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1.  A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L) 
Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis.
doi:10.4168/aair.2015.7.1.95
PMCID: PMC4274477  PMID: 25553270
Anaphylaxis; food hypersensitivity; Raphanus; skin test
2.  An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:463870.
The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing members' neutralization intention to violate information security policy should be emphasized.
doi:10.1155/2014/463870
PMCID: PMC4058133  PMID: 24971373
3.  Suppression of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Prostaglandin E2-Protein Kinase A-A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Signaling Is Central for Augmented Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages 
Purpose
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an immunomodulatory lipid mediator generated mainly via the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway from arachidonic acid at sites of infection and inflammation. A positive feedback loop of PGE2 on COX-2 expression is critical for homeostasis during toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory processes. The mechanism of PGE2-regulated COX-2 expression remains poorly understood. The low-molecular-weight stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) contributes to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic response against environmental stress.
Methods
We explored the involvement of HO-1 on PGE2 regulation of LPS-induced COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Results
LPS-induced COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages was enhanced by exogenous PGE2 or cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue and was suppressed by a COX inhibitor (indomethacin), a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720), and A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) disruptors (Ht31 and RIAD). This result suggests that the stimulatory effects of endogenous and exogenous PGE2 on COX-2 expression are mediated by a cAMP-PKA-AKAP-dependent pathway. The induction of HO-1 was observed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. This induction was suppressed by exogenous PGE2 and enhanced by blockage of the endogenous PGE2 effect by the PKA inhibitor or AKAP disruptors. In addition, HO-1 induction by the HO activator copper protoporphyrin suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 expression, which was restored by the addition of exogenous PGE2. The induction of HO-1 inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB p-65 nuclear expression and translocation.
Conclusions
AKAP plays an important role in PGE2 regulation of COX-2 expression, and the suppression of HO-1 by PGE2-cAMP-PKA-AKAP signaling helps potentiate the LPS-induced COX-2 expression through a positive feedback loop in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
doi:10.4168/aair.2013.5.5.329
PMCID: PMC3756181  PMID: 24003391
Cyclooxygenase-2; heme oxygenase-1; lipopolysaccharide; prostaglandin E2; macrophages
4.  ABCC2 Haplotype is Associated With Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Maculopapular Eruption 
Genetic variants in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes are associated with increased susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that genetic variant ABC transporters (ABCB1 and ABCC2) may be candidate markers for predicting maculopapular eruption (MPE) induced by antituberculosis therapy. We compared the genotype distributions of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes between 62 antituberculosis drug (ATD)-induced MPE cases and 159 ATD-tolerant controls using multivariate logistic regression analysis. There was no significant association between genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 and ATD-induced MPE (P>0.05). Among seven selected SNPs of ABCC2, IVS3-49C>T in intron and I1324I were associated with ATD-induced MPE (P=0.029 and 0.036, respectively). In an analysis of the ABCC2 haplotypes (ht; -1549G>A_-24C>T_IVS3-49C>T_V417I), ht1[G-C-C-G] was significantly associated with ATD-induced MPE (P=0.032, OR=0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.95). No significant association between the other haplotypes and ATD-induced MPE was observed. An ABCC2 haplotype is associated with the presence of ATD-induced MPE in patients with tuberculosis and may be a genetic risk factor for the development of MPE induced by ATD.
doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.6.362
PMCID: PMC3479231  PMID: 23115734
Adverse drug reaction; anti-tuberculosis drugs; ATP-binding cassette C2; eruption; polymorphism
5.  Benzalkonium Chloride Induced Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Stable Bronchial Asthma 
Background
Although benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced bronchoconstriction occurs in patients with bronchial asthma, BAC-containing nebulizer solutions are still being used in daily practice in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions containing BAC.
Methods
Thirty subjects with bronchial asthma and 10 normal controls inhaled up to three 600 µg nebulized doses of BAC using a jet nebulizer. FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second) was measured 15 minutes after each dose. Inhalations were repeated every 20 minutes until FEV1 decreased by 15% or more (defined as BAC-induced bronchoconstriction) or the 3 doses were administered.
Results
The percent fall in FEV1 in response to BAC inhalation was significantly higher in asthmatics than in normal subjects (p<0.05). BAC administration in subjects with asthma reached a plateau (maximal effect). BAC-induced bronchoconstriction was found in 6 asthmatics (20%), with two responders after the 2nd inhalation and after the 3rd inhalation. The percent fall in FEV1 in response to the 1st inhalation of BAC was significantly higher in asthmatics with higher bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) than in those with lower BHR.
Conclusions
This study suggests that the available multi-dose nebulized solution is generally safe. However, significant bronchoconstriction can occur at a relatively low BAC dose in asthmatics with severe airway responsiveness.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2007.22.4.244
PMCID: PMC2687669  PMID: 18309682
Asthma; Benzalkonium chloride; Bronchoconstriction
6.  Anaphylaxis Caused by Benzalkonium in a Nebulizer Solution 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(2):289-290.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is commonly used as a bactericidal preservative in nebulizer solutions, and can cause paradoxical onchoconstriction following nebulizing therapy in some asthmatics. We describe a case of anaphylactic shock in a 23-yr-old asthmatic woman following an intradermal skin test with a salbutamol solution containing BAC. Since she complained of cough and dyspnea after inhalation therapy with a nebulizer solution, we conducted an intradermal skin test using the same solution, which contained BAC. About 10 min later, the patient reported dizziness, palpitations, and dyspnea. On examination, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension were found. She was resuscitated with a subcutaneous injection of epinephrine and an infusion of saline. One month later, we conducted a bronchial provocation test with BAC, and she showed a positive response.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.2.289
PMCID: PMC2822313  PMID: 15082905
Anaphylaxis; Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; Skin Tests; Adrenergic beta-agonist
7.  Superoxide Dismutase Gene (SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3) Polymorphisms and Antituberculosis Drug-induced Hepatitis 
Purpose
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious issue often leading to discontinuation of the proper regimen of antituberculosis drugs (ATD). Previous studies have suggested that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in DILI.
Methods
We explored whether polymorphisms in superoxide dismutase genes, including Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) are associated with ATD-induced hepatitis. Genotype distributions of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genes (rs2070424, SOD1; rs4880, SOD2; rs2536512, and rs1799895, SOD3) were compared between 84 patients with ATD-induced hepatitis and 237 patients tolerant to ATD.
Results
Intron SNP rs2070424 of SOD1 showed a significant association with ATD-induced hepatitis. The frequency of genotypes carrying minor alleles (GA or GG) was significantly higher in the case group than that of controls (P=0.019, OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.14-4.49). For the other SNPs of SOD2 and SOD3, there were no differences in genotype frequencies between ATD-induced hepatitis and ATD-tolerant controls.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that rs2070424 of SOD1 is significantly associated with ATD-induced hepatitis. This genetic variant may be a risk factor for ATD-induced hepatitis in individuals from Korea.
doi:10.4168/aair.2015.7.1.88
PMCID: PMC4274475  PMID: 25553268
Antituberculosis drugs; hepatitis; superoxide dismutase; polymorphism
8.  Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e116161.
Background
Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees.
Methods
This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated.
Results
The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM.
Conclusions
The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116161
PMCID: PMC4280139  PMID: 25549095
9.  Recurrent Pneumothorax after Etanercept Therapy in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient: A Case Report 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(3):115-118.
The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who are refractory to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs is gradually increasing. Etanercept is the first anti-TNF agent to be approved for RA treatment and is also the most widely used. However, aggravation of interstitial lung disease after etanercept treatment in RA patients has been reported recently. We report the first case of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax with progression of interstitial lung disease after initiating etanercept therapy. The withdrawal of etanercept and a change to adalimumab, a different class of TNF inhibitor, achieved clinical stabilization.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.3.115
PMCID: PMC4276793  PMID: 25568848
Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumothorax; Arthritis, rheumatoid
11.  Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model 
Biomedical Optics Express  2014;5(12):4162-4170.
We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection.
doi:10.1364/BOE.5.004162
PMCID: PMC4285596  PMID: 25574429
(170.6795) Terahertz imaging; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (300.6495) Spectroscopy, terahertz; (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
12.  Long-term Effects of Specific Allergen Immunotherapy Against House Dust Mites in Polysensitized Patients With Allergic Rhinitis 
Purpose
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only currently available treatment to modify the natural history of allergic rhinitis (AR). If patients are polysensitized, it is difficult to identify the allergen causing the allergic symptoms. We evaluated the effectiveness of immunotherapy against house dust mites (HDMs) in AR patients polysensitized to both HDMs and seasonal allergens.
Methods
Thirty AR patients polysensitized to both HDMs and seasonal allergens (group A) and 30 patients sensitized to HDMs only (group B) were enrolled in this study. All subjects who received immunotherapy against HDMs for more than 2 years were evaluated by the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) to determine the specific IgE level in luminescence units, total eosinophil counts in peripheral blood, serum total IgE, total nasal symptom scores, and the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) before and after immunotherapy.
Results
There were no statistical differences in levels of total and specific IgE, or total eosinophil count between the two groups. The total nasal symptom scores, RQLQ and medication scores significantly decreased after immunotherapy in both groups, however no significant differences were noted between the two groups.
Conclusions
We determined that the primary causative allergen of AR in Seoul, Korea is perennial allergens, such as HDMs, rather than seasonal allergens. This study provides a reference for the selection of allergens to use in immunotherapy for polysensitized AR patients living in an urban environment.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.6.535
PMCID: PMC4214974  PMID: 25374753
Immunotherapy; allergic rhinitis; house dust mite; polysensitization
13.  The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation 
Background
Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation.
Methods
We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without bronchiectasis, and assessed asthma exacerbation and its severity based on the annual incidence of total asthma exacerbation, annual prevalence of steroid use, and frequency of emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to asthma exacerbation in each group.
Results
Fifty patients (2.2%) had bronchiectasis and asthma. The annual incidence of asthma exacerbation was higher in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis than in patients with asthma alone (1.08±1.68 vs. 0.35±0.42, p=0.004). The annual prevalence of steroid use (0.9±1.54 vs. 0.26±0.36, p=0.006) and the frequency of emergency room visits (0.46±0.84 vs. 0.02±0.13, p=0.001) due to asthma exacerbation were also higher in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis than in patients with asthma alone.
Conclusion
Bronchiectasis is associated with difficult asthma control.
doi:10.4046/trd.2014.77.5.209
PMCID: PMC4250920  PMID: 25473408
Bronchiectasis; Asthma; Disease Exacerbation
14.  Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis HYU01, Isolated from Soil Samples in the Korean Peninsula 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(4):e00769-14.
Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease anthrax. We report a complete genome sequence of B. anthracis strain HYU01, isolated from Changnyung, which belongs to the B branch (B.Br.) 001/002 canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) group.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00769-14
PMCID: PMC4125772  PMID: 25103761
15.  Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging 
Biomedical Optics Express  2014;5(8):2837-2842.
We demonstrated that tumors in freshly excised whole brain tissue could be differentiated clearly from normal brain tissue using a reflection-type terahertz (THz) imaging system. THz binary images of brain tissues with tumors indicated that the tumor boundaries in the THz images corresponded well to those in visible images. Grey and white-matter regions were distinguishable owing to the different distribution of myelin in the brain tissue. THz images corresponded closely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The MRI and hematoxylin and eosin-stained microscopic images were investigated to account for the intensity differences in the THz images for fresh and paraffin-embedded brain tissue. Our results indicated that the THz signals corresponded to the cell density when water was removed. Thus, THz imaging could be used as a tool for label-free and real-time imaging of brain tumors, which would be helpful for physicians to determine tumor margins during brain surgery.
doi:10.1364/BOE.5.002837
PMCID: PMC4133010  PMID: 25136506
(170.6795) Terahertz imaging; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging
16.  Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats 
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis. For this, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: sham-operation group and TBI-induction group. The mild TBI model was created with an electromagnetic contusion device activated at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec. The results showed that mild TBI during the pediatric stage significantly decreased memory retention. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells were increased in the TBI-induction group compared to those in the sham-operation group. Defective memory retention and apoptosis sustained up to the adult stage. The present results shows that mild TBI induces long-lasting cognitive impairment from pediatric to adult stages in rats through the high level of apoptosis. The finding of this study suggests that children with mild TBI may need intensive treatments for the reduction of long-lasting cognitive impairment by secondary neuronal damage.
doi:10.12965/jer.140109
PMCID: PMC4106768  PMID: 25061593
Traumatic brain injury; Hippocampus; Apoptosis; Pediatric stage; Short-term memory
17.  Aerobic Exercise Affects Myostatin Expression in Aged Rat Skeletal Muscles: A Possibility of Antiaging Effects of Aerobic Exercise Related With Pelvic Floor Muscle and Urethral Rhabdosphincter 
Purpose
Aging-induced loss of muscle mass and subsequent reduction of strength is a fundamental cause of frailty, functional decline, and disability. And this may lead to muscular dysfunction, voiding dysfunction, or urinary incontinence due to pelvic muscle weakness induced by aging. Physical exercise has been recommended for the prevention and the treatment of these age-related frail states. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on muscle strength, myostatin mRNA and protein expression, and gastrocnemius myocytes proliferation in aged rats to investigate the possible antiaging effects of aerobic exercise on skeletal muscles such as pelvic floor muscles and urethral rhabdosphincter muscle.
Methods
In this study, 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as the young-age group (n=20) and 24-month-old rats were used as the old-age group (n=20). Each group was randomly divided into two groups (n=10 in each group): the sedentary and the treadmill exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes, once a day, for 6 weeks. For this study, a weight load test, hematoxylin and eosin staining, real-time and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for myostatin mRNA, myostatin western blot, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunohistochemistry were performed in the gastrocnemius muscle.
Results
The age-induced reduction of muscle mass and strength was associated with a decrease in myocyte proliferation and an increase in myostatin mRNA and protein expression in the gastrocnemius. However, treadmill exercise improved muscle mass and strength through suppression of myostatin mRNA and protein expression, and myocyte proliferation increase in the gastrocnemius against the aging process.
Conclusions
Aerobic exercise is a useful strategy for enhancing muscle function against aging-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass and functions.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.2.77
PMCID: PMC4076484  PMID: 24987560
Aging; Exercise; Myostatin; Skeletal muscle; Muscle cell
18.  Oral mucosa stem cells alleviates spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms in rats 
Background
Spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates various physical functions, in particular, bladder problems occur as a result of damage to the spinal cord. Stem cell therapy for SCI has been focused as the new strategy to treat the injuries and to restore the lost functions. The oral mucosa cells are considered as the stem cells-like progenitor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of oral mucosa stem cells on the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation.
Results
The contraction pressure and the contraction time in the urinary bladder were increased after induction of SCI, in contrast, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells decreased the contraction pressure and the contraction time in the SCI-induced rats. Induction of SCI initiated apoptosis in the spinal cord tissues, whereas treatment with the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed the SCI-induced apoptosis. Disrupted spinal cord by SCI was improved by transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells, and new tissues were increased around the damaged tissues. In addition, transplantation of the oral mucosa stem cells suppressed SCI-induced neuronal activation in the voiding centers.
Conclusions
Transplantation of oral mucosa stem cells ameliorates the SCI-induced neurogenic bladder symptoms by inhibiting apoptosis and by enhancing cell proliferation. As the results, SCI-induced neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers was suppressed, showing the normalization of voiding function.
doi:10.1186/1423-0127-21-43
PMCID: PMC4028106  PMID: 24884998
Spinal cord injury; Oral mucosa stem cells; Cystometry; Apoptosis; Nerve growth factor; c-Fos
19.  Swimming exercise ameliorates multiple sclerosis-induced impairment of short-term memory by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats 
Multiple sclerosis is one of the autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis occurs through multiple mechanisms, and it is also mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Swimming exercise has been recommended for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of swimming exercise on short-term memory in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following induction of multiple sclerosis. For this study, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. The animal model of multiple sclerosis was made by bilateral intracerebral ventricle injection of ethidium bromide. The rats in the swimming exercise groups were forced to swim for 30 min once daily for 14 consecutive days, starting 3 days after induction of multiple sclerosis. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated in the multiple sclerosis-induced rats. The number of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased in the multiple sclerosis-induced rats. Swimming exercise alleviated multiple sclerosis-induced short-term memory impairment by suppressing apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. These effects of swimming exercise may aid symptom relief in the incurable neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.12965/jer.140103
PMCID: PMC4025552  PMID: 24877040
Multiple sclerosis; Swimming; Apoptotic neuronal cell death; Short-term memory
20.  Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92447.
Background
The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs).
Results
About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated.
Conclusions
This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092447
PMCID: PMC3960249  PMID: 24647404
21.  Genetic diversity of Korean Bacillus anthracis isolates from soil evaluated with a single nucleotide repeat analysis 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(4):457-465.
Bacillus (B.) anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is one of the most genetically monomorphic bacteria species in the world. Due to the very limited genetic diversity of this species, classification of isolates of this bacterium requires methods with high discriminatory power. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis is a type of variable-number tandem repeat assay that evaluates regions with very high mutation rates. To subtype a collection of 21 isolates that were obtained during a B. anthracis outbreak in Korea, we analyzed four SNR marker loci using nucleotide sequencing analysis. These isolates were obtained from soil samples and the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The SNR analysis was able to detect 13 subgenotypes, which allowed a detailed evaluation of the Korean isolates. Our study demonstrated that the SNR analysis was able to discriminate between strains with the same multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis genotypes. In summary, we obtained SNR results for four SNR marker loci of newly acquired strains from Korea. Our findings will be helpful for creating marker systems and help identify markers that could be used for future forensic studies.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2013.14.4.457
PMCID: PMC3885740  PMID: 23820210
Bacillus anthracis; molecular diversity; single nucleotide repeats; subgenotyping
22.  Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2524.
Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels.
doi:10.1038/srep02524
PMCID: PMC3755281  PMID: 23982181
23.  The improvement of ginsenoside accumulation in Panax ginseng as a result of γ-irradiation 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2013;37(3):332-340.
In this study, gamma rays were used to irradiate embryogenic calli induced from cotyledon explants of Panax ginseng Meyer. After the embryogenic calli were irradiated, they were transferred to adventitious roots using an induction medium; next, mutated adventitious root (MAR) lines with a high frequency of adventitious root formations were selected. Two MAR lines (MAR 5-2 and MAR 5-9) from the calli treated with 50 Gy of gamma rays were cultured on an NH4NO3-free Murashige and Skoog medium with indole-3-butyric acid 3 mg/L. The expression of genes related to ginsenoside biosynthesis was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with RNA prepared from native ginseng (NG), non-irradiated adventitious root (NAR) and 2 MAR lines. The expression of the squalene epoxidase and dammarenediol synthase genes was increased in the MAR 5-2 line, whereas the phytosterol synthase was increased in the MAR 5-9 line. The content and pattern of major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1) were analyzed in the NG, NAR, and 2 MAR lines (MAR 5-2 and MAR 5-9) using TLC and HPLC. In the TLC analysis, the ginsenoside patterns in the NG, NAR, and 2 MAR lines were similar; in contrast, the MAR 5-9 line showed strong bands of primary ginsenosides. In the HPLC analysis, compared with the NG, one new type of ginsenoside was observed in the NAR and 2 MAR lines, and another new type of ginsenoside was observed in the 2 MAR lines irradiated with gamma rays. The ginsenoside content of the MAR 5-9 line was significantly greater in comparison to the NG.
doi:10.5142/jgr.2013.37.332
PMCID: PMC3818960  PMID: 24198659
Panax ginseng; Gamma irradiation; Ginsenoside; HPLC; TLC
24.  Preoperative Factors Affecting Postoperative Early Quality of Life During the Learning Curve of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve.
Methods
The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL≤3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL≥4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study.
Results
A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL.
Conclusions
A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.2.83
PMCID: PMC3713247  PMID: 23869273
Prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium; Lasers; Quality of life
25.  Transthyretin Is a Key Regulator of Myoblast Differentiation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63627.
Transthyretin (TTR) is a known carrier protein for thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein in the blood that is primarily synthesized in the liver and choroid plexus of the brain. Herein, we report that the TTR gene is expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and up-regulated during myotube formation in C2C12 cells. TTR silencing (TTRkd) significantly reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation, whereas myogenin silencing (MYOGkd) did not have any effect on TTR gene expression. Both TTRkd and MYOGkd led to a decrease in calcium channel related genes including Cav1.1, STIM1 and Orai1. A significant decrease in intracellular T4 uptake during myogenesis was observed in TTRkd cells. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that TTR initiates myoblast differentiation via affecting expression of the genes involved during early stage of myogenesis and the genes related to calcium channel.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063627
PMCID: PMC3661549  PMID: 23717457

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