Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal-dominantly inherited disease that occurs in approximately one in 5000 to 8000 people. Clinical diagnosis of HHT is made when a person presents three of the following four criteria: family history, recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain, lung, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although epistaxis is the most common presenting symptom, AVMs affecting the lungs, brain and GI tract provoke a more serious outcome. Heterozygous mutations in endoglin, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1; ALK1), and SMAD4, the genes involved in the transforming growth factor-β family signaling cascade, cause HHT. We report here the case of a 63 year-old male patient who presented melena and GI bleeding episodes, proven to be caused by bleeding from multiple gastric angiodysplasia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple angiodysplasia throughout the stomach. Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation was performed to control bleeding from a gastric angiodysplasia. The patient has been admitted several times with episodes of hemoptysis and hematochezia. One year ago, the patient was hospitalized due to right-sided weakness, which was caused by left basal ganglia hemorrhage as the part of HHT presentation. In family history, the patient’s mother and elder sister had died, due to intracranial hemorrhage, and his eldest son has been suffered from recurrent epistaxis for 20 years. A genetic study revealed a mutation in exon 3 of ALK1 (c.199C > T; p.Arg67Trp) in the proband and his eldest son presenting epistaxis.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; Angiodysplasia; Intracranial hemorrhage; Epistaxis; Activin receptor-like kinase 1
Chondrosarcoma (CHS) is a malignant cartilage-forming tumor and usually occurs within the medullary canal of long bones and pelvic bones. Based on the morphologic feature alone, a correct diangosis of CHS may be difficult, Therefore, correlation of radiological and clinicopathological features is mandatory in the diagnosis of CHS. The prognosis of CHS is closely related to histologic grading, however, histologic grading may be subjective with high inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present histologic grading system and clinicopathological and radiological findings of conventional CHS. Subtypes of CHSs, such as dedifferentiated, mesenchymal, and clear cell CHSs are also presented. In addition, we introduce updated cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings to expand our understanding of CHS biology. New markers of cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell signaling might offer important therapeutic and prognostic information in near future.
Numerous studies have pointed to the role of Programmed Death-1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1) in regulating tolerance, chronic infection, and tumor immunity. Recently, we have identified murine B7-1 as a new binding partner for murine PD-L1. Human and mouse B7-1 share only 46% identity, leading us to question whether human B7-1 and PD-L1 can participate in a similar interaction. Here we show that human B7-1 can interact with human PD-L1 with affinity greater than that of B7-1 with CD28, but less than that of B7-1 with CTLA-4 or of PD-L1 with PD-1. We characterize a series of anti-human PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and identify antibodies that can block interactions of PD-L1 with B7-1, PD-1, or both. Since PD-L1 and CD28 on T cells may compete for B7-1 as a binding partner and CD8 T cells may express high or low levels of CD28, we examined when PD-L1 and CD28 are co-expressed on CD8 T cells. We compared the time-course and extent of PD-L1 induction on CD8 CD28high versus CD28low T cells following stimulation with anti-CD3. We show that PD-L1 is induced to a higher level on CD28high T cells than on CD28low T cells upon activation. These results suggest that PD-L1 may play an important and undervalued role on human T cells.
CD80; CD274; surface plasmon resonance; adhesion; antibody
Astrocytes are reported to have critical functions in ischemic brain injury including protective effects against ischemia-induced neuronal dysfunction. Na-K ATPase maintains ionic gradients in astrocytes and is suggested as an indicator of ischemic injury in glial cells. Here, we examined the role of the Na-K ATPase in the pathologic process of ischemic injury of primary cultured astrocytes. Chemical ischemia was induced by sodium azide and glucose deprivation. Lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that the cytotoxic effect of chemical ischemia on astrocytes began to appear at 2 h of ischemia. The expression of Na-K ATPase α1 subunit protein was increased at 2 h of chemical ischemia and was decreased at 6 h of ischemia, whereas the expression of α1 subunit mRNA was not changed by chemical ischemia. Na-K ATPase activity was time-dependently decreased at 1, 3, and 6 h of chemical ischemia, whereas the enzyme activity was temporarily recovered to the control value at 2 h of chemical ischemia. Cytotoxicity at 2 h of chemical ischemia was significantly blocked by reoxygenation for 24 h following ischemia. Reoxygenation following chemical ischemia for 1 h significantly increased the activity of the Na-K ATPase, while reoxygenation following ischemia for 2 h slightly decreased the enzyme activity. These results suggest that the critical time for ischemia-induced cytotoxicity of astrocytes might be 2 h after the initiation of ischemic insult and that the increase in the expression and activity of the Na-K ATPase might play a protective role during ischemic injury of astrocytes.
Chemical ischemia; Na-K ATPase; Primary cultured astrocytes
A 58-year-old woman presented with a solitary myofibroma that arose in the sigmoid colon. Computed tomography revealed a highly enhanced intramural mass (1.3-cm maximum diameter) in the proximal sigmoid colon. Histologically, the tumor exhibited a biphasic growth pattern, which comprised haphazardly arranged, interwoven fascicles of plump, myoid-appearing spindle cells with elongated nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and more cellular areas of primitive-appearing polygonal cells that were arranged in a hemangiopericytomatous pattern. The tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), and negative for desmin, h-caldesmon, CD34, cytokeratin, S100 protein, and CD117. The Ki-67 labeling index was not high (up to 7%). Based on these histologic and immunohistochemical features, our patient was diagnosed with a myofibroma of the sigmoid colon. The presence of solitary myofibroma in the intestine of an adult requires attention to avoid misdiagnosis as a more aggressive mesenchymal tumor.
The virtual silde(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2096403796957687
Myofibroma; Solitary; Sigmoid colon; Adult
There is confusion in the diagnosis and biological behaviors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), because of independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications. A standardized form of pathology report is required for the proper management of patients.
We discussed the proper pathological evaluation of GEP-NET at the consensus conference of the subcommittee meeting for the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. We then verified the prognostic significance of pathological parameters from our previous nationwide collection of pathological data from 28 hospitals in Korea to determine the essential data set for a pathology report.
Histological classification, grading (mitosis and/or Ki-67 labeling index), T staging (extent, size), lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors and essential for the pathology report of GEP-NET, while immunostaining such as synaptophysin and chromogranin may be optional. Furthermore, the staging system, either that of the 2010 American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) or the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), should be specified, especially for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.
A standardized pathology report is crucial for the proper management and prediction of prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Digestive system; Pathology; Staging; Grading; Prognosis
To offer the basic data about the causes and distribution of hand tingling, symptoms and physical findings, and pressure pain threshold in desk workers.
Five physiatrists participated in the screening test composed of history and physical examination. A total of 876 desk workers were evaluated and of them 37 subjects with hand tingling were selected. For further analyzing, detailed history taking and meticulous physical examination were taken. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus, upper trapezius, flexor carpi radialis, rhomboideus, and flexor pollicis longus were examined. PPT measurements were repeated three times with two minute intervals by a pressure algometer. Electrodiagnostic study was done to detect potential neurologic abnormalities.
The causes of hand tingling in order of frequency were: myofascial pain syndrome, 68%; cervical radiculopathy, 27%; rotator cuff syndrome, 11%; tenosynovitis, 8%; and carpal tunnel syndrome, 5%. The location of trigger points in the myofascial pain syndrome, which were proven to evoke a tingling sensation to the hand in order of frequency were: infraspinatus, 65.4%; upper trapezius, 57.7%; flexor carpi radialis, 38.5%; rhomboideus 15.4%; and flexor pollicis longus 11.5%. The PPT of the affected side was significantly lower than that of the unaffected side in myofascial pain syndrome (p<0.05).
The most common cause of hand tingling in desk workers was myofascial pain syndrome rather than carpal tunnel syndrome. Common trigger points to evoke hand tingling were in the infraspinatus and upper trapezius.
Hand tingling; Myofascial pain syndromes; VDT workers; Pressure pain threshold
CD109 gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein found in a subset of platelets and endothelial cell, and human platelet antigen (HPA) 15 is found on CD109. We evaluated the HPA genotype and/or the CD109 mRNA expression on two peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), two peripheral bloods (PB), 12 granulocyte products, natural killer (NK)-92, B-lymphocyte (CO88BV59-1), K-562 leukemia cell line, human embryonic stem cell (hESC), and human fibroblasts (HF). HPA genotyping was performed by SNaPshot assay and CD109 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR with SYBR green and melting curve analysis. Genotype HPA-15a/-15a was found in PBSC#1 and two granulocyte products, and HPA-15a/-15b was found in PBSC#2, eight granulocyte products, NK-92, K-562, hESC, and HF, and HPA-15b/-15b was found in two granulocyte products. CD109 mRNA expression was highly increased in HF and increased in CD34+ and CD34− PBSCs and some granulocyte products, compared to the PB. However, the increase of expression level varied among the PBSC and granulocyte products. The CD109 mRNA expression of NK-92, K-562, hESC, and CO 88BV59-1 was not detected. HPA genotype was evaluated in various cells and the expression of CD109, which contains HPA 15, was different among cell lines and high in HF and PBSCs.
Background and Purpose
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Genetic analysis of abnormal CAG expansion in the IT15 gene allows disease confirmation even in the preclinical stage. However, because there is no treatment to cure or delay the progression of this disease, monitoring of biological markers that predict progression is warranted.
FDG-PET was applied to 13 patients with genetically confirmed HD in the early stage of the disease. We recorded the initial and follow-up statuses of patients using the Independence Scale (IS) of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. The progression rate (PR) was calculated as the annual change in the IS. The patients were divided into two groups with faster and slower progression, using the median value of the PR as the cut-off. FDG-PET data were analyzed using regions of interest, and compared among the two patient groups and 11 age- and sex-matched controls.
The mean CAG repeat size in patients was 44.7. The CAG repeat length was inversely correlated with the age at onset as reported previously, but was not correlated with the clinical PR. Compared with normal controls, hypometabolism was observed even at very early stages of the disease in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices on FDG-PET. The decreases in metabolism in the bilateral frontal, parietal, and right temporal cortices were much greater in the faster-progression group than in the slower-progression group.
A decrease in cortical glucose metabolism is suggested as a predictor for identifying a more rapid form of progression in patients with early-stage HD.
Huntington's disease; biomarker; FDG-PET; progression; cortical metabolism
To reveal the relationship between depression and WMSD.
Five physiatrists participated in the workplace musculoskeletal survey and diagnosed 724 office workers with WMSD by performing detailed history taking and physical examination. All subjects were asked to answer the Korean version of the Beck depressive inventory (K-BDI), and to express their pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. We categorized the subjects into 4 groups, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), herniated intervertebral disk (HIVD), tenosynovitis, and others, and investigated the prevalence of depression in desk workers and relationship between WMSD and depression, and we compared pain intensity between the depression and non-depression groups. Correlation analysis was carried out between K-BDI and VAS scores in each group.
The mean K-BDI score were 8.7±6.68. The prevalence of depression was higher in females than in male, and there was no relationship between age and depression. There was a significant connection between HIVD and depression (p<0.05). However, the other groups did not have significant connection to depression. The VAS score (5.02) of the depression group was significantly higher than that (4.10) of the non-depression group. In addition, there was a significant difference of VAS scores between the depression group and non-depression group in each disease group.
The mean VAS score of the depression group in WMSD was significantly higher than in the non-depression group. The correlation between BDI and VAS scores in the subjects was present, and the highest was in the HIVD group.
Work-related musculoskeletal disease; Depression; BDI; VAS
As a result of various independently proposed nomenclatures and classifications, there is confusion in the diagnosis and prediction of biological behavior of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). A comprehensive nationwide study is needed in order to understand the biological characteristics of GEP-NETs in Korea.
Materials and Methods
We collected 4,951 pathology reports from 29 hospitals in Korea between 2000 and 2009. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of clinicopathological parameters.
Although the GEP-NET is a relatively rare tumor in Korea, its incidence has increased during the last decade, with the most significant increase found in the rectum. The 10-year survival rate for well-differentiated endocrine tumor was 92.89%, in contrast to 85.74% in well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and 34.59% in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Disease related death was most common in the biliary tract (62.2%) and very rare in the rectum (5.2%). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, tumor location, histological classification, extent, size, mitosis, Ki-67 labeling index, synaptophysin expression, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis showed prognostic significance (p<0.05), however, chromogranin expression did not (p=0.148). The 2000 and 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification proposals were useful for prediction of the prognosis of GEP-NET.
The incidence of GEP-NET in Korea has shown a remarkable increase during the last decade, however, the distribution of tumors in the digestive system differs from that of western reports. Assessment of pathological parameters, including immunostaining, is crucial in understanding biological behavior of the tumor as well as predicting prognosis of patients with GEP-NET.
Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Incidence; Prognosis; Pathology
Intracranial extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is extremely rare, with only seven patients previously reported. We present a case report of a 21-year-old woman admitted for weakness in her right extremities and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and a well-enhanced large mass around her left thalamus. A left parietal craniotomy and a cortisectomy at the superior parietal lobule were performed. Total surgical resection was also performed, and pathology results confirmed an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor, and the patient underwent radiotherapy. After six months of radiotherapy, the patient's headache and weakness had improved to grade IV. This malignant tumor showed high rates of recurrence in previous reports. We here report another occurrence of this highly malignant and rare tumor in a patient treated using total surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy.
Brain neoplasms; Chondrosarcoma; Choroid plexus
We evaluated the association between a KRAS mutational status and various clinicopathologic features including the metastatic pattern in patients with metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer (MRCRC). The concordance rates of the KRAS status between primary tumor sites and paired metastatic organs were also analyzed.
The KRAS mutational status in codons 12, 13, and 61 from formalin-fixed sections of both primary tumors and related metastases was determined by sequencing analysis. One hundred forty-three Korean patients with MRCRC with available tissues (resection or biopsy) from both primary tumors and related metastatic sites were consecutively enrolled.
The KRAS mutation rate was 52.4% (75/143) when considering both the primary and metastatic sites. When the relationship between the KRAS status and initial metastatic sites at the time of diagnosis of MRCRC was analyzed, lung metastasis was more frequent as the initial metastatic site in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation (45.3% vs. 22.1%; P = 0.003). However, liver (37.3% vs. 70.6%; P < 0.001) or distant lymph node metastases (6.7% vs. 19.1%; P = 0.025) were less frequent as the initial metastatic organ in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation. The discordance rate of KRAS mutational status between primary and paired metastatic sites other than the lung was 12.3% (13/106). Compared with primary tumor sites, the KRAS discordance rate was significantly higher in matched lung metastases [32.4% (12/37)] than in other matched metastatic organs (P = 0.005).
Organs initially involved by distant metastasis were different according to the KRAS mutational status in MRCRC patients. The concordance rate (87.7%) of the KRAS mutation status at metastatic sites other than the lung was generally high compared with primary tumor sites; however, lung metastasis had a high rate of KRAS discordance (32.4%).
KRAS mutation; Lung metastasis; Discordance; Colorectal cancer
Neurologic manifestations of primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) have been reported to vary from sensory polyneuropathy to encephalopathy or psychiatric problems. However, marked cerebellar degeneration associated with PSS has rarely been reported.
We describe a patient with Sjögren's syndrome who exhibited rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, nystagmus, cognitive decline, and psychiatric problems. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked atrophy of the cerebellum, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography demonstrated glucose hypometabolism of the cerebellum.
Our PSS patient exhibited a progressive course of cerebellar syndrome, as evidenced by cerebellar atrophy on serial brain images.
Sjögren's syndrome; cerebellar degeneration; ataxia; cognitive impairment
Although most patients with stage I breast cancer have a good prognosis, their clinical outcomes may vary significantly. We assessed clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in stage I breast cancer patients with and without triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype.
Of 2,489 patients undergoing breast cancer surgery between January 1998 and December 2002, 554 (22.3%) had stage I breast cancer (tumor size ≤2 cm, and lymph node-negative). TNBC was defined as a primary tumor negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors (Allred scores <3/8) and for HER2/neu (0-1+ by immunohistochemistry).
Of the 554 patients with stage I breast cancer, 78 (14.1%) had TNBC. A significant proportion of TNBC patients had histologic grade 3 tumors (47.4% vs. 34.5%, p=0.031) and tumors >1 cm (87.2% vs. 75.8%, p=0.028) and received adjuvant chemotherapy (79.5% vs. 44.7%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up time of 8.7 years, 72 patients experienced tumor recurrences; 18 (23.1%) in the TNBC group and 54 (11.3%) in the non-TNBC group (p=0.010), with cumulative 3-year rate of recurrence of 12.8% and 5.3%, respectively (p=0.010). Ten-year relapse-free survival (RFS; 75.6% vs. 87.5%, p=0.004) and overall survival (OS; 83.0% vs. 91.4%, p=0.002) rates were significantly lower in the TNBC group. Multivariate analysis showed that triple negativity and histologic grade were independent predictors of shorter RFS and OS.
TNBC had more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and was associated with poorer survival in patients with stage I breast cancer. More intensive adjuvant chemotherapy or a different therapeutic strategy targeting this population is warranted.
Breast neoplasms; HER2/neu; Prognosis
A 64-year-old woman suffering right hemiplegia came in with pain and swelling on her left knee, general weakness and poor oral intake for 2 months. On physical examination we were able to palpate a mass with irregular margin around the left suprapatellar area. From the results of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), synovial proliferative disease, infectious arthritis, or gouty arthritis was suspected. We performed a blood laboratory test to detect rheumatologic diseases, knee joint aspiration, and bone scan for differential diagnosis, and were able to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the results of blood laboratory, physical examination, and bone scan. Consequently, we started medications for controlling RA. Herein, we report a case of rheumatoid arthritis with unilateral knee synovial hypertrophy in hemiplegia. If a right hemiplegic patient has recurrent pain on the left knee and synovial hypertrophy, and fails to respond to treatment for osteoarthritis, early detection by evaluation for rheumatic disease is crucial to prevent severe sequelae influencing rehabilitation of hemiplegia.
Hemiplegia; Synovial hypertrophy; Rheumatoid arthritis
This study was designed to elucidate high-K+induced response of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle from human gastric corpus using isometric contraction. Contraction from circular and longitudinal muscle stripes of gastric corpus greater curvature and lesser curvature were compared. Circular smooth muscle from corpus greater curvature showed high K+ (50 mM)-induced tonic contraction. On the contrary, however, longitudinal smooth muscle strips showed high K+ (50 mM)-induced sustained relaxation. To find out the reason for the discrepancy we tested several relaxation mechanisms. Protein kinase blockers like KT5720, PKA inhibitor, and KT5823, PKG inhibitor, did not affect high K+-induced relaxation. K+ channel blockers like tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), glibenclamide (Glib) and barium (Ba2+) also had no effect. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and 4-AP (4-aminopyridine), voltage-dependent K+ channel (KV) blocker, inhibited high K+-induced relaxation, hence reversing to tonic contraction. High K+-induced relaxation was observed in gastric corpus of human stomach, but only in the longitudinal muscles from greater curvature not lesser curvature. L-NNA, ODQ and KV channel blocker sensitive high K+-induced relaxation in longitudinal muscle of higher portion of corpus was also observed. These results suggest that longitudinal smooth muscle from greater curvature of gastric corpus produced high K+-induced relaxation which was activated by NO/sGC pathway and by KV channel dependent mechanism.
Human stomach; Relaxation; Nitric oxide (NO); Longitudinal smooth muscle; High K+
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular disorder, characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in various visceral organs. Endoglin (ENG) and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1; ALK1), receptors for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, have been identified as the principal HHT-causing genes.
Three unrelated Korean HHT patients and their asymptomatic as well as symptomatic family members were genetically diagnosed by sequencing whole exons and their flanking regions of ENG and ACVRL1. Functionality of an aberrant translation start codon, which is created by a substitution mutation at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of ENG found in a HHT family, was tested by transient in vitro transfection assay. Decay of the mutant transcripts was also assessed by allele-specific expression analysis.
Two ENG and one ACVRL1 mutations were identified: a known ENG mutation (c.360+1G > A; p.Gly74_Tyr120del); a novel ENG mutation (c.1-127C > T); and a novel ACVRL1 mutation (c.252_253insC; p.Val85fsX168). We further validated that the 5'-UTR ENG mutation prevents translation of ENG from the biological translation initiation site of the mutant allele, and leads to degradation of the mutant transcripts.
This is the first experimental demonstration that a 5'-UTR mutation can prevent translation of ENG among HHT patients, and further supports the previous notion that haploinsufficiency is the primary mechanism of HHT1. Our data also underscore the importance of including exons encoding 5' UTR for HHT mutation screening.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of an arm sling on gait speed and
energy efficiency of patients with hemiplegia.
Design: A randomized crossover design.
Setting: A rehabilitation department of a university hospital.
Subjects: Thirty-seven outpatients with hemiplegia were included in
Interventions: All patients walked on a 20-m walkway twice on the
same day, randomly with and without an arm sling, at a self selected speed.
Main measures: The heart rate, gait speed, oxygen cost and oxygen
rate were measured on all patients. We analysed all values with and without an
arm sling and also compared them after all patients being stratified according
to demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results: When we compared the heart rate between walking with
(90.7 ± 17.2 beats/min) and without
(91.2 ± 18.6 beats/min) the arm sling, it was
significantly decreased while walking with the arm sling. When we compared the
gait speed between walking with (32.8 m/min) and without
(30.1 m/min), it was significantly increased with the arm sling walking.
The O2 rate in hemiplegic patients walking with the arm sling was
significantly decreased by 7%, compared to walking without arm sling
(5.8 mL/kg min and 6.2 mL/kg min, respectively). The
O2 cost in hemiplegic patients walking without arm sling was
significantly 1.4 times greater than walking with it (0.2 mL/kg m and
0.3 mL/kg m, respectively).
Conclusion: An arm sling can be used to improve the gait
To assess the usefulness of a pressure algometer to measure pressure pain threshold (PPT) for diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in the upper extremity and trunk muscles.
A group of 221 desk workers complaining of upper body pain participated in this study. Five physiatrists made the diagnosis of MPS using physical examination and PPT measurements. PPT measurements were determined for several muscles in the back and upper extremities. Mean PPT data for gender, side, and dominant hand groups were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of Fischer's standard method were evaluated. PPT cut-off values for each muscle group were determined using an ROC curve.
Cronbach's alpha for each muscle was very high. The PPT in men was higher than in females, and the PPT in the left side was higher than in the right side for all muscles tested (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PPT for all muscles between dominant and non-dominant hand groups. Diagnosis of MPS based on Fischer's standard showed relatively high specificity and poor sensitivity.
The digital pressure algometer showed high reliability. PPT might be a useful parameter for assessing a treatment's effect, but not for use in diagnosis or even as a screening method.
Pressure algometer; Pressure pain threshold; Reliability
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls
The Far Eastern sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus, is a favored food in Eastern Asia, including Korea, Japan, and China. Aquaculture production of this species has increased because of recent declines in natural stocks and government-operated stock release programs are ongoing. Therefore, the analyses of genetic structure in wild and hatchery populations are necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this valuable marine resource. In addition, given that sea cucumber color affects market price, with the rare, possibly reproductively isolated, red type being the most valuable, an understanding of the genetic structure and diversity in color variation of green and red types is necessary. We analyzed the genetic structure of wild and hatchery-produced green type S. japonicus from Korea and China, and wild red type from Korea using 9 microsatellite makers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 to 29 across all populations. The mean allele numbers of the green types from Korea (10.6) and China (10.1) were similar, but differed slightly from that of the red type (9.1). Pairwise multilocus FST and genetic distance estimations showed no significant differences between the green types from Korea and China, whereas the differences between the green and red types were significant. This was clearly illustrated by a UPGMA dendrogram, in which the two close subclusters of green types were completely separated from the red type. In addition, the allele frequencies of the green and red types were significantly different. Assignment tests correctly assigned 100% (quality index 99.97%) of individuals to their original color types and demonstrated the feasibility of microsatellite analysis for discrimination between color types.
Stichopus japonicus; microsatellite; genetic differentiation; color variants
The levels of pepsinogen (PG) I and the PGI/II ratio are useful serologic markers for chronic atrophic gastritis. This study evaluated the performance and clinical implications of these markers in patients undergoing endoscopic mucosectomy.
We enrolled 142 consecutive patients with early gastric tumors and Helicobacter pylori infection who were eligible for mucosectomy. Chronic gastritis and atrophy were assessed using four defined biopsy procedures. Serum PGs were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Optimal diagnostic cut-offs and performance were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves.
The PGI level and the PGI/II ratio decreased with corpus-dominant gastritis and as atrophy advanced toward the corpus greater curvature (GC). For the presence of corpus GC atrophy, the areas under the PGI and PGI/II-ratio curves were 0.82 and 0.77, respectively. The optimal cut-off levels were 59.3µg/L for PGI (sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 78.4%) and 3.6µg/L for PGI/II ratio (sensitivity, 70.0%; specificity, 78.4%). Using these serologic cut-off levels, we found that the frequency of corpus tumor location differed significantly (32.9% vs 11.1% for PGI <59.3 and ≥59.3µg/L, respectively; and 31.1% vs 14.8% for PGI/II ratio <3.5 and ≥3.5, respectively; p<0.05).
A low PGI level and PGI/II ratio are valuable serologic markers for predicting corpus GC atrophy, and have clinical implications with respect to the corpus location of tumors in mucosectomy patients.
Pepsinogens; Atrophic gastritis; Stomach neoplasia; Helicobacter pylori; Endoscopy
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, and it has a poor prognosis. Extrahepatic metastasis from HCC is not unusual, with direct invasion representing the main spreading mode. Sites that are frequently involved are the lung, bone, and lymph nodes. There are few reports of HCC invading the distant gastrointestinal tract, especially hematogenously. Herein we report a case of sigmoid colon metastasis from HCC. The patient was diagnosed with HCC and treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Eighteen months after TACE the patient presented with abdominal pain on the left lower quadrant, and a CT scan showed an enhanced mass on the sigmoid colon. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that a tumor cell was positive for polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and weakly positive for hepatocyte antigen, supporting the diagnosis of HCC metastasis. The patient underwent anterior resection for the metastatic HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Metastasis; Sigmoid colon
We elucidated the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in human stomach, using cryosection and c-Kit immunohistochemistry to identify c-Kit positive ICC. Before c-Kit staining, we routinely used hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to identify every structure of human stomach, from mucosa to longitudinal muscle. HE staining revealed that the fundus greater curvature (GC) had prominent oblique muscle layer, and c-Kit immunostaining c-Kit positive ICC cells were found to have typical morphology of dense fusiform cell body with multiple processes protruding from the central cell body. In particular, we could observe dense processes and ramifications of ICC in myenteric area and longitudinal muscle layer of corpus GC. Interestingly, c-Kit positive ICC-like cells which had morphology very similar to ICC were found in gastric mucosa. We could not find any significant difference in the distribution of ICC between fundus and corpus, except for submucosa where the density of ICC was much higher in gastric fundus than corpus. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the density of ICC between each area of fundus and corpus, except for muscularis mucosa. Finally, we also found similar distribution of ICC in normal and cancerous tissue obtained from a patient who underwent pancreotomy and gastrectomy. In conclusion, ICC was found ubiquitously in human stomach and the density of ICC was significantly lower in the muscularis mucosa of both fundus/corpus and higher in the submucosa of gastric fundus than corpus.
Human stomach; Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC); c-Kit; Fundus; Corpus; Greater and Lesser curvature