.7 months). The median age was 66 years (range, 30 to 81 years). Patients were grouped into sensitive- and resistant-groups according to adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response results for fluorouracil. The sensitive-group showed a significantly longer time to relapse (not reached in the sensitive-group vs. 24.8 months in the resistant-group, p=0.043) and longer overall survival compared to the resistant-group (not reached in the sensitive-group vs. 35.7 months in the resistant-group, p=0.16, statistically insignificant).
Patients who receive curative surgical resection significantly benefit from sensitive adjuvant chemotherapy according to ATP-CRA results for time to relapse.
Adenosine triphosphate; Chemotherapy response assay; Gastric cancer; Fluorouracil; Adjuvant chemotherapy
The role of first-line trastuzumab-based therapy has been firmly established in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive metastatic breast cancer. In this trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a vinorelbine and trastuzumab combination chemotherapy in patients who were pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes.
Thirty-three patients with HER2 overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, all of whom had previously been treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, were included in this study. The patients were treated with 25 mg/m2 of vinorelbine (over a 15-minute infusion) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Additionally, trastuzumab was administered at an initial dose of 4 mg/kg over 90 minutes, and was subsequently administered at weekly doses of 2 mg/kg (over 30 minutes).
The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 39-72 years). The overall response rate was 30.3% (10 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23-57%). The median time to progression was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.3-8.2 months). The median overall survival was 12.4 months (95% CI, 10.3-14.6 months). In the 194 cycles of treatment, the incidence rates of grade ≥3 neutropenia and anemia were 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Neutropenic fever was detected in three cycles (1.5%). The non-hematological toxicities were not severe: grade 1 or 2 nausea or vomiting was detected in 15.2%, and grade 2 neuropathy was noted in 6.1% of patients. None of the patients experienced any serious cardiac toxicity, and no treatment-related deaths occurred.
These results show that a combination chemotherapy consisting of vinorelbine and trastuzumab is useful in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who were pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes, with a favorable toxicity profile.
Breast neoplasms; Metastasis; Trastuzumab; Vinorelbine
Frzb-1 is a secreted protein containing a domain similar to the putative Wnt-binding region of the frizzled family of transmembrane receptors. Frzb-1 is widely expressed in adult mammalian tissues. In the Xenopus gastrula, it is expressed and regulated as a typical Spemann organizer component. Injection of frzb-1 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks. Frzb-1 antagonizes the effects of Xwnt-8 ectopic expression in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Cultured cells transfected with a membrane-tethered form of Wnt-1 bind epitope-tagged Frzb-1 in the 10−10 M range. The results strengthen the view that the Spemann organizer is a source of secreted inhibitory factors.
Chimerism analysis is an important tool for assessing the origin of hematopoietic cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and can be used to detect impending graft rejection and the recurrence of underlying malignant or nonmalignant diseases.
This study included 24 patients who underwent myeloablative allo-SCT. DNA was extracted from nucleated cells (NCs), T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, and the chimerism status of these cell fractions was determined by STR-PCR performed using an automated fluorescent DNA analyzer.
Twenty-three out of the 24 patients achieved engraftment. Mixed chimerism (MC) in NCs, but not in T cells and NK cells, was significantly correlated with disease relapse. MC in all cell fractions was correlated with mortality. Ten patients (41.6%) developed extensive chronic GVHD. Six patients had MC in T cells, and 3 of them had chronic GVHD. Four patients with MC and relapse received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), and among them, 3 had secondary relapse. Further, the chimerism status differed among different cell lineages in 6 patients with myeloid malignancies.
The implications of MC in lymphocyte subsets are an important area for future research. Chimerism analysis in lineage-specific cells permits detection of relapse and facilitates the monitoring of therapeutic interventions. These results can provide the basic data for chimerism analysis after myeloablative SCT.
Lineage-specific chimerism; Myeloablative stem cell transplantation; T cells; Natural killer cells
Cytogenetic abnormalities (CAs) have been reported frequently in patients with otherwise typical aplastic anemia (AA), but their implications in the prognosis and in the evolution to hematologic malignancies are controversial.
We retrospectively analyzed 127 adult AA patients who had successful cytogenetic analysis at initial diagnosis.
The patients were classified into 3 groups according to the initial and follow-up results of cytogenetic profiles. Group 1 included patients who had persistent AA with normal cytogenetic profiles (N=117); Group 2, those who had a normal cytogenetic profile at initial diagnosis but later acquired CA (N=4, 3.1%); and Group 3, those who had CA at the initial diagnosis, regardless of follow-up cytogenetic status (N=6,4.7%). In Group 2, 2 patients later developed CA without progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); the other 2 patients later progressed to AML. None of the patients in Group 3 progressed to AML or MDS. There was no significant difference in overall survival between Groups 1 and 3.
AA patients with CA at initial diagnosis or follow-up may not be at greater risk for evolution to AML or MDS, or show shorter survival periods. Prospective studies and a larger patient samples are needed to establish the clinical relevance of CA.
Aplastic anemia; Cytogenetic abnormality
Cardiac amyloidosis describes a clinical disorder caused by infiltration of abnormal insoluble fibrils in the heart, characterized by progressive heart failure and a grave prognosis. Pleural effusion in cardiac amyloidosis may represent a sign of heart failure, but it can also result from pleural infiltration of amyloid, manifested by recurrent large fluid accumulations. Recently, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of refractory pleural effusion. We report a case of a 53 year-old female patient with cardiac amyloidosis who presented with recurrent accumulation of large pleural effusions. She was initially treated with high dose loop diuretics, but the pleural effusion persisted, with the daily amount of drainage averaging 1 L/day. Accumulation of pleural fluid did not subside after 3 cycles of melphalan/prednisolone therapy. After the introduction of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody, the amount of pleural effusion decreased significantly. Efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy for refractory pleural effusions needs to be defined through further studies.
Heart disease; Amyloidosis; Pleural effusion; Bevacizumab
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a newly recognized variant of a pilocytic astrocytoma. This report describes a case of a pilomyxoid astrocytoma that occurred in the opticohypothalamus. The patient was a 18-year-old girl who complained decreased visual acuity and visual field over a period of two years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an irregular lobulated tumor with heterogeneous enhancement at the suprasellar region involving the hypothalamus. The mass was partially removed via the subfrontal approach. Its pathology was confirmed to be PMA. Adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and vincristine was started following tumor resection. After four cycles, the mass showed a partial response to the chemotherapy. Although long-term outcome is yet to be determined, the administration of combined cisplatin and vincristine treatment seems to be an effective regimen for a pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Opticohypothalamus; Pilomyxoid astrocytoma