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1.  Epidural Catheter Malposition in a Failed Epidural Anesthesia Confirmed by Computed Tomography 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(1):44-47.
We report a case of failed epidural anesthesia despite successful identification of the epidural space, loss of resistance technique, hanging drop method and drip infusion. This case evaluated the use of computed tomography to confirm epidural catheter position, which showed the catheter accidentally positioned at the T2 lamina. Because epidural anesthesia can even after successful procedure using standardized techniques such as loss of resistance, we recommend performing the procedure under fluoroscopic guidance to improve success rate and patient safety.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2011.24.1.44
PMCID: PMC3049976  PMID: 21390178
catheter malposition; epidural anesthesia; epidural space
2.  Is transverse abdominis plane block effective following local anesthetic infiltration in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair? 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(6):398-403.
Background
Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block can be recommended as a multimodal method to reduce postoperative pain in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, it is unclear whether TAP block following local anesthetic infiltration is effective. We planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of the latter technique in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP).
Methods
We randomly divided patients into two groups: the control group (n = 37) and TAP group (n = 37). Following the induction of general anesthesia, as a preemptive method, all of the patients were subjected to local anesthetic infiltration at the trocar sites, and the TAP group was subjected to ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 30 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine in addition before TEP. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and post-surgery at 4, 8, and 24 h. Additionally, during the postoperative 24 h, the total injected dose of analgesics and incidence of nausea were recorded.
Results:
On arrival in the recovery room, the pain score of the TAP group (4.33 ± 1.83) was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (5.73 ± 2.04). However, the pain score was not significantly different between the TAP group and control group at 4, 8, and 24 h post-surgery. The total amounts of analgesics used in the TAP group were significantly less than in the control group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of nausea between the two groups.
Conclusions
TAP block following local infiltration had a clinical advantage only in the recovery room.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.67.6.398
PMCID: PMC4280477  PMID: 25558340
Hernia; Repair; Ropivacaine; Transverse; Ultrasonography
3.  A Case of Propofol-Induced Delayed-Onset Refractory Myoclonic Seizures 
Propofol, a GABA-mediated inhibitor of excitatory neurotransmitter, is a popular intravenous agent for general anesthesia and sedation. Its side effects reportedly include opisthotonus, seizures, and myoclonus, and are usually manageable. We present a patient who developed propofol-induced delayed-onset refractory myoclonic seizures that resisted antiepileptic drugs.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2007.3.3.154
PMCID: PMC2686843  PMID: 19513284
Propofol; Myoclonic seizure; Status epilepticus
4.  The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;67(3):198-204.
Background
Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents.
Methods
A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education.
Results
The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Of the 570 students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months.
Conclusions
Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.67.3.198
PMCID: PMC4188766  PMID: 25301193
Education; Neck pain; Shoulder pain; Prevalence; Students
5.  Risk Factors for Patients with Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Extension into the Heart: Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(2):379-386.
Purpose
To evaluate the risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) extension into the right atrium (RA) and determine poor prognostic factors for HCC extension to the heart.
Materials and Methods
A total of 665 patients who were newly diagnosed with HCC were analyzed retrospectively from January 2004 to July 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: 33 patients with HCC extending into the RA and 632 HCC patients during the same period. The patients with HCC extending into the RA were subdivided into shorter survival group (<2 months) and longer survival group (≥2 months).
Results
The prevalence of HCC extending to the RA was 4.96%. In multivariate analysis, a modified Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage higher than IVA, hepatic vein invasion, concomitant inferior vena cava and portal vein invasion, and multinodular tumor type were risk factors for HCC extending to the RA. In multivariate analysis, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score >3 (p=0.016, OR: 13.89) and active treatment (p=0.024, OR: 0.054) were associated with prognostic factors in patients HCC extending into the RA. Active treatment such as radiation (n=1), transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) (n=11), Sorafenib (n=1), and combined modalities (n=2) were performed.
Conclusion
Modified UICC stage higher than IVA, vascular invasion and multinodular tumor type are independent risk factors for HCC extending to the RA. Active treatment may prolong survival in patients HCC extending into the RA.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.379
PMCID: PMC3936619  PMID: 24532507
Active cancer treatment; hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis; right atrium; prognosis
6.  Effect of energy drink dose on exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise 
[Purpose]
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and heart rate variability after high-intensity exercise on caffeine concentration of energy drink.
[Methods]
The volunteers for this study were 15 male university student. 15 subjects were taken basic physical examinations such as height, weight and BMI before the experiment. Primary tests were examined of VO2max per weight of each subjects by graded exercise test using Bruce protocol. Each of five subject was divided 3 groups (CON, ECGⅠ, ECGⅡ) by matched method based on weight and VO2max per weight what gained of primary test for minimize the differences of exercise capacity and ingestion of each groups. For the secondary tests, the groups of subjects were taken their materials before and after exercise as a blind test. After the ingestion, subjects were experimented on exercise test of VO2max 80% by treadmill until the all-out. Heart rate was measured by 1minute interval, and respiratory variables were analyzed VO2, VE, VT, RR and so on by automatic respiratory analyzer. And exercise exhaustion time was determined by stopwatch. Moreover, HRV was measured after exercise and recovery 3 min.
[Results]
Among the intake groups, ECGⅡ was showed the longest of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p = .05). Result of heart rate during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05). Result of RPE during exercise according to intake groups, there was significant differences of each time (p < .001), however, not significant differences of each groups and group verse time (p > .05).
[Conclusion]
In conclusion, EDGⅡ showed the significant increase of exercise exhaustion time more than CON group (p=.05) and not significant differences in HR, RPE, RER, HRV, HRR, blood pressure (p > .05). Therefore, 2.5 mg/kg-1 ingestion of energy drink might be positive effect to increase exercise performance capacity without side-effect in cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.5717/jenb.2014.18.1.31
PMCID: PMC4241927  PMID: 25566437
Energy Drink; Caffeine; HRV; HRR; Exercise; Cardiovascular
7.  Pleural Fluid Pentraxin-3 for the Differential Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions 
Background
Conventional biomarkers cannot always establish the cause of pleural effusions; thus, alternative tests permitting rapid and accurate diagnosis are required. The primary aim of this study is to assess the ability of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in order to diagnose the cause of pleural effusion and compare its efficacy to that of other previously identified biomarkers.
Methods
We studied 118 patients with pleural effusion, classified as transudates and exudates including malignant, tuberculous, and parapneumonic effusions (MPE, TPE, and PPE). The levels of PTX3, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactate in the pleural fluid were assessed.
Results
The levels of pleural fluid PTX3 were significantly higher in patients with PPE than in those with MPE or TPE. PTX3 yielded the most favorable discriminating ability to predict PPE from MPE or TPE by providing the following: area under the curve, 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.84), sensitivity, 62.07%; and specificity, 81.08% with a cut-off point of 25.00 ng/mL.
Conclusion
Our data suggests that PTX3 may allow improved differentiation of PPE from MPE or TPE compared to the previously identified biomarkers CRP and PCT.
doi:10.4046/trd.2013.75.6.244
PMCID: PMC3884112  PMID: 24416055
PTX3 Protein; Pleural Effusion
8.  Endoscopic Treatment of Duodenal Neuroendocrine Tumors 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(6):656-661.
Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms. In this study, the medical records of 14 patients with duodenal NETs diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from July 2001 to August 2011 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Four patients were diagnosed in the first 5 years, and 10 patients were diagnosed in the latter 5 years of the study. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) who underwent endoscopic biopsy were confirmed to have NET before resection. Endoscopic resection was performed in 12 patients, surgical resection in one patient, and regular follow-up in one patient who refused resection. None of the patients showed recurrence or distant metastasis. Duodenal NETs are increasingly observed and are mostly detected during screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Careful endoscopic examination and biopsy can improve the diagnostic yield of NETs. Most well-differentiated, nonfunctional duodenal NETs that are limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be treated effectively with endoscopic resection.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.6.656
PMCID: PMC3856269  PMID: 24340261
Neuroendocrine tumors; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Duodenum
9.  Temporal linear mode complexity as a surrogate measure of the anesthetic drug effects during sevoflurane anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(5):385-396.
Background
The aims of this study were to compare the stability, correlation with end-tidal sevoflurane, and area below the effect (AUCeffect) vs. time curves of temporal linear mode complexity (TLMC) and approximate entropy (ApEn) during sevoflurane anesthesia. Another study goal was to characterize the time course of the effects of sevoflurane.
Methods
Electroencephalogram (EEG) parame1ter stability was evaluated using the coefficients of variation (CV) of the median baseline (E0), maximal (Emax), and individual median E0 - Emax values. Correlations between sevoflurane concentration and EEG parameters were tested. AUCeffect vs. time curves of TLMC and ApEn were calculated to quantitate any decrease in central nervous system activities. A sigmoid Emax model was used for pharmacodynamic modeling.
Results
TLMC and ApEn demonstrated CVs of 8.36 and 7.35 (for E0) and 19.61 and 13.45 (Emax), respectively. The CVs of the individual median E0 - Emax values were 65.16 for TLMC and 59.97 for ApEn. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.3103 for TLMC and -0.3410 for ApEn (P < 0.001 for both parameters). The median AUCeffect value was 338.9 for TLMC and 246.5 for ApEn (P = 0.457). The final pharmacodynamic parameters estimated by sigmoid Emax models were described as follows; E0: 0.614, 0.617, Emax: 0.334, 0.287, Ce50: 5.48, 5.07 vol%, γ: 1.88, 2.01, ke0: 0.306, 0.236 min (TLMC, ApEn).
Conclusions
TLMC is comparable to ApEn according to the univariate EEG descriptors of the effects of sevoflurane. A sigmoid Emax model well described the pharmacodynamics of sevoflurane for TLMC and ApEn.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.5.385
PMCID: PMC3866333  PMID: 24363840
Electroencephalogram; Pharmacology; Sevoflurane
10.  Opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine in patients with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using fentanyl after lumbar spinal fusion surgery 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;64(6):524-528.
Background
The opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine is influenced by bolus dose, infusion rate, duration of infusion, and differences in the intensity of postoperative pain. In this study, we investigated the opioid sparing effect of low dose ketamine in patients with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using fentanyl after lumbar spinal fusion surgery, which can cause severe postoperative pain.
Methods
Sixty patients scheduled for elective lumbar spinal fusion surgery were randomly assigned to receive one of three study medications (K1 group: ketamine infusion of 1 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg, K2 group: ketamine infusion of 2 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg, Control group: saline infusion following bolus of saline). Continuous infusion of ketamine began before skin incision intraoperatively, and continued until 48 h postoperatively. For postoperative pain control, patients were administered fentanyl using IV-PCA (bolus dose 15 µg of fentanyl, lockout interval of 5 min, no basal infusion). For 48 h postoperatively, the total amount of fentanyl consumption, postoperative pain score, adverse effects and patients' satisfaction were evaluated.
Results
The total amount of fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in the K2 group (474 µg) compared to the control group (826 µg) and the K1 group (756 µg) during the 48 h after surgery. Pain scores at rest or with movement, the incidence of adverse events and patient satisfaction were not significantly different among the groups.
Conclusions
Low-dose ketamine at 2 µg/kg/min following bolus 0.5 mg/kg significantly reduced the total amount of fentanyl consumption during the 48 h after lumbar spinal fusion surgery without increasing adverse effects.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.6.524
PMCID: PMC3695250  PMID: 23814653
Fentanyl; Ketamine; Pain; Postoperative
11.  Changes in microarchitectural characteristics at the tibial epiphysis induced by collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis over time 
Background
Little is known about the time course of changes in the microarchitecture of the tibial epiphysis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although such information would be valuable in predicting risk of fracture. Therefore, we used in vivo microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) to assess patterns of microarchitectural alterations in the tibial epiphysis using collagen-induced RA in an animal model.
Methods
Bovine type II collagen was injected intradermally into the tails of rats for induction of RA. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo μ-CT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks following injection. Microarchitectural parameters were measured to evaluate alteration patterns of bone microarchitecture at the tibial epiphysis.
Results
The microarchitectural alterations in an RA group were significantly different from those in a control group from 0 to 4 weeks and from 4 to 8 weeks following injection (P < 0.05). The distribution of trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation from 0 weeks to 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
These results indicate that the patterns of microarchitectural alterations at the tibial epiphysis are strongly affected by collagen-induced progression of RA and entail a severe risk of fracture at the tibial epiphysis. This study represents a valuable first approach to tracking periodic and continuous changes in the microarchitectural characteristics of the tibial epiphysis with collagen-induced RA.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S35202
PMCID: PMC3459572  PMID: 23049249
collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis; in vivo microcomputed tomography; periodic microarchitecture alteration pattern; trabecular bone thickness; trabecular bone separation
12.  The effect of aprepitant for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with intravenous patient controlled analgesia using fentanyl: aprepitant plus ramosetron vs ramosetron alone 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(3):221-226.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aprepitant, neurokinin-1(NK1) receptor antagonist, for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours in patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) using fentanyl.
Methods
In this randomized, open label, case-control study 84 gynecological surgical patients receiving a standardized general anesthesia were investigated. Patients were randomly allocated to receive aprepitant 80 mg P.O. approximately 2-3 hours before operation (aprepitant group) or none (control group). All patients received ramosetron 0.3 mg IV after induction of anesthesia. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea, and use of rescue antiemetics were evaluated for up to 24 hours postoperatively.
Results
The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (50.0%) compared to the control group (80.9%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. The incidence of vomiting was significantly lower in the aprepitant group (4.7%) compared to the control group (42.8%) during the first 24 hours following surgery. In addition, the severity of nausea was less among those in the aprepitant group compared with the control group over a period of 24 hours post-surgery (P < 0.05). Use of rescue antiemetics was lower in the aprepitant group than in the control group during 24 hours postoperatively (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
In patients regarded as high risk undergoing gynecological surgery with IV PCA using fentanyl, the aprepitant plus ramosetron ware more effective than ramosetron alone to decrease the incidence of PONV, use of rescue antiemetics and nausea severity for up to 24 hours postoperatively.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.3.221
PMCID: PMC3460150  PMID: 23060978
Aprepitant; Gynecologic anesthesia; Neurokinin-1 receptor; Patient controlled analgesia; Postoperative nausea and vomiting; Ramosetron
13.  The analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(3):227-232.
Background
The ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (TAPB) reduces postoperative pain after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. But, its effect post laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP) is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided TAPB in TEP.
Methods
In this prospective, randomized study, forty adult patients (ASA I-II) scheduled for a TEP under general anesthesia were studied. In the TAPB group (n = 20), an ultrasound-guided bilateral TAPB was performed with 0.375% ropivacaine 15 ml on each side after the induction of general anesthesia. The control group (n = 20) did not have TAPB performed. Fentanyl 50 µg was repeatedly injected as per the patient's request in the recovery room. Pain scores at rest and on coughing were assessed postoperatively in the recovery room (20 min, at discharge) and at 4, 8, and 24 hours after surgery.
Results
In the recovery room, pain scores (numeric rating scale, 0-10) at postoperative 20 min were lower in the TAPB group (3.9 ± 1.6, 4.9 ± 1.8) than the control group (6.9 ± 1.6, 8.0 ± 1.6) at rest and on coughing. Also, pain scores upon discharge from the recovery room were lower in the TAPB group (3.2 ± 1.2, 4.2 ± 1.5) than the control group (5.3 ± 1.6, 6.5 ± 1.8) at rest and on coughing.
Conclusions
The ultrasound-guided TAPB in patients that had undergone TEP reduced postoperative pain scores and the fentanyl requirement in the recovery room. Also, pain scores on coughing were reduced until postoperative 8 hours.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.3.227
PMCID: PMC3460151  PMID: 23060979
Herniorrhaphy; Laparoscopy; Ropivacaine; Transverse abdominis plane block; Ultrasonography
14.  Alteration patterns of trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics induced by osteoarthritis over time 
Information regarding the alteration of trabecular bone microarchitecture, which is one of the important criteria to estimate bone condition, induced by osteoarthritis (OA) is sparse. The current study therefore aimed to identify and quantify patterns of alterations in trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics at tibial epiphysis induced by OA using in vivo microcomputed tomography. Fourteen 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (n = 7) and OA (n = 7) groups. Rats in the OA group were administered monoiodoacetate into the knee-joint cavity. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo microcomputed tomography at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after administration. Two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s honestly significant difference post hoc test was carried out for statistical analyses. The results showed that patterns of alterations in the trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics in the OA group were not different from those in the control group from 0 to 4 weeks (P > 0.05), but differed from 4 to 8 weeks (P < 0.05). In particular, both trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation distributions over time (4–8 weeks) differed significantly (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the patterns of bone microarchitecture changes brought about by OA should be periodically considered in the diagnosis and management of arthritic symptoms over time. Improved understanding of the alteration pattern on trabecular bone microarchitecture may assist in developing more targeted treatment interventions for OA.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S32513
PMCID: PMC3426264  PMID: 22956865
osteoarthritis; in vivo microcomputed tomography; trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics; trabecular bone thickness distribution; trabecular bone separation distribution
15.  Suspected Anaphylactic Reaction Associated with Microemulsion Propofol during Anesthesia Induction 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(7):827-829.
Although rare, intraoperative anaphylaxis can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Aquafol® (Daewon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), a microemulsion propofol, was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events, and was used in clinical anesthesia since 2009 with little data about severe side effects such as anaphylaxis. A healthy 16-yr-old male patient who had past medical history with two previous operations of no complications developed cardiovascular shock with generalized erythema following administration of microemulsion propofol during anesthesia induction. Intravenous injection of epinephrine and steroid rescued him. He remained in a stable state without any problems postoperatively and was discharged. Clinicians should consider this rare but serious complication during induction of anesthesia with propofol.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.7.827
PMCID: PMC3390737  PMID: 22787384
Anaphylactic Reaction; Anesthetics; Aquafol; Complications; Microemulsion Propofol
16.  Elevated Levels of α-Synuclein Oligomer in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Drug-Naïve Patients with Parkinson's Disease 
Background and Purpose
The detection of α-synuclein in the body fluids of patients with synucleinopathy has yielded promising but inconclusive results, in part because of conformational changes of α-synuclein in response to environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using α-synuclein as a biological marker for Parkinson's disease (PD).
Methods
Twenty-three drug-naïve patients with PD (age 62.4±12.7 years, mean±SD; 11 males) and 29 age- and sex-matched neurologic control subjects (age 60.1±16.2 years; 16 males) were recruited. The levels of oligomeric and total α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were measured using two simultaneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Results
The level of α-synuclein oligomer in the CSF of PD patients was significantly higher in PD patients than in neurological controls, but other findings (plasma α-synuclein oligomer and total α-synuclein in CSF and plasma) did not differ significantly between the two groups. When the control subjects were divided into a symptomatic control group (11 patients who complained of parkinsonian symptoms and were diagnosed with hydrocephalus and drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism) and a neurologic control group (10 normal subjects and 8 patients with diabetic ophthalmoplegia), the level of α-synuclein oligomer in the CSF was still significantly higher in PD patients than in both of the control subgroups.
Conclusions
These findings provide further evidence for a pathogenic role of the α-synuclein oligomer and suggest that CSF levels of α-synuclein oligomer can be a reliable marker for PD.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2011.7.4.215
PMCID: PMC3259496  PMID: 22259618
Parkinson's disease; cerebrospinal fluid; alpha-synuclein; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
17.  Changes in the relationship between the right internal jugular vein and an anatomical landmark after head rotation 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(2):107-111.
Background
This study was performed to ultrasonographically demonstrate the changes in relationship between the right internal jugular vein (IJV) and an anatomical landmark in two different head positions: neutral and rotated.
Methods
This was a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were enrolled in this study. The patients were placed in the supine position with a neutral head position and without a pillow. The apex of the triangle formed by the sternal and clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and clavicle was marked (AL point : anatomical landmark point). Ultrasonography of the neck anatomy was performed and the skin was marked at the central point of the IJV (US point: ultrasonography point). The other investigator measured the distance from the AL point to the US point (AL-US distance). The patient's head was then turned 30° to the left; the same procedure was repeated and the AL-US distance was again measured. The changes in AL-US distance were calculated.
Results
The AL-US distance increased significantly after 30° head rotation compared with that in a head neutral position. The mean ± SD of the AL-US distance was 0.28 ± 0.78 cm in the neutral head position and 0.83 ± 1.03 cm in the head rotated position.
Conclusions
The anatomical landmark point becomes more distant from the actual right IJV point and moves more medially after head rotation. We suggest minimizing the angle of head rotation and taking this distance into consideration when using the landmark-guided method.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.2.107
PMCID: PMC3167127  PMID: 21927678
Anatomy; Jugular vein; Ultrasonography
18.  Dementia with Lewy Bodies versus Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Comparison of Cognitive Profiles 
Background and Purpose
It is particularly difficult to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from the related dementias of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Few studies have been designed to comparatively analyze detailed neuropsychological assessments of DLB patients and patients with AD and PDD.
Methods
Three groups of patients participated in this study: 10 with DLB, 76 with AD, and 17 with PDD, who had been diagnosed as probable DLB, AD, and PDD, respectively, according to the clinical criteria of the consortium on DLB, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association, and the clinical diagnostic criteria for PDD. All patients were evaluated by careful neurological examination with detailed neuropsychological testing.
Results
Significant differences among the three groups were found for attention, memory, and executive function, which included tasks of backward digit span, three-word recall, verbal delayed recall, and the Stroop test. Post hoc analysis revealed that the deficiencies of attention on the digit span task were greater in the DLB group than in the AD and PDD groups. The scores for episodic verbal memory tasks were significantly lower in the DLB and AD groups than in the PDD group. The performance in frontal executive function, as indicated by the Stroop test, was significantly worse in the DLB and PDD groups than in the AD group.
Conclusions
The results of the present study show that the pattern of cognitive dysfunction, in terms of attention, episodic memory, and executive functions, differ between patients with DLB and patients with AD and PDD.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2011.7.1.19
PMCID: PMC3079155  PMID: 21519522
dementia with lewy bodies; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia; cognition; neuropsychology
19.  GD3 Accumulation in Cell Surface Lipid Rafts Prior to Mitochondrial Targeting Contributes to Amyloid-β-induced Apoptosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(10):1492-1498.
Neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying Aβ-induced apoptosis remains undetermined. The disialoganglioside GD3 involves ceramide-, Fas- and TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in lymphoid cells and hepatocytes. Although the implication of GD3 has been suggested, the precise role of GD3 in Aβ-induced apoptosis is still unclear. Here, we investsigated the changes of GD3 metabolism and characterized the distribution and trafficking of GD3 during Aβ-induced apoptosis using human brain-derived TE671 cells. Extracellular Aβ-induced apoptosis in a mitochondrial-dependent manner. GD3 level was negligible in the basal condition. However, in response to extracellular Aβ, both the expression of GD3 synthase mRNA and the intracellular GD3 level were dramatically increased. Neosynthesized GD3 rapidly accumulated in cell surface lipid microdomains, and was then translocated to mitochondria to execute the apoptosis. Disruption of membrane lipid microdomains with methyl-β-cyclodextrin significantly prevented both GD3 accumulation in cell surface and Aβ-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that rapidly accumulated GD3 in plasma membrane lipid microdomains prior to mitochondrial translocation is one of the key events in Aβ-induced apoptosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.10.1492
PMCID: PMC2946661  PMID: 20890432
Amyloid beta-peptide; GD3; Apoptosis; Trafficking; Lipid Rafts; Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
20.  Prevention of pain with the injection of microemulsion propofol: a comparison of a combination of lidocaine and ketamine with lidocaine or ketamine alone 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(4):233-237.
Background
Aquafol, a microemulsion propofol, causes more severe and frequent pain on injection than propofol. The purpose of this study was to compare a combination of lidocaine and ketamine on aquafol-induced pain with lidocaine or ketamine alone during the induction of anesthesia.
Methods
In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, 130 healthy patients who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The patients received IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg (Group LK, n = 43), lidocaine 40 mg (Group L, n = 42), or ketamine 25 mg (Group K, n = 45) with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol. The pain score was assessed by a 4-point verbal rating scale (VRS) at 10 seconds after injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg and during the injection of the remaining total dose.
Results
The incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK than Group L or Group K at 10 seconds after the injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg (P < 0.05). And the incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK and Group K than Group L during the injection of the remaining total dose (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Pretreatment with IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol is more effective than lidocaine 40 mg or ketamine 25 mg alone in preventing pain from the injection of microemulsion propofol.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.4.233
PMCID: PMC2966702  PMID: 21057611
Injection; Intravenous; Ketamine; Lidocaine; Pain; Propofol
21.  The effect of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing postoperative sore throat 
Background
This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous low dose ketamine for reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat (POST).
Methods
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The study population consisted of 70 patients between 20 and 70 years old who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II and were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in the ketamine group received an intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine just before induction, followed by 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the control group received intravenous saline instead of ketamine. The patients were interviewed 1, 6, and 24 h after the operation. The incidence and severity of POST were recorded.
Results
No significant differences in the incidence and severity of POST during the 24 h after the operation were found between the two groups (21/31 in the ketamine group vs. 26/34 in the control group, P = 0.398).
Conclusions
Intravenous injection of low dose ketamine was not effective for reducing POST.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.1.22
PMCID: PMC2908222  PMID: 20651994
Complications; Intubation; Ketamine
22.  Severe Episodic Memory Impairment in a Patient With Clinical Features Compatible With Corticobasal Degeneration 
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism associated with apraxia, cortical sensory loss, and alien-limb phenomenon. Neuropsychological testing in patients with CBD typically shows deficits in executive functions, praxis, language, and visuospatial functioning, but not in memory. We report a CBD patient with severely impaired memory function but relatively mild motor symptoms. Detailed neuropsychological assessment showed significant verbal and visual memory deficits accompanied by frontal executive dysfunctions. Our observations indicate that CBD can in rare cases present with severe episodic memory impairment associated with frontal executive dysfunctions in the early stage of illness.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2008.4.2.94
PMCID: PMC2686868  PMID: 19513310
Corticobasal degeneration; Episodic memory; PET
23.  Dermatomyositis Associated with Cancer of Unknown Primary Site 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S174-S177.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an uncommon inflammatory myopathy with characteristic rash accompanying, or more often preceding, muscle weakness. There is a well-recognized association between DM and several cancers, such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the first case of cancer of unknown primary site associated with DM. A 62-yr-old woman presented to us with both shoulder painful swelling and facial edema. She was diagnosed previously as cancer of unknown primary site, histologically confirmed with squamous cell carcinoma in a pelvic mass. For the following days, she complained of erythematous face followed by progressive weakness of the proximal muscles of upper and lower limbs. The laboratory tests showed an increased muscle enzyme and acute phase reactants. The electromyogram showed the typical findings of DM. After the treatment with high dose steroid and methotrexate, the proximal motor weakness improved, and she received palliative radiation therapy.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.S.S174
PMCID: PMC2694392  PMID: 17923750
Dermatomyositis; Paraneoplastic Syndromes; Unknown Primary Neoplasms
24.  Surface expression of P-selectin on platelets is related with clinical worsening in acute ischemic stroke. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(6):811-816.
Platelet activation has a critical role in arterial disorders. In this study, we showed that the upregulation of P-selectin expression on platelets was related with clinical worsening in acute ischemic stroke. We serially (within 24 hr, at 72 hr, and 7 days) measured the expression of P-selectin on platelets in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n=45) and investigated the correlation between their extents and clinical severity of ischemic stroke. A significant relationship between the P-selectin expressions and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was observed at 72 hr and 7 days after ischemic stroke onset. Patients with clinical deterioration showed significantly increased expression of P-selectin on platelets as compared to those without deterioration. These results suggest that the P-selectin expression on platelets may contribute to the aggravation of clinical course in acute ischemic stroke. Thus, adequate manipulation of activated platelets is an important therapeutic strategy in acute ischemic stroke.
PMCID: PMC3054976  PMID: 12483007

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