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author:("Kim, kinyoun")
1.  Facilitating Effects of Fast and Slope Walking on Paraspinal Muscles 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2014;38(4):514-522.
To quantify the activation of the paraspinalis muscles (multifidus and erector spinae) at different walking velocities and slope with surface electromyography.
This study was a prospective experimental study involving ten healthy male participants. Surface electrodes were placed over the multifidus and erector spinae muscles at the L5 and L3 level. After the electrode was placed at the lumbar paraspinalis muscles, electromyography signals were recorded over 20 seconds. Data were collected three times during the walking exercise at a 0° gradient with the speed from 3 to 6 km/hr. At 7° gradient and 15° gradient, data were also collected three times but a walking speed of 4 km/hr. The area under the curve was calculated for quantitative measurement of muscle activation.
While the muscle activation was increased at higher walking velocities at the L5 and L3 levels of the multifidus, the erector spinae muscle activation did not show any change at higher walking velocities. At L3 level of the multifidus and erector spine muscles, the muscle activation was significantly increased in 15° gradient compared to those seen in at 0° gradient. At L5 level, the multifidus and erector spinae muscle activation in 0° gradient was not significantly different from that those seen in 7° or 15° gradient.
Fast walking exercise activates lumbar multifidus muscles more than the slow walking exercise. Also, the mid lumbar muscles are comparatively more activated than low lumbar muscles when the walking slope increases.
PMCID: PMC4163591  PMID: 25229030
Walking; Paraspinal muscles; Low back pain
2.  Characteristics of Neuropathic Pain in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2014;38(3):327-334.
To characterize neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to classification used in the study by Baron et al. (Baron classification), a classification of neuropathic pain based on the mechanism. To also compare the patterns of neuropathic pain in SCI patients with those in patients with other etiologies and to determine the differences in patterns of neuropathic pain between the etiologies.
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We used the Baron classification to investigate the characteristics of neuropathic pain in SCI. Sixty-one SCI patients with neuropathic pain (The Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs score ≥12) were enrolled in this study between November 2012 and August 2013, after excluding patients <20 of age, patients with visual analog scale (VAS) score <3, pregnant patients, and patients with systemic disease or pain other than neuropathic pain.
The most common pain characteristic was pricking pain followed by electrical pain and numbness. The mean VAS score of at-level neuropathic pain was 7.51 and that of below-level neuropathic pain was 6.83. All of the patients suffered from rest pain, but 18 (54.6%) patients with at-level neuropathic pain and 20 (50.0%) patients with below-level neuropathic pain suffered from evoked pain. There was no significant difference in between at-level and below-level neuropathic pains.
The result was quite different from the characteristics of post-herpetic neuralgia, but it was similar to the characteristics of diabetic neuropathy as shown in the study by Baron et al., which means that sensory nerve deafferentation may be the most common pathophysiologic mechanism of neuropathic pain after SCI. Since in our study, we included short and discrete symptoms and signs based on diverse mechanisms, our results could be helpful for determining further evaluation and treatment.
PMCID: PMC4092172  PMID: 25024955
Neuralgia; Spinal cord injuries; Classification
3.  Reliability and Applicability of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II for Children With Cerebral Palsy 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2013;37(2):167-174.
To obtain reliability and applicability of the Korean version Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) in evaluating the developmental status of children with cerebral palsy (CP).
The inter-rater reliability of BSID-II scores from 68 children with CP (46 boys and 22 girls; mean age, 32.54±16.76 months; age range, 4 to 78 months) was evaluated by 10 pediatric occupational therapists. Patients were classified in several ways according to age group, typology, and the severity of motor impairment by the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The measures were performed by video analysis, and the results of intraclass correlation (ICC) were obtained for each of the above classifications. To evaluate the clinical applicability of BSID-II for CP, its correlation with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), which has been known as the standard motor assessment for CP, was investigated.
ICC was 0.99 for the Mental scale and 0.98 for the Motor scale in all subjects. The values of ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for each age group, 0.93 to 0.99 for each typology, and 0.99 to 1.00 for each GMFCS level. A strong positive correlation was found between the BSID-II Motor raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.84, p<0.001), and a moderate correlation was observed between the BSID-II Mental raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.65, p<0.001).
The Korean version of BSID-II is a reliable tool to measure the functional status of children with CP. The raw scores of BSID-II showed a great correlation with GMFM, indicating validity of this measure for children with CP on clinical basis.
PMCID: PMC3660476  PMID: 23705110
Cerebral palsy; Child development; Reliability; Gross motor function
4.  The Effect of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Therapy in Patients with Completed Stroke: A Pilot Trial 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(4):447-457.
To evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of "recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH)" on the functional recovery of completed stroke patients.
Completed stroke patients were recruited. All participants were randomly assigned to the GH group (rhGH injection and rehabilitative therapy) or the control group (only rehabilitative therapy). Above all, they were closely monitored for safety. Further, for the efficacy measurement, Korean Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Manual Muscle strength Test (MMT), and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) were assessed to determine the changes of functional recovery during 6-months of the study period. Along with it, diffusion tensor image was taken as the baseline, and a followed-up study to observe the changes in diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), during the period, and one patient in the GH group was also examined with functional MRI (fMRI). Index of fatigue on 5 point scale for the study period was also assessed.
Twenty-two patients were enrolled, and 15 completed the study and were included in the analysis. No harmful adverse events were observed in the GH group. By comparison between the groups, the GH group showed more improvement in K-MBI than the control group (p<0.05). DTT showed less decrement of fibers in the GH group than in the control group, without statistical significance. fMRI showed an increment in the activated area. Patients in the GH group expressed no fatigue at all, during the study period (p=0.00).
The administration of rhGH in long term resulted in the improvement in K-MBI, and subjectively less tiredness during the injection period.
PMCID: PMC3438410  PMID: 22977769
Stroke; Growth hormone; IGF-1; Recovery
5.  Surface Mapping of Motor Points in Biceps Brachii Muscle 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(2):187-196.
To localize the site of motor points within human biceps brachii muscles through surface mapping using electrophysiological method.
We recorded the compound muscle action potentials of each lattice of the biceps brachii in 40 healthy subjects. Standardized reference lines were made as the following: 1) a horizontal reference line (elbow crease) and 2) a vertical reference line connecting coracoid process and mid-point of the horizontal reference line. The Compound muscle action potentials were mapped in reference to the standardized reference lines. The locations of motor points were mapped to the skin surface, in the ratio to the length of the vertical and the half of the horizontal reference lines.
The motor point of the short head of biceps was located at 69.0±4.9% distal and 19.1±9.5% medial to the mid-point of horizontal reference line. The location of the motor point of the long head of the biceps was 67.3±4.3% distal and 21.4±8.7% lateral. The motor point of the short head of the biceps was located more medially and distally in the male subjects compared to that in the female (p<0.05).
This study showed electrophysiological motor points of the biceps brachii muscles through surface mapping. This data might improve the clinical efficacy and the feasibility of motor point targeting, when injecting botulinum neurotoxin in biceps brachii.
PMCID: PMC3358674  PMID: 22639742
Motor point; Surface mapping; Biceps brachii; Botulinum toxin; Motor point block
6.  Inter-rater Reliability of the K-GMFM-88 and the GMPM for Children with Cerebral Palsy 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(2):233-239.
To examine inter-rater reliability of the Korean version Gross Motor Function Measure (K-GMFM-88) and the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) based on the video clips.
We considered a sample of 39 children (28 boys and 11 girls; the mean age=3.50±1.23 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Two pediatric physical therapists assessed the children based on video recordings.
For the K-GMFM-88, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3, 1) ranged from .978 to .995, and Spearman's correlation coefficient ranged from .916 to .997. For the GMPM, ICC3, 1 ranged from .863 to .929, and Spearman's correlation coefficient ranged from .812 to .885. With the gross motor function classification system classified according to the functional level (GMFCS I-II vs. III-V), the ICCs were .982 and .994 for the K-GMFM-88 total score and .815 and .913 for the GMPM total score. There were good or high correlations between the subscales of the two measures (r=.762-.884).
The K-GMFM-88 and GMPM are reliable tools for assessing the motor function of children with CP. These two methods are highly correlated, which adds more reliability on them. Thus, it is advisable to use K-GMFM-88 and GMPM for children with CP to assess gross motor function.
PMCID: PMC3358680  PMID: 22639748
Cerebral palsy; Gross motor function; K-GMFM-88; GMPM; Reliability
7.  Association between Cross-sectional Areas of Lumbar Muscles on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Chronicity of Low Back Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(6):852-859.
To investigate the prognostic value of cross-sectional areas (CSA) of paraspinal (multifidus and erector spinae) and psoas muscles on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronicity of low back pain.
Thirty-eight subjects who visited our hospital for acute low back pain were enrolled. Review of their medical records and telephone interviews were done. Subjects were divided into two groups; chronic back pain group (CBP) and a group showing improvement within 6 months after onset of pain (IBP). The CSA of paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the level of the lower margin of L3 and L5 vertebrae using MRI.
CSA of erector spinae muscle and the proportion of the area to lumbar muscles (paraspinal and psoas muscles) at L5 level in the CBP group were significantly smaller than that of the IBP group (p<0.05). The mean value of CSA of multifidus muscle at L5 level in the CBP group was smaller than that of the IBP group, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). CSA of psoas muscle at L5 level and all values measured at L3 level were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05).
CSA of erector spinae muscle at the lower lumbar level and the proportion of the area to the lumbar muscles at the L5 level can be considered to be prognostic factors of chronicity of low back pain.
PMCID: PMC3309393  PMID: 22506214
Low back pain; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cross-sectional area; Muscles
8.  Assessment of foodservice quality and identification of improvement strategies using hospital foodservice quality model 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2010;4(2):163-172.
The purposes of this study were to assess hospital foodservice quality and to identify causes of quality problems and improvement strategies. Based on the review of literature, hospital foodservice quality was defined and the Hospital Foodservice Quality model was presented. The study was conducted in two steps. In Step 1, nutritional standards specified on diet manuals and nutrients of planned menus, served meals, and consumed meals for regular, diabetic, and low-sodium diets were assessed in three general hospitals. Quality problems were found in all three hospitals since patients consumed less than their nutritional requirements. Considering the effects of four gaps in the Hospital Foodservice Quality model, Gaps 3 and 4 were selected as critical control points (CCPs) for hospital foodservice quality management. In Step 2, the causes of the gaps and improvement strategies at CCPs were labeled as "quality hazards" and "corrective actions", respectively and were identified using a case study. At Gap 3, inaccurate forecasting and a lack of control during production were identified as quality hazards and corrective actions proposed were establishing an accurate forecasting system, improving standardized recipes, emphasizing the use of standardized recipes, and conducting employee training. At Gap 4, quality hazards were menus of low preferences, inconsistency of menu quality, a lack of menu variety, improper food temperatures, and patients' lack of understanding of their nutritional requirements. To reduce Gap 4, the dietary departments should conduct patient surveys on menu preferences on a regular basis, develop new menus, especially for therapeutic diets, maintain food temperatures during distribution, provide more choices, conduct meal rounds, and provide nutrition education and counseling. The Hospital Foodservice Quality Model was a useful tool for identifying causes of the foodservice quality problems and improvement strategies from a holistic point of view.
PMCID: PMC2867228  PMID: 20461206
Hospital; foodservice; quality model; quality hazards; critical control point
9.  Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Potentiated with Erythropoietin for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2012;31(3):581-591.
Allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) has therapeutic potential for cerebral palsy (CP). Concomitant administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) may boost the efficacy of UCB, as it has neurotrophic effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO in children with CP. Children with CP were randomly assigned to one of three parallel groups: the pUCB group, which received allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO; the EPO group, which received rhEPO and placebo UCB; and the Control group, which received placebo UCB and placebo rhEPO. All participants received rehabilitation therapy. The main outcomes were changes in scores on the following measures during the 6 months treatment period: the gross motor performance measure (GMPM), gross motor function measure, and Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) Mental and Motor scales (18). F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired at baseline and followed up to detect changes in the brain. In total, 96 subjects completed the study. Compared with the EPO (n = 33) and Control (n = 32) groups, the pUCB (n = 31) group had significantly higher scores on the GMPM and BSID-II Mental and Motor scales at 6 months. DTI revealed significant correlations between the GMPM increment and changes in fractional anisotropy in the pUCB group. 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed differential activation and deactivation patterns between the three groups. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. In conclusion, UCB treatment ameliorated motor and cognitive dysfunction in children with CP undergoing active rehabilitation, accompanied by structural and metabolic changes in the brain. Stem Cells2013;31:581–591
PMCID: PMC3744768  PMID: 23281216
Umbilical cord blood; Erythropoietin; Cerebral palsy; Clinical trial; Function

Results 1-9 (9)