Water-tight closure of the dura in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is impossible because the superficial temporal artery (STA) must run through the dural defect. Consequently, subdural hygroma and subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection frequently occur postoperatively. To reduce these complications, we prospectively performed suturing of the arachnoid membrane after STA-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) and evaluated the clinical usefulness.
Materials and Methods
Between Mar. 2005 and Oct. 2010, extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass (EIAB) with/without encephalo-myo-synangiosis was performed in 88 cases (male : female = 53 : 35). As a control group, 51 patients (57 sides) underwent conventional bypass surgery without closure of the arachnoid membrane. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was performed twice in three days and seven days later, respectively, for evaluation of the presence of subdural fluid collection and other mass lesions.
The surgical result was excellent, with no newly developing ischemic event until recent follow-up. The additional time needed for arachnoid suture was five to ten minutes, when three to eight sutures were required. Post-operative subdural fluid collection was not seen on follow-up computed tomography scans in all patients.
Arachnoid suturing is simple, safe, and effective for prevention of subdural fluid collection in EC-IC bypass surgery, especially the vulnerable ischemic hemisphere.
Arachnoid suture; Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery; Subdural hygroma; Mass effect
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and myocardial dyssynchrony commonly occur in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in FMR in relation to those in left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony as well as geometric parameters of the mitral valve (MV) in DCM patients during dobutamine infusion.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-nine DCM patients (M:F=15:14; age: 62±15 yrs) with FMR underwent echocardiography at baseline and during peak dose (30 or 40 ug/min) of dobutamine infusion. Using 2D echocardiography, LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (EF), and effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) were estimated. Dyssynchrony indices (DIs), defined as the standard deviation of time interval-to-peak myocardial systolic contraction of eight LV segments, were measured. Using the multi-planar reconstructive mode from commercially available 3D image analysis software, MV tenting area (MVTa) was measured. All geometrical measurements were corrected (c) by the height of each patient.
During dobutamine infusion, EF (28±8% vs. 39±11%, p=0.001) improved along with significant decrease in cLVESV (80.1±35.2 mm3/m vs. 60.4±31.1 mm3/m, p=0.001); cMVTa (1.28±0.48 cm2/m vs. 0.79±0.33 cm2/m, p=0.001) was significantly reduced; and DI (1.31±0.51 vs. 1.58±0.68, p=0.025) showed significant increase. Despite significant deterioration of LV dyssynchrony during dobutamine infusion, ERO (0.16±0.09 cm2 vs. 0.09±0.08 cm2, p=0.001) significantly improved. On multivariate analysis, ΔcMVTa and ΔEF were found to be the strongest independent determinants of ΔERO (R2=0.443, p=0.001).
Rather than LV dyssynchrony, MV geometry determined by LV geometry and systolic pressure, which represents the MV closing force, may be the primary determinant of MR severity.
Mitral regurgitation; dyssynchrony; dobutamine
We investigated whether the presence of J wave on the surface electrocardiography (sECG) could be a potential risk factor for ventricular fibrillation (VF) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed a retrospective study of 317 patients diagnosed with AMI in a single center from 2009 to 2012. Among the enrolled 296 patients, 22 (13.5%) patients were selected as a VF group. The J wave on the sECG was defined as a J point elevation manifested through QRS notching or slurring at least 1 mm above the baseline in at least two leads. We found that the incidence of J wave on the sECG was significantly higher in the VF group. We also confirmed that several conventional risk factors of VF were significantly related to VF during AMI; time delays from the onset of chest pain, blood concentrations of creatine phosphokinase and incidence of ST-segment elevation. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of J wave and the presence of a ST-segment elevation were independent predictors of VF during AMI. This study demonstrated that the presence of J wave on the sECG is significantly related to VF during AMI.
J Wave; Ventricular Fibrillation; Acute Myocardial Infarction
Although prompt reperfusion treatment restores normal epicardial flow, microvascular dysfunction may persist in some patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Impaired myocardial perfusion is caused by intraluminal platelets, fibrin thrombi and neutrophil plugging; antiplatelet agents play a significant role in terms of protecting against thrombus microembolization. A novel antiplatelet agent, ticagrelor, is a non-thienopyridine, direct P2Y12 blocker that has shown greater, more rapid and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. However, the effects of ticagrelor on the prevention of microvascular dysfunction are uncertain. The present study is a comparison between clopidogrel and ticagrelor use for preventing microvascular dysfunction in patients with ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI or NSTEMI, respectively).
The TIME trial is a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study designed to demonstrate the superiority of ticagrelor over clopidogrel. A total of 152 patients with a spectrum of STEMI or NSTEMI will undergo prospective random assignment to clopidogrel or ticagrelor (1:1 ratio). The primary endpoint is an index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) measured after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); the secondary endpoint is wall motion score index assessed at 3 months by using echocardiography.
The TIME trial is the first study designed to compare the protective effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on coronary microvascular dysfunction in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI.
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02026219. Registration date: 24 December 2013.
MeSH terms; Myocardial infarction; Antiplatelet agents; Microcirculation
A thoracolumbar burst fracture is usually unstable and can cause neurological deficits and angular deformity. Patients with unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture usually need surgery for decompression of the spinal canal, correction of the angular deformity, and stabilization of the spinal column. We compared two struts, titanium mesh cages (TMCs) and expandable cages.
33 patients, who underwent anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction using either TMCs (n=16) or expandable cages (n=17) between June 2000 and September 2011 were included in this study. Clinical outcome was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale and Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS) for functional neurological evaluation. The Cobb angle, body height of the fractured vertebra, the operation time and amount of intra-operative bleeding were measured in both groups.
In the expandable cage group, operation time and amount of intraoperative blood loss were lower than that in the TMC group. The mean VAS scores and LBOS in both groups were improved, but no significant difference. Cobb angle was corrected higher than that in expandable cage group from postoperative to the last follow-up. The change in Cobb angles between preoperative, postoperative, and the last follow-up did not show any significant difference. There was no difference in the subsidence of anterior body height between both groups.
There was no significant difference in the change in Cobb angles with an inter-group comparison, the expandable cage group showed better results in loss of kyphosis correction, operation time, and amount of intraoperative blood loss.
Thoracolumbar; Lumbar; Fracture; Corpectomy; Cage; Kyphosis
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been known to play an important role in secondary inflammatory reaction after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to determine their relationship with disruption of endothelial blood-barrier after photochemically induced SCI in rats.
Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 250 and 300 g (aged 8 weeks) received focal spinal cord ischemia by photothrombosis using Rose Bengal. Expressions and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by Western blot and gelatin zymography at various times from 6 h to 7 days. Endothelial blood-barrier integrity was assessed indirectly using spinal cord water content.
Zymography and Western blot analysis demonstrated rapid up-regulation of MMP-9 protein levels in spinal cord after ischemic onset. Expressions and activities of MMP-9 showed a significant increased at 6 h after the photothrombotic ischemic event, and reached a maximum level at 24 h after the insult. By contrast, activated MMP-2 was not detected at any time point in either the experimental or the control groups. When compared with the control group, a significant increase in spinal cord water content was detected in rats at 24 h after photothrombotic SCI.
Early up-regulation of MMP-9 might be correlated with increased water content in the spinal cord at 24 h after SCI in rats. Results of this study suggest that MMP-9 is the key factor involved in disruption of the endothelial blood-barrier of the spinal cord and subsequent secondary damage after photothrombotic SCI in rats.
Endothelial blood-barrier; Matrix metalloproteinases-9; Photothrombosis; Rat; Spinal cord injury
Pyogenic spondylitis often results in acute neurological deterioration requiring adequate surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic treatment. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of the clinical effect of continuous irrigation via laminotomy in a series of patients with pyogenic spondylitis in thoracic and lumbar spine.
The authors conducted a retrospective investigation of 31 consecutive patients with pyogenic thoracic and lumbar spondylitis who underwent continuous irrigation through laminotomy from 2004 to 2008. The study included 22 men and 9 women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean 58.1 years). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 months (range, 8-34 months). We performed debridement and abscess removal after simple laminotomy, and then washed out epidural and disc space using a continuous irrigation system. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered empirically and changed according to the subsequent culture result. Clinical outcomes were based on the low back outcome scale (LBOS), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Frankel grade at the last follow-up. Radiological assessment involved plain radiographs, including functional views.
Common predisposing factors included local injection for pain therapy, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis. Causative microorganisms were identified in 22 cases (70.9%) : Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were the main organisms. After surgery, LBOS, VAS score, and Frankel grade showed significant improvement in most patients. Spinal stability was maintained during the follow-up period, making secondary reconstructive surgery unnecessary for all patients, except one.
Simple laminotomy with continuous irrigation by insertion of a catheter into intervertebral disc space or epidural space was minimally invasive and effective in the treatment of pyogenic spondylitis. This procedure could be a beneficial treatment option in patients with thoracolumbar spondylitis combined with minimal or moderate destructive change of vertebrae.
Irrigation; Laminotomy; Pyogenic; Spondylitis; Thoracolumbar
Surgery for thoracic disc herniations is still challenging, and the disc excision via a posterior laminectomy is considered risky. A variety of dorsolateral and ventral approaches have been developed. However, the lateral extracavitary and transthoracic approach require extensive surgical exposure. Therefore, we adopted a posterior transdural approach for direct visualization without entry into the thoracic cavity. Three cases that illustrate this procedure are reported here with the preoperative findings, radiological findings and surgical techniques used. After the laminectomy, at the involved level, the dorsal dura was opened with a longitudinal paramedian incision. The cerebrospinal fluid was drained to gain more operating space. After sectioning of the dentate ligaments, gentle retraction was applied to the spinal cord. Between the rootlets above and below, the ventral dural bulging was clearly observed. A small paramedian dural incision was made over the disc space and the protruded disc fragment was removed. Neurological symptoms were improved, and no surgery-related complication was encountered. The posterior transdural approach may offer an alternative surgical option for selected patients with thoracic paracentral soft discs, while limiting the morbidity associated with the exposure.
Disc herniation; Transdural approach; Thoracic
Although the vertebral artery injuries (VAI) associated with cervical spine trauma are usually clinically occult, they may cause fatal ischemic damage to the brain stem and cerebellum.
We performed a prospective study using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to determine the frequency of VAI associated with cervical spine injuries and investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics. Between January 2005 and August 2007, 99 consecutive patients with cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations were prospectively evaluated for patency of the VA, using the CTA, at the time of injury.
Complete disruption of blood flow through the VA was demonstrated in seven patients with unilateral occlusion (7.1%). There were four men and three women with a mean age of 43 (range, 33-55 years). Unilateral occlusion of the right vertebral artery occurred in four patients and of the left in three. Regarding the cervical injury type, two cases were cervical burst fractures (C6 and C7), two had C4-5 fracture/dislocations, two had a unilateral transverse foraminal fracture, and one had dens type III fracture. All patients presented with good patency of the contralateral VA. None of the patients developed secondary neurological deterioration due to vertebrobasilar ischemia during the follow-up period with a mean duration of 23 months.
VAI should be suspected in patients with cervical trauma that have cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations or transverse foramen fractures. CTA was useful as a rapid diagnostic method for ruling out VAI after cervical spine trauma.
Cervical spine; computed tomographic angiography; injury; vertebral artery
Disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-L3 levels are different from those at lower levels of the lumbar spine with regard to clinical characteristics and surgical outcome. Spinal canals are narrower than those of lower levels, which may compromise multiple spinal nerve roots or conus medullaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and surgical outcomes of upper lumbar disc herniations.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of 41 patients who had undergone surgery for single disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-3 levels from 1998 to 2007. The affected levels were L1-L2 in 14 patients and L2-L3 in 27 patients. Presenting symptoms and signs, patient characteristics, radiologic findings, operative methods, and surgical outcomes were investigated.
The mean age of patients with upper lumbar disc was 55.5 years (ranged 31 to 78). The mean follow-up period was 16.6 months. Most patients complained of back and buttock pain (38 patients, 92%), and radiating pain in areas such as the anterior or anterolateral aspect of the thigh (32 patients, 78%). Weakness of lower extremities was observed in 16 patients (39%) and sensory disturbance was presented in 19 patients (46%). Only 6 patients (14%) had undergone previous lumbar disc surgery. Discectomy was performed using three methods : unilateral laminectomy in 27 cases, bilateral laminectomy in 3 cases, and the transdural approach in 11 cases, which were performed through total laminectomy in 10 cases and unilateral laminectomy in 1 case. With regard to surgical outcomes, preoperative symptoms improved significantly in 33 patients (80.5%), partially in 7 patients (17%), and were aggravated in 1 patient (2.5%).
Clinical features of disc herniations at the L1-L2 and L2-L3 levels were variable, and localized sensory change or pain was rarely demonstrated. In most cases, the discectomy was performed successfully by conventional posterior laminectomy. On the other hand, in large central broad based disc herniation, when the neural elements are severely compromised, the posterior transdural approach could be an alternative.
Clinical feature; Disc herniation; Transdural; Upper lumbar
We recently experienced a case of synovial sarcoma in the posterior neck, which involved adjacent bony structures. Synovial sarcoma is rare, malignant soft tissue tumor that occur predominantly in the lower extremities. Wide surgical excision with involved tissue is the treatment of first choice, because most synovial sarcomas reveal aggressive features. We removed the tumor with involved bony structures and patient was given postoperative radiation therapy. Despite these treatment options, the patient died 1 year after surgery. We report this case with a review of the literature.
Synovial sarcoma; Posterior neck; Bony involvement
Small bowel injury resulting from unforeseen penetration of the anterior annulus fibrosus and longitudinal ligament is a rare complication of lumbar microdiscectomy. The patient complained of abdominal tenderness and distention immediately after microdiscectomy for L4-5 and L5-S1 disc herniation. Using abdominal computed tomography, we found several foci of air overlying the anterior aspect of the vertebral body at the L5-S1 level. Segmental resection of the small bowel including small tears and primary anastomosis of the jejunum were performed. Here, we present a case of intestinal perforation after lumbar microdiscectomy and discuss technical methods to prevent this complication with a review of literature.
Bowel injury; Complication; Lumbosacral region; Microdiscectomy
A mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI) could further increase our basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in injury and repair of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether methods used to produce and evaluate photochemical graded ischemic SCI in rats, could be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner.
Thirty female imprinting control region mice (weighting 25-30 g, 8 weeks of age) were used in this study. Following intraperitoneal injection of Rose bengal, the translucent dorsal surface of the T8-T9 vertebral laminae of the mice were illuminated with a fiber optic bundle of a cold light source. The mice were divided into three groups; Group 1 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 5 minutes illumination), Group 2 (20 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination), and Group 3 (40 mg/kg Rose bengal, 10 minutes illumination). The locomotor function, according to the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale, was assessed at three days after the injury and then once per week for four weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 28 days after the injury, and the histopathology of the lesions was assessed.
The mice in group 1 had no hindlimb movement until seven days after the injury. Most mice had later recovery with movement in more than two joints at 28 days after injury. There was limited recovery of one joint, with only slight movement, for the mice in groups 2 and 3. The histopathology showed that the mice in group 1 had a cystic cavity involving the dorsal and partial involvement of the dorsolateral funiculi. A larger cavity, involving the dorsal, dorsolateral funiculi and the gray matter of the dorsal and ventral horns was found in group 2. In group 3, most of the spinal cord was destroyed and only a thin rim of tissue remained.
The results of this study show that the photochemical graded ischemic SCI model, described in rats, can be successfully adapted to mice, in a reliable and reproducible manner. The functional deficits are correlated an increase in the irradiation time and, therefore, to the severity of the injury. The photothrombotic model of SCI, in mice with 20 mg/kg Rose bengal for 5 minutes illumination, provides an effective model that could be used in future research. This photochemical model can be used for investigating secondary responses associated with traumatic SCI.
Photochemical; Spinal cord Injury; Mouse
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the surgical outcome on the basis of preoperative clinical and radiological findings.
Data obtained in 26 patients whot underwent posterior decompression for thoracic myelopathy, caused by thoracic OLF, were analyzed retrospectively. Patient age, duration of symptoms, OLF type, preoperative and postoperative neurological status using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system, surgical outcome, and other factors were reviewed. We compared the various factors and postoperative prognosis. All patients had undergone decompressive laminectomy and excision of the OLF.
Using the JOA score, the functional improvement was excellent in 8 patients, good in 14, fair in 2, and unchanged in 2. A mean preoperative JOA score of 6.65 improved to 8.17 after an average of 27.3 months. According to our analysis, age, gender, duration of symptoms, the involved spinal level, coexisting spinal disorders, associated trauma, intramedullary signal change, and dural adhesions were not related to the surgical outcome. However, the preoperative JOA score and type of OLF were the most important predictors of the surgical outcome.
Early diagnosis and sufficient surgical decompression could improve the functional prognosis for thoracic OLF. The postoperative results were found to be significantly associated with the preoperative severity of myelopathy and type of OLF.
Ossification of ligamentum flavum; Thoracic myelopathy; Surgical outcome
Yasagil temporary clips have been widely used in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass surgery. However, the extremely delicate vessels involved often require the application of finer clips. We report on the use of the Kopitnik arteriovenous malformation (AVM) microclip system for superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass.
Kopitnik AVM microclips are new mechanical devices that are used during AVM surgery. They exert a pre-defined closing force of 50–70 g, and also feature a special, pyramid-shaped structure stamped on inner surfaces of the blades. These characteristics avoid vascular intimal injury and provide a secure grip. We prospectively studied their use in 15 patients requiring STA-MCA anastomosis.
Clinical results were excellent and there were no new ischemic events during 6-months’ follow-up.
Kopitnik AVM microclips have several advantages; they have small and variously sized clip blades (2, 3, 4 and 5 mm), and the small clip head allows the operator an excellent view of the pathology and clip status. The Kopitnik AVM microclip appears to be clinically effective and safe for EC-IC bypass surgery, especially when smaller vessels are involved.
Microvascular anastomosis; Microclip; STA-MCA bypass
Burr hole drainage has been widely used to treat chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). However, the incidence of recurrent CSDH varies from 3.7 to 30% after surgery. The authors attempted to elucidate the risk factors associated with the recurrence of CSDH in one burr hole drainage technique.
A total of 255 consecutive cases who underwent one burr hole drainage for CSDH were included in this study. Twenty-four patients (9.4%) underwent a repeated operation because of the recurrence of CSDH. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic, clinical and radiologic factors associated with the recurrence of CSDH.
In this study, two risk factors were found to be independently associated with the recurrence of CSDH. The incidence of CSDH recurrence in the high- and mixed-density groups was significantly higher than those in the low- and iso-density groups (p<0.001). Bleeding tendency such as in leukemia, liver disease and chronic renal failure was also significantly associated with recurrence of CSDH (p=0.037).
These results suggest that high- and mixed- density shown on computed tomographic scan was closely relates with a high incidence of recurrence. Therefore, the operation could be delayed in those cases unless severe symptoms or signs are present. Reoperation using the previous burr hole site is a preferred modality to treat the recurrent CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH); Recurrence; Computed tomography
Hematomas caused by ruptured traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) usually present with extradural hematomas, whereas intradural intraparenchymal hematomas are extremely rare. We report a case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the MMA giving rise to an intracerebral hematoma after head trauma. A 70-year-old man suffered a massive intracerebral temporoparietal hemorrhage after a head injury. CT angiogram of the brain revealed a large hematoma in the right middle cranial fossa extending to the right sylvian fissure. Cerebral angiogram also revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the MMA, which was successfully treated surgically. Although traumatic MMA pseudoaneurysm producing intracerebral hematoma (ICH) is rare, it should be considered as a possible cause of intracerebral hematoma.
Traumatic pseudoaneurysm; Middle meningeal artery (MMA); Intracerebral hematoma
Simultaneous occurrence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is very rare and only two cases have been previously reported in the literatures. We present a case of 68-yr-old man with a history of untreated hypertension, who suffered from sudden onset of headache followed by right hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed SAH in the basal cistern and remote ICH at the left putamen. Cerebral angiography showed a saccular aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery. No other vascular anomaly could be found at left putaminal area. Nine days after the ictal attack of SAH, the neck of aneurysm was clipped via the left frontotemporal craniotomy. Because of the ICH at the left frontal lobe and intraventricular hematoma on postoperative CT, we performed hematoma removal and external ventricular drainage 3 hours after the first operation. Postoperative neurological status had been improved to be drowsy and he was discharged in a severely disabled state 4 weeks after surgery. We suggest that the rupture of aneurysm possibly caused a rapid increase in blood pressure and subsequently resulted in hypertensive ICH.