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1.  Angiographic Features and Clinical Outcomes of Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Injection in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm 
Objective
The aim of this study was to determine the role of intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine injections for cerebral vasospasm secondary to ruptured subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to investigate the factors that influence vasodilation and clinical outcomes.
Methods
We enrolled 29 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2009 and 2011, and who received IA nimodipine after subsequently presenting with symptomatic vasospasm. The degree of vasodilation shown in angiography was measured, and the correlation between the degree of vasodilation and both the interval from SAH to cerebral vasospasm and the interval from clipping to cerebral vasospasm was determined. The change in blood flow rate after IA injection was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Multiple clinical parameters were completed before and after IA nimodipine injection to evaluate any improvements in clinical symptoms.
Results
For eight patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores increased by two or more points. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in GCS scores after IA nimodipine injection and the change in blood vessel diameter (p=0.025). A positive correlation was also observed between the interval from SAH to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.040); and the interval from clipping to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.022).
Conclusion
IA nimodipine injection for SAH-induced vasospasm led to significant vasodilation in angiography and improvement in clinical symptoms without significant complications. Our findings suggest that IA nimodipine injection should be utilized when intractable vasospasm develops despite rigorous conservative management.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.172
PMCID: PMC3483315  PMID: 23115657
Cerebral angiograms; Intra-arterial injection; Nimodipine; Ruptured aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
2.  Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Basilar Tip Aneurysm Associated with Bilateral Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Report and Literature Review 
We report here on a rare case of a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization in the bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions with abnormal vascular networks from the posterior circulation. A 43-year old man with a familial history of moyamoya disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the bilateral ICAs at the proximal portion and a ruptured aneurysm at the basilar artery bifurcation. Each meningeal artery supplied the anterior cranial base, but most of both hemispheres were supplied with blood from the basilar artery and the posterior cerebral arteries through a large number of collateral vessels to the ICA bifurcation as well as the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. The perfusion computed tomography (CT) scans with acetazolamide (ACZ) injection revealed no reduction of cerebral blood flow and normal cerebrovascular reactivity to ACZ. An abdominal CT aortogram showed no other extracranial vessel abnormalities. A ruptured basilar tip aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications. Endovascular embolization may be a good treatment option with excellent safety for a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that accompanies proximal ICA occlusion with vulnerable collateral flow.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.1.44
PMCID: PMC3471248  PMID: 23210029
Coil embolization; Bilateral proximal internal carotid artery occlusion; Basilar tip aneurysms; Ruptured; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Collateral circulation

Results 1-2 (2)