Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer related deaths. Most patients were presented with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. In advanced NSCLC, it is almost impossible to anticipate complete remission by using only cytotoxic chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agents. In our case, two patients were diagnosed as advanced NSCLC and received chemotherapy. They achieved complete response (CR). After finishing treatment, disease recurred. They were retreated with the same regimens and achieved second CR. Until now, they have received each regimen, continuously, and the CR state has been maintained.
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Remission Induction; Retreatment; Maintenance Chemotherapy
The anti-inflammatory action of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported in a murine model of asthma in a previous study. But more specific mechanisms of silver NPs in an attenuation of allergic airway inflammation have not yet been established. Vascular and mucous changes are believed to contribute largely in pathophysiology in asthma. Among various factors related to vascular changes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in vascular changes in asthma. Mucin proteins MUC5AC and MUC5B have been implicated as markers of goblet cell metaplasia in lung pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of silver NPs on VEGF signaling pathways and mucus hypersecretion. Ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled female BALBc mice were used to evaluate the role of silver NPs and the related molecular mechanisms in allergic airway disease. In this study, with an OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease, it was found that the increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, VEGF, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated-Akt levels, and mucous glycoprotein expression (Muc5ac) in lung tissues were substantially decreased by the administration of silver NPs. In summary, silver NPs substantially suppressed mucus hypersecretion and PI3K/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway in an allergic airway inflammation.
allergic airway disease; hypoxia inducible factor-1α; vascular endothelial growth factor
Since endoscopes are reusable apparatus classified as semicritical item, thorough reprocessing to achieve high-level disinfection is of utmost importance to prevent spread of infection. To improve disinfection efficacy and safety, disinfectants and endoscope reprocessors are continuously evolving. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the combination of polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride-alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (PHMB-DBAC) and orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) used respectively in ultrasonographic cleaning incorporated automated endoscope reprocessors: COOLENDO (APEX Korea) or OER-A (Olympus Optical).
A total of 86 flexible upper endoscopes were randomly reprocessed with either COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC or OER-A/OPA. Culture samplings were done at two sites (endoscope tip and working channel) which were later incubated on blood agar plate. Bacterial colonies were counted and identified.
The culture-positive rate at the endoscope tip and working channel was 0% and 2.33% for COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC and 4.65% and 0% for OER-A/OPA. Staphylococcus hominis was cultured from one endoscope reprocessed with COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC and Pseudomonas putida was isolated from two endoscopes reprocessed with OER-A/OPA.
The reprocessing efficacy of COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC was non-inferior to that of OER-A/OPA (p=0.032; confidence interval, -0.042 to 0.042). During the study period, significant side effect of PHMB-DBAC was not observed.
Endoscope reprocessing; Disinfectants; High-level disinfection
Boerhaave’s syndrome is spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, a rare condition with high mortality that occurs most often after forceful vomiting. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution is the most common preparation used for colonoscopy. Since large volumes have to be ingested, PEG may induce severe vomiting or retching. However, Boerhaave’s syndrome has rarely been reported as a potential problem related to PEG solution. We report a case of spontaneous esophageal rupture due to violent vomiting during bowel preparation with PEG solution in a patient with postpolypectomy bleeding.
Esophageal perforation; Colonoscopy; Polyethylene glycols
Background: Studies estimating health effects of long-term air pollution exposure often use a two-stage approach: building exposure models to assign individual-level exposures, which are then used in regression analyses. This requires accurate exposure modeling and careful treatment of exposure measurement error.
Objective: To illustrate the importance of accounting for exposure model characteristics in two-stage air pollution studies, we considered a case study based on data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Methods: We built national spatial exposure models that used partial least squares and universal kriging to estimate annual average concentrations of four PM2.5 components: elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), silicon (Si), and sulfur (S). We predicted PM2.5 component exposures for the MESA cohort and estimated cross-sectional associations with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), adjusting for subject-specific covariates. We corrected for measurement error using recently developed methods that account for the spatial structure of predicted exposures.
Results: Our models performed well, with cross-validated R2 values ranging from 0.62 to 0.95. Naïve analyses that did not account for measurement error indicated statistically significant associations between CIMT and exposure to OC, Si, and S. EC and OC exhibited little spatial correlation, and the corrected inference was unchanged from the naïve analysis. The Si and S exposure surfaces displayed notable spatial correlation, resulting in corrected confidence intervals (CIs) that were 50% wider than the naïve CIs, but that were still statistically significant.
Conclusion: The impact of correcting for measurement error on health effect inference is concordant with the degree of spatial correlation in the exposure surfaces. Exposure model characteristics must be considered when performing two-stage air pollution epidemiologic analyses because naïve health effect inference may be inappropriate.
Citation: Bergen S, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Kim SY, Richards M, Vedal S, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. 2013. A national prediction model for PM2.5 component exposures and measurement error–corrected health effect inference. Environ Health Perspect 121:1017–1025; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206010
Decidual macrophages (dMϕ) of the mother and placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells, HC) of the fetus are deployed at a critical location: the feto-maternal interface. This study was conducted to compare DNA methylome of maternal and fetal monocytes, dMϕ, and HC, and thereby to determine the immunobiological importance of DNA methylation in pregnancy.
Methods of Study
Paired samples were obtained from normal pregnant women at term not in labor and their own neonates. Maternal monocytes (MM) and fetal monocytes (FM) were isolated from peripheral blood of mothers and from fetal cord blood, respectively. dMϕ and HC were obtained from the decidua of fetal membranes and placenta, respectively. DNA methylation profiling was done using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed for validation experiments.
1) Significant differences in DNA methylation were found in each comparison (MM vs. FM, 65 loci; dMϕ vs. HC, 266 loci; MM vs. dMϕ, 199 loci; FM vs. HC, 1,030 loci). 2) Many of the immune response-related genes were hypermethylated in fetal cells (FM and HC) compared to maternal cells (MM and dMϕ). 3) Genes encoding markers of classical macrophage activation were hypermethylated and genes encoding alternative macrophage activation were hypomethylated in dMϕ and HC compared to MM and FM, respectively. 4) mRNA expressions of DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B were significantly lower in dMϕ than in HC. 5) 5-azacytidine treatment increased expression of INCA1 in dMϕ.
The findings herein indicate that DNA methylation patterns change during monocyte-macrophage differentiation at the feto-maternal interface. It is also suggested that DNA methylation is an important component of biological machinery conferring an anti-inflammatory phenotype to macrophages at the feto-maternal interface.
Decidua; DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferase; Epigenetics; Epigenome; Hofbauer cell; Placenta; Pregnancy
The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between gallbladder (GB) polyps and metabolic syndrome. A total of 5,685 healthy subjects were included, and 485 of these subjects had GB polyps and 744 had metabolic syndrome. In this study, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to standards suggested by the AHA/NHLBI ATP III 2005, and abdominal obesity (≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 85 cm in women for Korean) was diagnosed according to standards set forth by the Korean Society for Study of Obesity. Biphasic logistic regression adjusted for age and gender was used to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and GB polyps. Subjects who were male (OR, 1.493; 95% CI, 1.11-2.00) and hepatitis B suface Ag (HBsAg) positive (OR, 1.591; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38) were significantly more likely to have GB polyps. The metabolic syndrome group had a higher risk of GB polyps (OR, 1.315; 95% CI, 1.01-1.69) than the group without metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, subjects who were HBsAg positive and male appear to be associated with the risk of GB polyps. The presence of metabolic syndrome also appears to be associated with the risk of GB polyps in Koreans.
Metabolic Syndrome; GB Polyp; Risk Factors
We investigated patterns of failure in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) according to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) timing: pre-operative versus post-operative. Also, patterns of failure, particularly distant metastasis (DM), were analyzed according to tumor location within the rectum.
In total, 872 patients with LARC who had undergone concurrent CRT and radical surgery between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Concurrent CRT was administered pre-operatively (cT3–4) or post-operatively (pT3–4 or pN+) in 550 (63.1%) and 322 (36.9%) patients, respectively. Median follow-up period was 86 (range, 12–133) months for 673 living patients. Local recurrence (LR) was defined as any disease recurrence within the pelvis, and any failure outside the pelvis was classified as a DM. Only the first site of recurrence was scored.
In total, 226 (25.9%) patients developed disease recurrence. In the pre-operative CRT group, the incidences of isolated LR, combined LR and DM, and isolated DM were 17, 21, and 89 patients, respectively. In the post-operative CRT group, these incidences were 8, 15, and 76 patients, respectively. LR within 2 years constituted 44.7% and 60.9% of all LRs in the pre-operative and post-operative CRT groups, respectively. Late (> 5 years) LR comprised 13.2% and 4.3% of all LRs in the pre-operative and post-operative CRT groups, respectively. The lung was the most common DM site (108/249, 43.4%). Lung or para-aortic lymph node metastasis developed more commonly from low-to-mid rectal tumors while liver metastasis developed more commonly from upper rectal tumors. Lung metastasis occurred later than liver metastasis (n = 54; 22.6 ± 15.6 vs. 17.4 ± 12.1 months; P = 0.035).
This study showed that LARC patients receiving pre-operative CRT tended to develop late LR more often than those receiving post-operative CRT. Further extended follow-up than is conventional may be necessary in LARC patients who are managed with optimized multimodal treatments, and the follow-up strategy may need to be individualized according to tumor location within the rectum.
Rectal cancer; Pattern of failure; Preoperative; Postoperative; Chemoradiotherapy
Concentrations of outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. PM2.5 chemical composition may be responsible for effects of exposure to PM2.5.
Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) collected in 2000–2002 on 6,256 US adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in six U.S. metropolitan areas, we investigated cross-sectional associations of estimated long-term exposure to total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 components (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], silicon and sulfur) with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and right common carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]). Community monitors deployed for this study from 2007 to 2008 were used to estimate exposures at baseline addresses using three commonly-used approaches: (1) nearest monitor (the primary approach), (2) inverse-distance monitor weighting and (3) city-wide average.
Using the exposure estimate based on nearest monitor, in single-pollutant models, increased OC (effect estimate [95% CI] per IQR: 35.1 μm [26.8, 43.3]), EC (9.6 μm [3.6,15.7]), sulfur (22.7 μm [15.0,30.4]) and total PM2.5 (14.7 μm [9.0,20.5]) but not silicon (5.2 μm [−9.8,20.1]), were associated with increased CIMT; in two-pollutant models, only the association with OC was robust to control for the other pollutants. Findings were generally consistent across the three exposure estimation approaches. None of the PM measures were positively associated with either the presence or extent of CAC. In sensitivity analyses, effect estimates for OC and silicon were particularly sensitive to control for metropolitan area.
Employing commonly-used exposure estimation approaches, all of the PM2.5 components considered, except silicon, were associated with increased CIMT, with the evidence being strongest for OC; no component was associated with increased CAC. PM2.5 chemical components, or other features of the sources that produced them, may be important in determining the effect of PM exposure on atherosclerosis. These cross-sectional findings await confirmation in future work employing longitudinal outcome measures and using more sophisticated approaches to estimating exposure.
Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular diseases; Coronary artery disease; Air pollution; Particulate matter
When a patient with a fractured anterior tooth visits the clinic, clinician has to restore the tooth esthetically and quickly. For esthetic resin restoration, clinician can use 'Natural Layering technique' and an index for palatal wall may be needed. In this case report, we introduce pre-restoration index technique on a Class IV defect, in which a temporary filling material is used for easy restoration. Chair-side index fabrication for Class IV restoration is convenient and makes a single-visit treatment possible.
Class IV restoration; Index fabrication; Temporary filling material
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that possesses cytokinelike, proinflammatory properties when released extracellularly in the C23–C45 disulfide form. HMGB1 also plays a key role as a mediator of acute and chronic inflammation in models of sterile injury. Although HMGB1 interacts with multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), many of its effects in injury models occur through an interaction with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). HMGB1 interacts directly with the TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex, although the nature of this interaction remains unclear. We demonstrate that optimal HMGB1-dependent TLR4 activation in vitro requires the coreceptor CD14. TLR4 and MD2 are recruited into CD14-containing lipid rafts of RAW264.7 macrophages after stimulation with HMGB1, and TLR4 interacts closely with the lipid raft protein GM1. Furthermore, we show that HMGB1 stimulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release in WT but not in TLR4−/−, CD14−/−, TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)−/− or myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88)−/− macrophages. HMGB1 induces the release of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interferon gamma–induced protein 10 (IP-10) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) in a TLR4- and CD14-dependent manner. Thus, efficient recognition of HMGB1 by the TLR4/MD2 complex requires CD14.
Mini-probe endoscopic ultrasonography (mEUS) is a useful diagnostic tool for accurate assessment of tumor invasion. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of mEUS in patients with early colorectal cancer (ECC).
Ninety lesions of ECC underwent mEUS for pre-treatment staging. We divided the lesions into either the mucosal group or the submucosal group according to the mEUS findings. The histological results of the specimens were compared with the mEUS findings.
The overall accuracy for assessing the depth of tumor invasion (T stage) was 84.4% (76/90). The accuracy of mEUS was significantly lower for submucosal lesions compared to mucosal lesions (p=0.003) and it was lower for large tumors (≥2 cm) (p=0.034). The odds ratios of large tumors and submucosal tumors affecting the accuracy of T staging were 3.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 11.39) and 6.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 25.14), respectively. When submucosal tumors were combined with large size, the odds ratio was 14.67 (95% CI, 1.46 to 146.96).
The overall accuracy of T stage determination with mEUS was considerably high in patients with ECC; however, the accuracy decreased when tumor size was >2 cm or the tumor had invaded the submucosal layer.
Colorectal neoplasms; Endosonography
For the improvement of ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng by Phellinus linteus (FRG) were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The polyphenol content of FRG (19.14±0.50 mg/g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with that of non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG, 11.31±1.15 mg/g). The antioxidant activities in FRG, such as 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in NFRG. The HPLC analysis results showed that the FRG had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in NFRG and FRG were 41.65±1.53 mg/g and 50.12±1.43 mg/g, respectively. However, FRG had a significantly higher content (33.90±0.97 mg/g) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared with NFRG (14.75±0.46 mg/g). The skin permeability of FRG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cell models. In particular, after 3 h, the skin permeability of FRG was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of NFRG. Using a rat everted intestinal sac model, FRG showed a high transport level compared with NFRG after 1 h. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared with NFRG as indicated by skin permeation and intestinal permeability. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites).
Panax ginseng; Fermented red ginseng; Bioavailability
Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point.
To evaluate changes over time of the anterior capsule opening size after phacoemulsification, based on haptic number and composition of three acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs).
Fifty-five patients (70 eyes) were included. All underwent phacoemulsification followed by implantation of either an acrylic IOL with two-haptic (one-piece, 26 eyes; three-piece, 22 eyes), or four-haptic (one-piece, 22 eyes). The area of the anterior capsule opening size was measured one week postoperatively (baseline) and at three months.
There was a significant reduction in the area of the anterior capsule opening from one week as compared to three months postoperatively in all groups (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the reduction in the anterior capsule opening between the IOLs (p = 0.36).
The number and material of the haptic of the three acrylic IOLs did not influence the degree of anterior capsule opening shrinkage.
Anterior capsule of the lens; Capsulorhexis; Intraocular; Lenses
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a functional food and has been well known for keeping good health due to its anti-fatigue and immunomodulating activities. However, there is no data on Korean red ginseng for its preventive activity against acute respiratory illness (ARI). The study was conducted in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers (Clinical Trial Number: NCT01478009). Our primary efficacy end point was the number of ARI reported and secondary efficacy end point was severity of symptoms, number of symptoms, and duration of ARI. A total of 100 volunteers were enrolled in the study. Fewer subjects in the KRG group reported contracting at least 1 ARI than in the placebo group (12 [24.5%] vs 22 [44.9%], P = 0.034), the difference was statistically significant between the two groups. The symptom duration of the subjects who experienced the ARI, was similar between the two groups (KRG vs placebo; 5.2 ± 2.3 vs 6.3 ± 5.0, P = 0.475). The symptom scores were low tendency in KRG group (KRG vs placebo; 9.5 ± 4.5 vs 17.6 ± 23.1, P = 0.241). The study suggests that KRG may be effective in protecting subjects from contracting ARI, and may have the tendency to decrease the duration and scores of ARI symptoms.
Ginseng; Influenza; Prevention and Control; Symptom Duration; Safety
Gelsolin and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) expression has been reported in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), but the clinical significance of this expression is unknown. We investigated the associations of these proteins with clinical manifestations in patients diagnosed with LCH.
We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data from patients diagnosed with LCH and followed up between 1998 and 2008. Available formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were used for gelsolin and MMP12 immunohistochemical staining. We analyzed the expression levels of these proteins and their associations with LCH clinical features.
Specimens from 36 patients (20 males, 16 females) with a diagnosis of LCH based on CD1a positivity with clinical manifestations were available for immunohistochemical staining. Median patient age was 62 months (range, 5 to 207). The expression of gelsolin varied; it was high in 17 patients (47.2%), low in 11 patients (30.6%), and absent in 8 patients (22.2%). The high gelsolin expression group had a higher tendency for multi-organ and risk organ involvement, although the trend was not statistically significant. MMP12 was detected only in 7 patients (19.4%) who showed multi-system involvement (P=0.018) and lower event-free survival (P=0.002) in comparison to patients with negative MMP12 staining.
Gelsolin and MMP12 expression may be associated with the clinical course of LCH, and MMP12 expression may be particularly associated with severe LCH. Further studies of larger populations are needed to define the precise role and significance of gelsolin and MMP12 in the pathogenesis of LCH.
Histiocytosis; Langerhans cells; Immunohistochemistry; Gelsolin; Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
Even though several epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between blood lead levels and homocysteine, no study has examined whether this association differs by the levels of micronutrients, such as folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, which are involved in the metabolism of homocysteine. In this study, we examined the interactions between micronutrients and blood lead on homocysteine levels.
This study was performed with 4089 adults aged ≥20 years old in the US general population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004.
There were significant or marginally significant interactions between micronutrients and blood lead levels on mean homocysteine levels. Positive associations between blood lead and homocysteine were clearly observed among subjects with low levels of folate or low vitamin B6 (p-trend <0.01, respectively). However, in the case of vitamin B12, there was a stronger positive association between blood lead and homocysteine among subjects with high levels of vitamin B12, compared to those with low levels of vitamin B12. In fact, the levels of homocysteine were already high among subjects low in vitamin B12, irrespective of blood lead levels. When we used hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine>15 µmol/L) as the outcome, there were similar patterns of interaction, though p-values for each interaction failed to reach statistical significance.
In the current study, the association between blood lead and homocysteine differed based on the levels of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 present in the blood. It may be important to keep sufficient levels of these micronutrients to prevent the possible harmful effects of lead exposure on homocysteine levels.
Homocysteine; Lead; Folic acid; Vitamin B6; Vitamin B12
Background: In air pollution time-series studies, the temporal pattern of the association of fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and health end points has been observed to vary by disease category. The lag pattern of PM2.5 chemical constituents has not been well investigated, largely because daily data have not been available.
Objectives: We explored the lag structure for hospital admissions using daily PM2.5 chemical constituent data for 5 years in the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study.
Methods: We measured PM2.5 constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate, at a central residential site from 2003 through 2007 and linked these daily pollution data to daily hospital admission counts in the five-county Denver metropolitan area. Total hospital admissions and subcategories of respiratory and cardiovascular admissions were examined. We assessed the lag structure of relative risks (RRs) of hospital admissions for PM2.5 and four constituents on the same day and from 1 to 14 previous days from a constrained distributed lag model; we adjusted for temperature, humidity, longer-term temporal trends, and day of week using a generalized additive model.
Results: RRs were generally larger at shorter lags for total cardiovascular admissions but at longer lags for total respiratory admissions. The delayed lag pattern was particularly prominent for asthma. Elemental and organic carbon generally showed more immediate patterns, whereas sulfate and nitrate showed delayed patterns.
Conclusion: In general, PM2.5 chemical constituents were found to have more immediate estimated effects on cardiovascular diseases and more delayed estimated effects on respiratory diseases, depending somewhat on the constituent.
air pollution; cardiovascular disease; chemical constituent; hospital admission; particulate matter; respiratory disease; time-series study
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men worldwide. ED is now considered an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, and consequently, a precursor of systemic vascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of male silkworm pupa powder (SWP) on the levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, nitrite, and glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation; libido; and erectile response of the corpus cavernosum of the rat penis. We induced ED in the study animals by oral administration of 20% ethanol over 8 weeks. The SWP-treated male rats were divided into 3 groups that were orally administered 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The libido of the SWP-administered male rats was higher than that of the ethanol control group. In addition, the erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored in males on SWP administration, to a level similar to that of the normal group without ED. The testosterone concentration did not increase significantly. The lipid peroxidation in the corpus cavernosum of the male rats administered SWP decreased significantly. In contrast, compared to the ethanol group, SWP-administered male rats showed increased GSH levels in the corpus cavernosum. The level of nitrite and NOS expression in the corpus cavernosum of SWP-administered male rats increased significantly. These results indicated that SWP effectively restored ethanol-induced ED in male rats.
Erectile dysfunction; libido activity; sexual function; silkworm pupa powder
Revascularization of immature necrotic teeth is a reliable treatment alternative to conventional apexogenesis or apexification. In case 1, a 12-year-old boy had his necrotic, immature mandibular left second premolar treated with a revascularization technique. At a 24-month follow-up, periapical radiolucency had disappeared and thickening of the root wall was observed. In cases 2 and 3, a 10-year-old boy had his necrotic, immature, bilateral mandibular second premolars treated with the same modality. At 48-month (in case 2) and 42-month (in case 3) follow-ups, loss of periapical radiolucencies and increases in the root wall thickness were also observed.
revascularization; pulp necrosis; mineral trioxide aggregate; antibiotic mixture; immature tooth
Complete resection of submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SICC) showing favorable histology is regarded as curative. We report on two cases of SICC showing recurrence within 5 years despite complete resection. The first patient was a 68-year-old woman with well differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma invading the superficial submucosa, which recurred after 4.7 years. The second patient was a 53-year-old man with pT1N0 moderately differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma. He developed widespread tumor recurrence after 3.9 years. Retrospective pathologic review of the original tumors showed multiple foci of tumor budding at the invasive front. Immunohistochemical staining for D2-40 of deeper levels of the paraffin blocks showed rare foci of small lymphatic invasion. Tumor budding at the invasive front may be an important indicator for SICC aggressiveness or may reflect early lymphatic invasion. More aggressive pathologic examination and follow-up is required for patients with SICC showing tumor budding, even in the absence of unfavorable histologic findings.
Early colorectal neoplasms; Tumor budding; Recurrence
Nephrotoxicity occurs when kidney-specific detoxification and excretion do not work properly due to the damage or destruction of kidney function by exogenous or endogenous toxicants. Exposure to drugs often results in toxicity in kidney which represents the major control system maintaining homeostasis of body and thus is especially susceptible to xenobiotics. Understanding the toxic mechanisms for nephrotoxicity provides useful information on the development of drugs with therapeutic benefi ts with reduced side effects. Mechanisms for drug-induced nephrotoxicity include changes in glomerular hemodynamics, tubular cell toxicity, inflammation, crystal nephropathy, rhabdomyolysis, and thrombotic microangiopathy. Biomarkers have been identifi ed for the assessment of nephrotoxicity. The discovery and development of novel biomarkers that can diagnose kidney damage earlier and more accurately are needed for effective prevention of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Although some of them fail to confer specificity and sensitivity, several promising candidates of biomarkers were recently proved for assessment of nephrotoxicity. In this review, we summarize mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity and present the list of drugs that cause nephrotoxicity and biomarkers that can be used for early assessment of nephrotoxicity.
Biomarker; Nephrotoxicity; Assessment
Yerba Mate, derived from the leaves of the tree, Ilex paraguariensis, is widely-used as a tea or as an ingredient in formulated foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Yerba Mate extract on weight loss, obesity-related biochemical parameters, and diabetes in high-fat diet-fed mice.To this end, by using in vivo animal models of dietary-induced obesity, we have made the interesting observations that Yerba Mate has the ability to decrease the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and to reduce the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes, both of which contribute to a lower growth rate of adipose tissue, lower body weight gain, and obesity. Our data from in vivo studies revealed that Yerba Mate treatment affects food intake, resulting in higher energy expenditure, likely as a result of higher basal metabolism in Yerba Mate-treated mice. Furthermore, in vivo effects of Yerba Mate on lipid metabolism included reductions in serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and glucose concentrations in mice that were fed a high fat diet. In conclusion, Yerba Mate can potentially be used to treat obesity and diabetes.
Yerba Mate; Ilex paraguariensis; anti-obesity effect; anti-diabetic effect; anti-cholesterol