We report a case of failed epidural anesthesia despite successful identification of the epidural space, loss of resistance technique, hanging drop method and drip infusion. This case evaluated the use of computed tomography to confirm epidural catheter position, which showed the catheter accidentally positioned at the T2 lamina. Because epidural anesthesia can even after successful procedure using standardized techniques such as loss of resistance, we recommend performing the procedure under fluoroscopic guidance to improve success rate and patient safety.
catheter malposition; epidural anesthesia; epidural space
Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms. In this study, the medical records of 14 patients with duodenal NETs diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from July 2001 to August 2011 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Four patients were diagnosed in the first 5 years, and 10 patients were diagnosed in the latter 5 years of the study. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) who underwent endoscopic biopsy were confirmed to have NET before resection. Endoscopic resection was performed in 12 patients, surgical resection in one patient, and regular follow-up in one patient who refused resection. None of the patients showed recurrence or distant metastasis. Duodenal NETs are increasingly observed and are mostly detected during screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Careful endoscopic examination and biopsy can improve the diagnostic yield of NETs. Most well-differentiated, nonfunctional duodenal NETs that are limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be treated effectively with endoscopic resection.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Duodenum
Propofol, a GABA-mediated inhibitor of excitatory neurotransmitter, is a popular intravenous agent for general anesthesia and sedation. Its side effects reportedly include opisthotonus, seizures, and myoclonus, and are usually manageable. We present a patient who developed propofol-induced delayed-onset refractory myoclonic seizures that resisted antiepileptic drugs.
Propofol; Myoclonic seizure; Status epilepticus
The opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine is influenced by bolus dose, infusion rate, duration of infusion, and differences in the intensity of postoperative pain. In this study, we investigated the opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine in patients with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using fentanyl after lumbar spinal fusion surgery, which can cause severe postoperative pain.
Sixty patients scheduled for elective lumbar spinal fusion surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of three study medications (K1 group: ketamine infusion of 1 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg, K2 group: ketamine infusion of 2 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg, Control group: saline infusion following bolus of saline). Continuous infusion of ketamine began before skin incision intraoperatively, and continued until 48 h postoperatively. For postoperative pain control, patients were administered fentanyl using IV-PCA (bolus dose 15 µg of fentanyl, lockout interval of 5 min, no basal infusion). For 48 h postoperatively, the total amount of fentanyl consumption, postoperative pain score, adverse effects and patients' satisfaction were evaluated.
The total amount of fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in the K2 group (474 µg) compared to the control group (826 µg) and the K1 group (756 µg) during the 48 h after surgery. Pain scores at rest or with movement, the incidence of adverse events and patient satisfaction were not significantly different among the groups.
Low-dose ketamine at 2 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg significantly reduced the total amount of fentanyl consumption during the 48 h after lumbar spinal fusion surgery without increasing adverse effects.
Fentanyl; Ketamine; Pain; Postoperative
Little is known about the time course of changes in the microarchitecture of the tibial epiphysis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although such information would be valuable in predicting risk of fracture. Therefore, we used in vivo microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) to assess patterns of microarchitectural alterations in the tibial epiphysis using collagen-induced RA in an animal model.
Bovine type II collagen was injected intradermally into the tails of rats for induction of RA. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo μ-CT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks following injection. Microarchitectural parameters were measured to evaluate alteration patterns of bone microarchitecture at the tibial epiphysis.
The microarchitectural alterations in an RA group were significantly different from those in a control group from 0 to 4 weeks and from 4 to 8 weeks following injection (P < 0.05). The distribution of trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation from 0 weeks to 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0.05).
These results indicate that the patterns of microarchitectural alterations at the tibial epiphysis are strongly affected by collagen-induced progression of RA and entail a severe risk of fracture at the tibial epiphysis. This study represents a valuable first approach to tracking periodic and continuous changes in the microarchitectural characteristics of the tibial epiphysis with collagen-induced RA.
collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis; in vivo microcomputed tomography; periodic microarchitecture alteration pattern; trabecular bone thickness; trabecular bone separation
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aprepitant, neurokinin-1(NK1) receptor antagonist, for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours in patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) using fentanyl.
In this randomized, open label, case-control study 84 gynecological surgical patients receiving a standardized general anesthesia were investigated. Patients were randomly allocated to receive aprepitant 80 mg P.O. approximately 2-3 hours before operation (aprepitant group) or none (control group). All patients received ramosetron 0.3 mg IV after induction of anesthesia. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea, and use of rescue antiemetics were evaluated for up to 24 hours postoperatively.
The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (50.0%) compared to the control group (80.9%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (4.7%) compared to the control group (42.8%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. In addition, the severity of nausea was less among those in the aprepitant group compared with the control group over a period of 24 hours post-surgery (P < 0.05). Use of rescue antiemetics was lower in the aprepitant group than in the control group during 24 hours postoperatively (P < 0.05).
In patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with IV PCA using fentanyl, the aprepitant plus ramosetron ware more effective than ramosetron alone to decrease the incidence of PONV, use of rescue antiemetics and nausea severity for up to 24 hours postoperatively.
Aprepitant; Gynecologic anesthesia; Neurokinin-1 receptor; Patient controlled analgesia; Postoperative nausea and vomiting; Ramosetron
The ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (TAPB) reduces postoperative pain after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. But, its effect post laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP) is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided TAPB in TEP.
In this prospective, randomized study, forty adult patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for a TEP under general anesthesia were studied. In the TAPB group (n = 20), an ultrasound-guided bilateral TAPB was performed with 0.375% ropivacaine 15 ml on each side after the induction of general anesthesia. The control group (n = 20) did not have TAPB performed. Fentanyl 50 µg was repeatedly injected as per the patient's request in the recovery room. Pain scores at rest and on coughing were assessed postoperatively in the recovery room (20 min, at discharge) and at 4, 8, and 24 hours after surgery.
In the recovery room, pain scores (numeric rating scale, 0-10) at postoperative 20 min were lower in the TAPB group (3.9 ± 1.6, 4.9 ± 1.8) than the control group (6.9 ± 1.6, 8.0 ± 1.6) at rest and on coughing. Also, pain scores upon discharge from the recovery room were lower in the TAPB group (3.2 ± 1.2, 4.2 ± 1.5) than the control group (5.3 ± 1.6, 6.5 ± 1.8) at rest and on coughing.
The ultrasound-guided TAPB in patients that had undergone TEP reduced postoperative pain scores and the fentanyl requirement in the recovery room. Also, pain scores on coughing were reduced until postoperative 8 hours.
Herniorrhaphy; Laparoscopy; Ropivacaine; Transverse abdominis plane block; Ultrasonography
Information regarding the alteration of trabecular bone microarchitecture, which is one of the important criteria to estimate bone condition, induced by osteoarthritis (OA) is sparse. The current study therefore aimed to identify and quantify patterns of alterations in trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics at tibial epiphysis induced by OA using in vivo microcomputed tomography. Fourteen 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (n = 7) and OA (n = 7) groups. Rats in the OA group were administered monoiodoacetate into the knee-joint cavity. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo microcomputed tomography at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after administration. Two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s honestly significant difference post hoc test was carried out for statistical analyses. The results showed that patterns of alterations in the trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics in the OA group were not different from those in the control group from 0 to 4 weeks (P > 0.05), but differed from 4 to 8 weeks (P < 0.05). In particular, both trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation distributions over time (4–8 weeks) differed significantly (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the patterns of bone microarchitecture changes brought about by OA should be periodically considered in the diagnosis and management of arthritic symptoms over time. Improved understanding of the alteration pattern on trabecular bone microarchitecture may assist in developing more targeted treatment interventions for OA.
osteoarthritis; in vivo microcomputed tomography; trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics; trabecular bone thickness distribution; trabecular bone separation distribution
Although rare, intraoperative anaphylaxis can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Aquafol® (Daewon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), a microemulsion propofol, was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events, and was used in clinical anesthesia since 2009 with little data about severe side effects such as anaphylaxis. A healthy 16-yr-old male patient who had past medical history with two previous operations of no complications developed cardiovascular shock with generalized erythema following administration of microemulsion propofol during anesthesia induction. Intravenous injection of epinephrine and steroid rescued him. He remained in a stable state without any problems postoperatively and was discharged. Clinicians should consider this rare but serious complication during induction of anesthesia with propofol.
Anaphylactic Reaction; Anesthetics; Aquafol; Complications; Microemulsion Propofol
Background and Purpose
The detection of α-synuclein in the body fluids of patients with synucleinopathy has yielded promising but inconclusive results, in part because of conformational changes of α-synuclein in response to environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using α-synuclein as a biological marker for Parkinson's disease (PD).
Twenty-three drug-naïve patients with PD (age 62.4±12.7 years, mean±SD; 11 males) and 29 age- and sex-matched neurologic control subjects (age 60.1±16.2 years; 16 males) were recruited. The levels of oligomeric and total α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were measured using two simultaneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
The level of α-synuclein oligomer in the CSF of PD patients was significantly higher in PD patients than in neurological controls, but other findings (plasma α-synuclein oligomer and total α-synuclein in CSF and plasma) did not differ significantly between the two groups. When the control subjects were divided into a symptomatic control group (11 patients who complained of parkinsonian symptoms and were diagnosed with hydrocephalus and drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism) and a neurologic control group (10 normal subjects and 8 patients with diabetic ophthalmoplegia), the level of α-synuclein oligomer in the CSF was still significantly higher in PD patients than in both of the control subgroups.
These findings provide further evidence for a pathogenic role of the α-synuclein oligomer and suggest that CSF levels of α-synuclein oligomer can be a reliable marker for PD.
Parkinson's disease; cerebrospinal fluid; alpha-synuclein; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
This study was performed to ultrasonographically demonstrate the changes in relationship between the right internal jugular vein (IJV) and an anatomical landmark in two different head positions: neutral and rotated.
This was a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were enrolled in this study. The patients were placed in the supine position with a neutral head position and without a pillow. The apex of the triangle formed by the sternal and clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and clavicle was marked (AL point : anatomical landmark point). Ultrasonography of the neck anatomy was performed and the skin was marked at the central point of the IJV (US point: ultrasonography point). The other investigator measured the distance from the AL point to the US point (AL-US distance). The patient's head was then turned 30° to the left; the same procedure was repeated and the AL-US distance was again measured. The changes in AL-US distance were calculated.
The AL-US distance increased significantly after 30° head rotation compared with that in a head neutral position. The mean ± SD of the AL-US distance was 0.28 ± 0.78 cm in the neutral head position and 0.83 ± 1.03 cm in the head rotated position.
The anatomical landmark point becomes more distant from the actual right IJV point and moves more medially after head rotation. We suggest minimizing the angle of head rotation and taking this distance into consideration when using the landmark-guided method.
Anatomy; Jugular vein; Ultrasonography
Background and Purpose
It is particularly difficult to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from the related dementias of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Few studies have been designed to comparatively analyze detailed neuropsychological assessments of DLB patients and patients with AD and PDD.
Three groups of patients participated in this study: 10 with DLB, 76 with AD, and 17 with PDD, who had been diagnosed as probable DLB, AD, and PDD, respectively, according to the clinical criteria of the consortium on DLB, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association, and the clinical diagnostic criteria for PDD. All patients were evaluated by careful neurological examination with detailed neuropsychological testing.
Significant differences among the three groups were found for attention, memory, and executive function, which included tasks of backward digit span, three-word recall, verbal delayed recall, and the Stroop test. Post hoc analysis revealed that the deficiencies of attention on the digit span task were greater in the DLB group than in the AD and PDD groups. The scores for episodic verbal memory tasks were significantly lower in the DLB and AD groups than in the PDD group. The performance in frontal executive function, as indicated by the Stroop test, was significantly worse in the DLB and PDD groups than in the AD group.
The results of the present study show that the pattern of cognitive dysfunction, in terms of attention, episodic memory, and executive functions, differ between patients with DLB and patients with AD and PDD.
dementia with lewy bodies; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia; cognition; neuropsychology
Neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying Aβ-induced apoptosis remains undetermined. The disialoganglioside GD3 involves ceramide-, Fas- and TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in lymphoid cells and hepatocytes. Although the implication of GD3 has been suggested, the precise role of GD3 in Aβ-induced apoptosis is still unclear. Here, we investsigated the changes of GD3 metabolism and characterized the distribution and trafficking of GD3 during Aβ-induced apoptosis using human brain-derived TE671 cells. Extracellular Aβ-induced apoptosis in a mitochondrial-dependent manner. GD3 level was negligible in the basal condition. However, in response to extracellular Aβ, both the expression of GD3 synthase mRNA and the intracellular GD3 level were dramatically increased. Neosynthesized GD3 rapidly accumulated in cell surface lipid microdomains, and was then translocated to mitochondria to execute the apoptosis. Disruption of membrane lipid microdomains with methyl-β-cyclodextrin significantly prevented both GD3 accumulation in cell surface and Aβ-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that rapidly accumulated GD3 in plasma membrane lipid microdomains prior to mitochondrial translocation is one of the key events in Aβ-induced apoptosis.
Amyloid beta-peptide; GD3; Apoptosis; Trafficking; Lipid Rafts; Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
Aquafol, a microemulsion propofol, causes more severe and frequent pain on injection than propofol. The purpose of this study was to compare a combination of lidocaine and ketamine on aquafol-induced pain with lidocaine or ketamine alone during the induction of anesthesia.
In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, 130 healthy patients who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The patients received IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg (Group LK, n = 43), lidocaine 40 mg (Group L, n = 42), or ketamine 25 mg (Group K, n = 45) with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol. The pain score was assessed by a 4-point verbal rating scale (VRS) at 10 seconds after injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg and during the injection of the remaining total dose.
The incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK than Group L or Group K at 10 seconds after the injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg (P < 0.05). And the incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK and Group K than Group L during the injection of the remaining total dose (P < 0.05).
Pretreatment with IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol is more effective than lidocaine 40 mg or ketamine 25 mg alone in preventing pain from the injection of microemulsion propofol.
Injection; Intravenous; Ketamine; Lidocaine; Pain; Propofol
This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST).
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The study population consisted of 70 patients between 20 and 70 years old who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the ketamine group received an intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine just before induction, followed by 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the control group received intravenous saline instead of ketamine. The patients were interviewed 1, 6, and 24 h after the operation. The incidence and severity of POST were recorded.
No significant differences in the incidence and severity of POST during the 24 h after the operation were found between the two groups (21/31 in the ketamine group vs. 26/34 in the control group, P = 0.398).
Intravenous injection of low dose ketamine was not effective for reducing POST.
Complications; Intubation; Ketamine
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism associated with apraxia, cortical sensory loss, and alien-limb phenomenon. Neuropsychological testing in patients with CBD typically shows deficits in executive functions, praxis, language, and visuospatial functioning, but not in memory. We report a CBD patient with severely impaired memory function but relatively mild motor symptoms. Detailed neuropsychological assessment showed significant verbal and visual memory deficits accompanied by frontal executive dysfunctions. Our observations indicate that CBD can in rare cases present with severe episodic memory impairment associated with frontal executive dysfunctions in the early stage of illness.
Corticobasal degeneration; Episodic memory; PET
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an uncommon inflammatory myopathy with characteristic rash accompanying, or more often preceding, muscle weakness. There is a well-recognized association between DM and several cancers, such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the first case of cancer of unknown primary site associated with DM. A 62-yr-old woman presented to us with both shoulder painful swelling and facial edema. She was diagnosed previously as cancer of unknown primary site, histologically confirmed with squamous cell carcinoma in a pelvic mass. For the following days, she complained of erythematous face followed by progressive weakness of the proximal muscles of upper and lower limbs. The laboratory tests showed an increased muscle enzyme and acute phase reactants. The electromyogram showed the typical findings of DM. After the treatment with high dose steroid and methotrexate, the proximal motor weakness improved, and she received palliative radiation therapy.
Dermatomyositis; Paraneoplastic Syndromes; Unknown Primary Neoplasms
Platelet activation has a critical role in arterial disorders. In this study, we showed that the upregulation of P-selectin expression on platelets was related with clinical worsening in acute ischemic stroke. We serially (within 24 hr, at 72 hr, and 7 days) measured the expression of P-selectin on platelets in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n=45) and investigated the correlation between their extents and clinical severity of ischemic stroke. A significant relationship between the P-selectin expressions and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was observed at 72 hr and 7 days after ischemic stroke onset. Patients with clinical deterioration showed significantly increased expression of P-selectin on platelets as compared to those without deterioration. These results suggest that the P-selectin expression on platelets may contribute to the aggravation of clinical course in acute ischemic stroke. Thus, adequate manipulation of activated platelets is an important therapeutic strategy in acute ischemic stroke.