To evaluate the upgrade rate and delayed false-negative results of percutaneous vacuum-assisted removal (VAR) and surgical excision in women with imaging-histologic discordance during ultrasound (US)-guided automated core needle biopsy (CNB) of the breast and to validate the role of VAR as a rebiopsy method for these discordant lesions.
Materials and Methods
Percutaneous US-guided 14-gauge CNB was performed on 7470 patients between August 2005 and December 2010. Our study population included 161 lesions in 152 patients who underwent subsequent rebiopsy due to imaging-histologic discordance. Rebiopsy was performed using VAR (n = 88) or surgical excision (n = 73). We investigated the upgrade rate immediately after rebiopsy and delayed false-negative results during at least 24 months of follow-up after rebiopsy. We also evaluated the clinicoradiological differences between VAR and surgical excision.
Total upgrade to malignancy occurred in 13.7% (22/161) of lesions at rebiopsy including both VAR and surgical excision: 4.6% (4/88) of VAR cases (4/88) and 24.7% (18/73) of surgical excision cases (p < 0.001). Surgical excision was performed significantly more frequently in older patients and for larger-sized lesions than that of VAR, and a significant difference was detected between VAR and surgical excision in the Breast Imaging and Reporting and Data System category (p < 0.007). No delayed false-negative results were observed after VAR or surgical excision during the follow-up period.
Long-term follow-up data showed no delayed cancer diagnoses after US-guided VAR in imaging-histologic discordant lesions of the breast, suggesting that VAR might be a rebiopsy method for these lesions.
Imaging-histologic discordance; Core needle biopsy; Vacuum-assisted removal; Surgical excision
To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors.
A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated.
The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion.
BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.
Ultrasonography, mammary; Breast neoplasms; Perioperative period; Neoplasm staging; Predictive value of tests
We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast mimicking malignant tumor. A 41-year-old female patient with a palpable mass in the upper center of the left breast present for 1 week visited our hospital. A mammogram showed an oval isodense with a partially indistinct margin. Ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass, 8 × 11 mm in size. Breast cancer could not be excluded based on mammographic and ultrasonographic (US) findings. A core needle biopsy and excisional biopsy were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. The mammographic and US findings of nodular fasciitis in the breast is reviewed.
Breast; breast neoplasm; nodular fasciitis; ultrasonography; mammography; biopsy
The lipid entities of cell membranes are components of the immune system and important mediators of inflammation. Despite increasing interest in the function of epithelial cells in inflammation, the role of cholesterol in this process has not been described. Here, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion on the inflammatory process in airway epithelial cells via the expression of interleukin (IL)-8 as a marker of inflammation.
A 549 cells were treated with 0.5% methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a selective cholesterol extractor. The IL-8 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reassessed after cholesterol repletion. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors were used to determine the upstream signaling pathway for IL-8 production in cholesterol-depleted cells.
We found a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in A 549 cells and inflammation of the airway. IL-8 production was increased in cholesterol-depleted A 549 cells and restored by cholesterol repletion. IL-8 production was decreased by pretreatment with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 but not with JNK inhibitor II or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190.
Our findings suggest that inflammatory responses are increased in cholesterol-depleted epithelial cells via the MAPK signaling system, predominantly by the ERK pathway. We conclude that the lipid components of airwayepithelial cells may play a role in the inflammatory process.
Cholesterol; epithelial cell; inflammation; interleukin-8; MAP kinase signaling system
The main aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent self-reported bullying at grade 5 predicts later violence, heavy drinking and marijuana use at age 21.
Univariate and multivariate associations between bullying and later outcomes were examined based on data from the Raising Health Children (RHC) project, a longitudinal study of the etiology of problem behavior and an experimental evaluation of a preventive intervention to reduce problem behavior.
Childhood bullying was significantly associated with violence, heavy drinking and marijuana use at age 21. These associations held up after controlling for prior risk factors.
Childhood bullying had unique associations with risk of later violence and substance use among young adults. Early intervention to prevent childhood bullying may also reduce other adverse outcomes later in life.
The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP) for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs) (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4) showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0) were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects' blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.
TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in insulin resistance observed in obesity and chronic inflammation. Many cellular components involved in insulin signaling cascade are known to be inhibited by TNF-α. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is one of the major targets in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. The serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 enables the inhibition of insulin signaling. Until now, many studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanism of TNF-α-induced insulin resistance based on Western blot. Intracellular protein kinase crosstalk is commonly encountered in inflammation-associated insulin resistance. The crosstalk among the signaling molecules obscures the precise role of kinases in insulin resistance. We have developed a cell lysis-free quantum dots (QDots) multicolor cellular imaging to identify the biochemical role of multiple kinases (p38, JNK, IKKβ, IRS1ser, IRS1tyr, GSK3β, and FOXO1) in inflammation-associated insulin resistance pathway with a single assay in one run. QDot-antibody conjugates were used as nanoprobes to simultaneously monitor the activation/deactivation of the above seven intracellular kinases in HepG2 cells. The effect of the test compounds on the suppression of TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was validated through kinase monitoring. Aspirin, indomethacin, cinnamic acid, and amygdalin were tested.
Through the measurement of the glycogen level in HepG2 cell treated with TNF-α, it was found that aspirin and indomethacin increased glycogen levels by almost two-fold compared to amygdalin and cinnamic acid. The glucose production assay proved that cinnamic acid was much more efficient in suppressing glucose production, compared with MAP kinase inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. QDot multicolor cellular imaging demonstrated that amygdalin and cinnamic acid selectively acted via the JNK1-dependent pathway to suppress the inflammation-induced insulin resistance and improve insulin sensitivity.
The regulatory function of multiple kinases could be monitored concurrently at the cellular level. The developed cellular imaging assay provides a unique platform for the understanding of inflammation and insulin resistance signaling pathways in type II diabetes mellitus and how they regulate each other. The results showed that amygdalin and cinnamic acid inhibit serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 through targeting JNK serine kinase and enhance insulin sensitivity.
Multicolor cellular imaging; Insulin resistance; Quantum dot; Inflammation
Hepatitis C; viruses; prisons; direct acting agents
Basal-type breast cancers are among the most aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtypes, displaying a high metastatic ability associated with mesenchymal features. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes of basal-type breast cancer cells remain obscure. Here, we report that KRAS is a critical regulator for the maintenance of mesenchymal features in basal-type breast cancer cells. KRAS is preferentially activated in basal-type breast cancer cells as compared with luminal type. By loss and gain of KRAS, we found that KRAS is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of mesenchymal phenotypes and metastatic ability through SLUG expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that KRAS is a critical regulator for the metastatic behavior associated with mesenchymal features of breast cancer cells, implicating a novel therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer.
The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors.
Human serum amyloid P component (SAP); Peptidoglycan; Wall teichoic acid; Staphylococcus aureus; Complement
Several mouse pluripotent stem cell types have been established either from mouse blastocysts and epiblasts. Among these, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are considered to represent a “naïve”, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) a “primed” pluripotent state. Although EpiSCs form derivatives of all three germ layers during in
vitro differentiation, they rarely incorporate into the inner cell mass of blastocysts and rarely contribute to chimera formation following blastocyst injection. Here we successfully established homogeneous population of EpiSC lines with efficient chimera-forming capability using a medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-4. The expression levels of Rex1 and Nanog was very low although Oct4 level is comparable to ESCs. EpiSCs also expressed higher levels of epiblast markers, such as Cer1, Eomes, Fgf5, Sox17, and T, and further showed complete DNA methylation of Stella and Dppa5 promoters. However, the EpiSCs were clustered separately from E3 and T9 EpiSC lines and showed a completely different global gene expression pattern to ESCs. Furthermore, the EpiSCs were able to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and efficiently formed teratomas and chimeric embryos (21.4%) without germ-line contribution.
To see the effect of dietary administration of omega 3-fatty acid formula on the vaginal cells of postmenopausal rats.
Three-week-old female Wistar/ST rats were raised after one week of adjustment period. The rats were then divided into three groups, for three different kinds of diet; general diet, 1% omega-3 fatty acid diet, and 2% omega-3 fatty acid diet. After eight weeks of having assigned diet, after the oophorectomy, with the same diet previously they had Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, and Western Blot about ezrin, merlin were done.
In immunohistochemistry, estrogen injection group revealed thicker and well differentiated features. In Immunofluorescence, Omega-3 fatty acid composition in diet did not effect expression of ezrin and merlin in rat vagina in estrogen injection group, their vaginal epithelium showed full layers (from basal to apical layer). In Western Blot analysis, Omega-3 fatty acid composition in diet did not affect expression of ezrin and merlin in rat vagina estrogen presented significant impact on expression of ezrin and merlin.
Although omega-3 fatty acid composition changed in diet, vaginal epithelial morphology unchanged. Estrogen did effect on vagina cell, but omega-3 fatty acid did not effect on ezrin and merlin in vagina.
Atrophic vaginitis; Diet; Fatty acids omega-3; Vagina
•An ethanol extract of black pepper inhibits eugenol-induced signal transduction.•The extract reduces eugenol-induced cAMP and Ca2+ levels, and phosphorylation of CREB.•Piperine inhibits eugenol-induced signal transduction.•Piperine reduces eugenol-induced cAMP and Ca2+ levels, and phosphorylation of CREB.
This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC–MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.
CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein; OST, odorant-induced signal transduction; PNF, Piper nigrum fructus; cAMP; Black pepper; Olfactory; Piper nigrum; Piperine; 3T3-L1
The purpose was to compare the frequency of metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAC) and thyroglobulin concentration from fine needle aspiration biopsy washout fluid (FNAB-Tg) in an indeterminate range (0.2-100 ng/mL), and to evaluate the most appropriate threshold value of FNAB-Tg in an indeterminate range.
Materials and Methods
We performed ultrasound-guided FNAB and FNAB-Tg in suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes of papillary thyroid carcinoma and performed surgery. Ninety-five lymph nodes with indeterminate values of FNAB-Tg ranging from 0.2-100 ng/mL in ninety-two patients were included in this study. The diagnostic performances in multiple Tg levels (0.7, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 50.0) were evaluated to compare with FNAB cytology using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with area under the curve (AUC) analysis.
Forty-two were metastatic lymph nodes and fifty three were nonmetastatic lymph nodes. FNAB-Tg ranged from 0.22 to 90.9 ng/mL in metastatic lymph nodes (mean; 34.3±33.3 ng/mL) and 0.20 to 56.7 ng/mL in nonmetastatic lymph nodes (mean; 4.9±11.1 ng/mL) (p<0.001). The most excellent diagnostic performance was displayed in 5 ng/mL of FNAB-Tg with AUC of 0.76, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, 69.0, 83.0, and 76.8, respectively. However, there was no significant difference from 10 ng/mL FNAB.
We ascertained that 5 ng/mL yielded the most excellent diagnostic performance among FNAB-Tg levels in the present setting with a large series with the indeterminate range (0.2-100 ng/mL) of FNAB-Tg values. These results need additional confirmation under different laboratory conditions.
Fine needle aspiration biopsy; thyroglobulin; lymph nodes
The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of HER2 levels in ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) aspirates of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) in the determination of lymph node metastasis or the characterization of primary breast cancer, and to correlate the HER2 levels in US-FNA aspirates (FNA-HER2s) of metastatic ALNs with the HER2 statuses of corresponding primary breast cancers. An institutional review board approved the study. Between January and October 2010, 164 patients with 167 ALNs examined by US-FNA were included. FNA-HER2s of ALNs were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and they were correlated with cytologic/final diagnoses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic ability to differentiate benign and metastatic ALNs. Additionally, FNA-HER2s of metastatic ALNs were correlated with HER2 status and other clinicopathologic variables of the primary breast cancers. Among the 167 ALNs, 138 were metastatic and 29 were benign. The mean FNA-HER2 (6.3 ng/ml) of metastatic ALNs was higher than that of benign ALNs. All 29 benign ALNs showed no measurable value of FNA-HER2 (0.0 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curves of FNA-HER2 of ALNs was 0.679 for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis. The FNA-HER2 statuses of 108 metastatic ALNs (79.4%) were concordant with the HER2 statuses of the corresponding primary breast cancers. In a subgroup analysis of HER2-positive cancers with ALN metastasis, distant metastasis was significantly associated with FNA-HER2-negativity of metastatic ALNs (P = 0.04). Although FNA-HER2 of ALNs did not improve the diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in preoperative diagnosis of ALN metastasis of overall patients, FNA-HER2-positive metastatic ALNs were significantly associated with HER2-positivity of primary breast cancers. Additionally, FNA-HER2 analysis of ALN may help to develop more personalized treatment protocol for breast cancer patients by determining the concordance or discordance of HER2 status between primary cancers and metastatic ALNs.
Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues.
To estimate the odds ratio of prepregnant body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for excessive fetal growth, which we define as large for gestational age (LGA).
We included 16,297 women who delivered a live-born singleton baby at term. We fit logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratios of variables, including maternal age, parity, prepregnant BMI ≥23, GWG ≥15 kg, and GDM, for LGA. We classified GWG into four categories (<10, 10-14.9, 15-19.9, and ≥20 kg) and BMI into four categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese). After adjusting for age and parity, we analyzed the odds ratios of prepregnant BMI according to GWG between non-GDM and GDM women for LGA.
The odds ratios of GWG ≥15 kg and prepregnancy BMI ≥23 for LGA were 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.16-2.67) and 2.24 (95% CI, 1.99-2.51), respectively. The odd ratio of GDM was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.09-1.71). The risk of GDM women with normal/-overweight BMI and GWG <15 kg for LGA was not significantly greater than those of the reference group. The odd ratios of GDM women with overweight/obese BMI and GWG 15 to 19.9 kg were 3.95 (95% CI, 1.26-12.38) and 9.70 (95% CI, 3.79-24.87), respectively.
GWG ≥15 kg might be a more important risk factor for LGA than either prepregnancy BMI ≥23 or GDM. Risk for LGA was highest in obese GDM women with GWG ≥15 kg.
Birth weight; Body mass index; Diabetes; Gestational; Weight gain
AIM: To identify risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy, with a focus on factors related to pancreatic secretions.
METHODS: The medical records of 228 patients who had a pancreaticoduodenectomy over a 16-mo period were reviewed retrospectively. The 193 patients who did not have fatty liver disease preoperatively were included in the final analysis. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed using the differences between splenic and hepatic attenuation and liver-to-spleen attenuation as measured by non-enhanced computed tomography.
RESULTS: Fifteen patients (7.8%) who showed postoperative hepatic fatty changes were assigned to Group A, and the remaining patients were assigned to Group B. Patient demographics, preoperative laboratory findings (including levels of C-peptide, glucagon, insulin and glucose tolerance test results), operation types, and final pathological findings did not differ significantly between the two groups; however, the frequency of pancreatic fistula (P = 0.020) and the method of pancreatic duct stenting (P = 0.005) showed significant differences between the groups. A multivariate analysis identified pancreatic fistula (HR = 3.332, P = 0.037) and external pancreatic duct stenting (HR = 4.530, P = 0.017) as independent risk factors for the development of postoperative steatohepatitis.
CONCLUSION: Pancreatic fistula and external pancreatic duct stenting were identified as independent risk factors for the development of steatohepatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases; Nonalco-holic steatohepatitis; Pancreatic duct stenting; Pancreatic fistula; Pancreatic surgery
To determine the indications and the diagnostic accuracy of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) under ultrasonographic (US) guidance based on a 10-year period of clinical use.
This was a retrospective analysis of 2,920 breast lesions in 2,477 consecutive patients who underwent US-guided VABB between February 2002 and December 2011. The proportions of each indication for VABB were analyzed as well as the trend of its use over divided time periods. Histopathological diagnosis and the malignancy rate of the lesions with VABB were analyzed. A comparison of the pathological diagnosis of VABB and the gold standard diagnosis revealed the false negative rate, the underestimation rate, and the agreement rate.
Palpable lesions (44.4%), low-suspicion lesions (15.7%), high-risk lesions (12.4%), and calcifications (10.3%) were the most common indications for US-guided VABB. The malignancy rate of lesions submitted to VABB was 5.4%. The false negative rate was only 0.1%, while the underestimation rate of high-risk lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ was 3.1% and 13.8%, respectively, with a 98.7% agreement rate. Among 1,512 therapeutic VABB cases, 84.9% showed no residual or recurrent lesions on long term follow-up US for more than a year. Complications occurred in 1% of the patients without need for surgical intervention.
US-guided VABB is an accurate and safe method that can help decision-making in the diagnostic process and can be an alternative for excisional surgery in some therapeutic circumstances.
Breast; Image-guided biopsy; Breast neoplasms; Ultrasonography
To identify individual and social predictors of progression to daily smoking by the end of high school among youth who initiated less than daily smoking by eighth grade.
The analysis sample of 270 adolescent smokers was taken from the longitudinal community panel of the Raising Healthy Children project. Data used in this study were taken from annual interviews between grades 7 and 12. Daily smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette per day in the past 30 days at the time of each interview. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to assess the overall and unique associations between hazard of progression to daily smoking and time-varying measures of potential individual, family, peer, and school predictors.
. A total of 58% (n = 156) of the analysis sample made the transition to daily smoking by grade 12. The likelihood of onset of daily smoking among those who had not yet onset was smallest in grade 9 (.12) and greatest at grade 12 (.25). Youth depression, prosocial belief, and antisocial behavior had overall associations with risk of smoking escalation. In addition, parental and peer cigarette use, family management, academic achievement, and school commitment had significant univariate associations with smoking progression. After adjusting for gender, low-income status, and other potential predictors, youth antisocial behavior and parental and peer smoking predicted greater likelihood of escalation to daily smoking, while parental use of positive family management predicted lower likelihood of escalation.
. This study supports preventing escalation in adolescent smoking through targeting risk factors of parent and peer smoking and involvement in other forms of antisocial behavior and working with parents to improve their use of positive family management practices.
progression; daily smoking; smoking prevention; smoking predictors; family management
Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), which is associated with exposure to biomass smoke in inefficiently ventilated indoor areas, can take the form of obstructive lung disease. Patients with BAF can mimic or present with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of BAF in Korean patients with COPD exacerbation as well as to examine the clinical features of these patients in order to determine its clinical relevance.
A total of 206 patients with COPD exacerbation were divided into BAF and non-BAF groups, according to computed tomography findings. We compared both clinical and radiologic variables between the two groups.
Patients with BAF (51 [25%]) were older, with a preponderance of nonsmoking women; moreover, they showed a more frequent association with exposure to wood smoke compared to those without BAF. However, no differences in the severity of illness and clinical course between the two groups were observed. Patients in the BAF group had less severe airflow obstruction, but more common and severe pulmonary hypertension signs than those in the non-BAF group.
Compared with non-BAF COPD, BAF may be associated with milder airflow limitation and more frequent signs of pulmonary hypertension with a more severe grade in patients presenting with COPD exacerbation.
Anthracosis; Biomass; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Tomography, Spiral Computed; Hypertension, Pulmonary
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the underestimation rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) on vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB), and to examine the correlation between residual microcalcifications and the underestimation rate of ADH.
A retrospective study was performed on 27 women (mean age, 49.2±9.2 years) who underwent additional excision for ADH via VABB for microcalcifications observed by using mammography. The mammographic findings, histopathologic diagnosis of all VABB and surgical specimens, and association of malignancy with residual microcalcifications were evaluated. The underestimation rate of ADH was also calculated.
Of the 27 women with microcalcifications, nine were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); thus, the underestimation rate was 33.3% (9/27). There was no difference in age (p=0.40) and extent of microcalcifications (p=0.10) when comparing benign and malignant cases. Six of 17 patients (35.3%) with remaining calcifications after VABB were upgraded to DCIS, and three of 10 patients (30%) with no residual calcifications after VABB were upgraded (p=1.00).
The underestimation rate of ADH on VABB was 33.3%. Furthermore, 30% of patients with no remaining calcifications were upgraded to DCIS. Therefore, we conclude that all ADH cases diagnosed via VABB should be excised regardless of the presence of residual microcalcifications.
Breast; Calcinosis; Large-core needle biopsy; Mammography; Segmental mastectomy
We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI) tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA) images.
We collected 21 cores containing microcalcifications (n = 11, microcalcification group) and none (n = 10, control group) in stereotactic or ultrasound (US) guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsies. Photoacoustic (PA) images were acquired through ex vivo experiments by transmitting laser pulses with two different wavelengths (700 nm and 800 nm). The presence of microcalcifications in PA images were blindly assessed by two radiologists and compared with specimen mammography. A ratio of the signal amplitude occurring at 700 nm to that occurring at 800 nm was calculated for each PA focus and was called the PAI ratio.
Based on the change of PA signal amplitude between 700 nm and 800 nm, 10 out of 11 specimens containing microcalcifications and 8 out of 10 specimens without calcifications were correctly identified on blind review; the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive and negative predictive values of our blind review were 90.91%, 80.0%, 85.71%, 83.33% and 88.89%. The PAI ratio in the microcalcification group was significantly higher than that in the control group (the median PAI ratio, 2.46 versus 1.11, respectively, P = .001). On subgroup analysis in the microcalcification group, neither malignant diagnosis nor the number or size of calcification-foci was proven to contribute to PAI ratios.
Breast microcalcifications generated distinguishable PA signals unlike breast tissue without calcifications. So, PAI, a non-ionizing and non-invasive hybrid imaging technique, can be an alternative in overcoming the limitations of conventional US imaging.
A series of edge-selectively halogenated (X = Cl, Br, I) graphene nanoplatelets (XGnPs = ClGnP, BrGnP, IGnP) were prepared simply by ball-milling graphite in the presence of Cl2, Br2 and I2, respectively. High BET surface areas of 471, 579 and 662 m2/g were observed for ClGnP, BrGnP and IGnP, respectively, indicating a significant extent of delamination during the ball-milling and subsequent workup processes. The newly-developed XGnPs can be well dispersed in various solvents, and hence are solution processable. Furthermore, XGnPs showed remarkable electrocatalytic activities toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with a high selectivity, good tolerance to methanol crossover/CO poisoning effects, and excellent long-term cycle stability. First-principle density-functional calculations revealed that halogenated graphene edges could provide decent adsorption sites for oxygen molecules, in a good agreement with the experimental observations.