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1.  Let's Pay Attention to the Average 
PMCID: PMC3983502
2.  More Than the Significance of Conventional Urinalysis 
PMCID: PMC3895505  PMID: 24466460
3.  The Measurement of Intra-abdominal Pressure in Awake Rat Cystometry 
PMCID: PMC3713240  PMID: 23869266
4.  Why are recurrent cervical cancers of the pelvic stump misdiagnosed as interstitial cystitis?: The urologist’s point of view based on a case report 
A 50-year-old female who had undergone laparoscopic total hysterectomy at a local clinic owing to leiomyoma of the uterus was referred to our hospital after having dysuria, urgency, frequency, lower abdominal pain and right flank pain over several months. After routine examinations, cystoscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and non-ulcerative interstitial cystitis accompanied by postoperative fibrosis secondary to a previous surgery was suggested. Pentosan sulfuric polyester (Elmiron, Alza Pharmaceuticals, Mountain View, CA) reduced her severely debilitating symptoms and improved her quality of life. Both the hydronephrosis and the symptoms were relieved by ureteral stent insertion and percutaneous nephrostomy. However, a few days later, she presented with vaginal bleeding along with her previous symptoms, and punch biopsy of the vaginal stump resulted in a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Both ureterocutaneostomy with radical cystectomy and lower anterior resection for rectum invasion were conducted. After the slide review of the original specimen from the local clinic, she was diagnosed with recurrent cervical cancer of the vaginal stump.
PMCID: PMC3668391  PMID: 23766840
5.  From Patch to Repair 
PMCID: PMC3469826  PMID: 23094213
6.  Adult Neurological Handicap: New Insight from Neurogenesis 
PMCID: PMC3395799  PMID: 22816044
7.  Open-label, Intermittent Dose, Prospective Study Evaluating the Effects of Tadalafil on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Function in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Continuation and Durability of Effects 
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is often accompanied by age-related comorbidity, such as erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent data suggest an association between ED and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and increasing evidence indicates that the clinical use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors provides relief from LUTS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of tadalafil (20 mg once every 3 days for 12 weeks, p.o.) in men with moderate-to-severe ED and LUTS and to investigate the duration of the effects of tadalafil beyond treatment cessation.
Materials and Methods
Men with an International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score of less than 11 (representing "moderate-to-severe" ED status) and with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of more than 8 (representing "moderate-to-severe" LUTS status) were enrolled. IPSS (total score, storage subscore, and voiding subscore) and IIEF-5 scores before treatment (baseline), during treatment (weeks 4 and 12 after treatment commencement), and after treatment (weeks 16 and 20after treatment commencement) were compared.
IPSS and IIEF-5 scores were significantly different between baseline and week 12 after treatment commencement. Furthermore, these scores were significantly different between baseline and week 20 after treatment commencement. However, except for IIEF-5 scores, no significant differences were observed between week 12 and week 20.
Treatment with 20 mg tadalafil (once every 3 days) had beneficial effects on LUTS and ED beyond treatment cessation in patients with moderate-to-severe ED and LUTS.
PMCID: PMC2989480  PMID: 21120170
Tadalafil; Erectile dysfunction; Benign
8.  Life-Threatening Complication after Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for a Renal Stone: A Hepatic Subcapsular Hematoma 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(3):212-215.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has revolutionized the management of urolithiasis since it was first introduced in 1980. ESWL is a well-established, safe and effective therapeutic alternative to surgical treatment for urolithiasis. Complications of ESWL do occur in a small number of patients, and when they do, they typically involve the kidney. We present a case of a young female patient who developed a huge hepatic subcapsular hematoma accompanied by hypovolemic shock after ESWL for a 9 mm stone in the right kidney. The hematoma measured 13×6 cm. Conservative care with no surgical intervention was chosen because there was no evidence of active bleeding on the computed tomography. After conservative therapy, the hematoma was gradually absorbed and the patient was discharged.
PMCID: PMC2855451  PMID: 20414400
Lithotripsy; Hematoma; Complications
9.  Presence of multiple peripheral circadian oscillators in the tissues controlling voiding function in mice 
Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that harmonize a variety of physiological processes within the body. Although many urinary functions exhibit clear daily or circadian variation in diurnal humans and nocturnal rodents, the precise mechanisms of these variations are as yet unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that Per2 promoter activity clearly oscillates in neonate and adult bladders cultured ex vivo from Per2::Luc knock-in mice. In subsequent experiments, we show that multiple local oscillators are operating in all the bladder tissues (detrusor, sphincter and urothelim) and the lumbar spinal cord (L4–5) but not in the pontine micturition center or the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the brain. Accordingly, the water intake and urine volume exhibited daily and circadian variations in young adult wild-type mice but not in Per1−/−Per2−/− mice, suggesting a functional clock-dependent nature of the micturition rhythm. Particularly in PDK mice, the water intake and urinary excretion displayed an arrhythmic pattern under constant darkness, and the amount of water consumed and excreted significantly increased compared with those of WT mice. These results suggest that local circadian clocks reside in three types of bladder tissue and the lumbar spinal cord and may have important roles in the circadian control of micturition function.
PMCID: PMC3972783  PMID: 24603368
bladder; circadian clock; lumbar spinal cord; peripheral oscillator; voiding; water intake
10.  Treadmill Exercise Ameliorates Short-Term Memory Disturbance in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Rats 
Scopolamine is a nonselective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, which induces impairment of learning ability and memory function. Exercise is known to ameliorate brain disturbance induced by brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in the hippocampus, using a scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice.
To induce amnesia, 1 mg/kg scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 14 days. A step-down avoidance test for short-term memory was conducted. AChE histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for collagen IV, and doublecortin were performed.
Short-term memory deteriorated in the mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia, concomitant with enhanced AChE expression and suppression of angiogenesis in the hippocampus. Critically, treadmill exercise ameliorated short-term memory impairment, suppressed AChE expression, and enhanced angiogenesis in the mice with scopolamine-induced amnesia.
Overexpression of AChE is implicated in both brain and renal disease. The findings of our study indicate that treadmill exercise may be of therapeutic value in neurodegenerative and renal diseases by suppressing the effects of AChE expression.
PMCID: PMC3983504
Amnesia; Exercise test; Short-term memory; Acetylcholinesterase
11.  Rejuvenation 
PMCID: PMC3952829  PMID: 24678497
12.  Hand-Assisted Retroperitoneoscopic Nephroureterectomy With Bladder Cuffing After Preperitoneal and Retroperitoneal Perivesical Ballooning 
Korean Journal of Urology  2014;55(1):29-35.
We aimed to describe the surgical technique of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (HARNU) with bladder cuffing after preperitoneal and retroperitoneal perivesical ballooning.
Materials and Methods
From March 2008 to September 2012, we performed HARNU and open bladder cuffing in 28 consecutive series of patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. We performed HARNU according to the following procedure: (1) a camera port incision was made on the posterior axillary line; (2) multiple, repeated, preperitoneal and retroperitoneal ballooning was performed on both the posterior axillary line and in the umbilicus; (3) a 7.0 cm skin incision was made from the suprapubic to the lower inguinal with the balloon present in the extraperitoneal area; (4) hand-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal nephroureterectomy; (5) cessation of gas insufflation; and (6) extravesical cuffing as an open surgical procedure.
The mean estimated blood loss was 250 mL. The mean operation time was 240 minutes. The mean time to oral intake and ambulation was 1.0 day and two days, respectively. As for postoperative complications due to the hand-assisted device, one patient developed febrile urinary tract infection within three weeks postoperatively and was hospitalized again to receive parenteral antibiotics.
We made a low Gibson incision for a route for the hand-assisted procedure as well as a window for open surgery in dissecting the distal ureter and extracting the surgical specimens. Thus, our results indicate that the HARNU might be a feasible surgical modality.
PMCID: PMC3897627  PMID: 24466394
Endoscopy; Hand-assisted laparoscopy; Nephrectomy; Transitional cell carcinoma; Ureteral neoplasms
13.  Acute Dose-Related Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Murine Cystometric Parameters 
Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice.
Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the awake condition, we injected the solution through a catheter inserted into the stomach. Methylphenidate (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) in an injection volume of 0.05 mL was administered.
Four mice that received high doses of methylphenidate (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) showed no voiding contraction, with urine leakage. Six mice that received a low dose of methylphenidate (1.25 mg/kg) showed typical micturition cycles before and after administration. The micturition pressure decreased and bladder capacity increased without an increased residual volume after administration.
Methylphenidate has differential, dose-dependent effects on the function of the lower urinary tract, due to the dependent relationship between the brain and lower urinary tract. Especially at higher doses, this drug may interfere with normal micturition. Therefore, more detailed clinical or experimental studies are warranted in the future.
PMCID: PMC3895507  PMID: 24466462
Methylphenidate; Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Urodynamics; Mice; Neurogenic urinary bladder
14.  An animal study to compare the degree of the suppressive effects on the afferent pathways of micturition between tamsulosin and sildenafil 
Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, and sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, are reported to improve lower urinary tract symptoms including overactive bladder (OAB). This study is aimed at investing the effects of tamsulosin and sildenafil and comparing the degree of the suppressive effects on the afferent pathways of micturition between them using an animal model of OAB, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).
The cystometric parameters, the basal pressure and duration of bladder contraction, were significantly increased in the SHR group as compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) group. The intercontraction interval also significantly decreased in the SHR group. In the SHR-Tam 0.01 mg/kg group and the SHR-Sil 1 mg/kg group, however, the basal pressure and duration were significantly reduced and the intercontraction interval was significantly prolonged. Moreover, the degree of the expression of c-Fos and NGF was significantly higher in the SHR group as compared with the WKY group. But it was significantly reduced in the SHR-Tam 0.01 mg/kg group and the SHR-Sil 1 mg/kg group. Furthermore, tamsulosin had a higher degree of effect as compared with sildenafil.
In conclusion, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists and PDE-5 inhibitors may have an effect in improving the voiding functions through an inhibition of the neuronal activity in the afferent pathways of micturition.
PMCID: PMC3871018  PMID: 24160992
Overactive bladder syndrome; Tamsulosin; Sildenafil; Neuronal activity; Afferent pathways of micturition
15.  Is Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy a Feasible Technique for the Treatment of Staghorn Calculi? 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(10):693-696.
Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) remains a challenging technique for the surgical treatment of staghorn renal calculi. Our study was designed to compare surgical outcomes between conventional and tubeless PNL.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients who underwent conventional or tubeless PNL under general anesthesia performed by a single surgeon (H.J.) for the treatment of staghorn calculi between 2003 and 2012. All patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who underwent conventional PNL and group 2 included patients who were managed by tubeless PNL for the treatment of staghorn calculi. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were analyzed between the two groups, including age, stone burden, complications, any interventions, and duration of hospital stay.
A total of 165 patients (group 1, 106; group 2, 59) were enrolled in the study. No significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, or stone laterality were observed between the two groups. The mean stone burdens (±standard deviation) of group 1 and group 2 were 633.6 (±667.4) and 529.9 (±362.8), respectively (p=0.271). The postoperative stone-free clearance rate was higher in group 2 (78.0%) than in group 1 (69.8%); however, the difference was not clinically significant (p=0.127). In addition, no significant differences in postoperative complications, including fever, bleeding, infection, or additional interventions, were observed between the two groups.
Our results demonstrated that tubeless PNL has the same effectiveness and safety as conventional PNL in the treatment of staghorn calculi. Tubeless PNL may be feasible for managing renal staghorn calculi.
PMCID: PMC3806994  PMID: 24175044
Kidney calculi; Nephrolithotomy; Percutaneous nephrostomy
16.  Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups 
Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups.
The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth.
Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex.
Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.
PMCID: PMC3797889  PMID: 24143288
Music; Noise; Neurogenesis; Motor cortex; Somatosensory cortex
17.  Effect of Long-term Exercise on Voiding Functions in Obese Elderly Women 
An overactive bladder (OAB) may be defined as urgency that is a sudden, compelling, difficult to defer desire to pass urine that is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia and possibly by incontinence. Obesity and old age are two factors in various causes of OAB. Several epidemiologic studies have identified positive associations among obesity, old age, urinary incontinence, and OAB. However, although exercise has been known to improve obesity and reduce incontinent urine loss, little research has been done in elderly women. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on obesity-related metabolic factors, blood lipid factors, and OAB symptoms in elderly Korean women.
Twenty-one women aged between 69 and 72 years were recruited from the Seoul senior towers in Korea. All subjects worked out on a motorized treadmill and stationary cycle for 40 minutes, respectively, and performed resistance exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 52 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, OAB symptom score, and King's health questionnaire were investigated and analyzed.
Before performing physical exercise, all subjects showed increased OAB symptoms in association with enhanced body mass index (BMI), percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles. However, physical exercise for 52 weeks suppressed BMI, percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles and thus improved OAB symptoms.
We suggest that long-term physical exercise can be a valuable tool for remarkable improvement of OAB.
PMCID: PMC3797893  PMID: 24143292
Overactive urinary bladder; Obesity; Exercise; Overactive bladder symptom score; King's health questionnaire
18.  The increasing role of exercise rehabilitation 
PMCID: PMC3836532  PMID: 24278881
19.  A new start 
PMCID: PMC3836523  PMID: 24278862
20.  The feasibility of shockwave lithotripsy for treating solitary, lower calyceal stones over 1 cm in size 
Recently, few studies were reported about the treatment of large, solitary, renal calculi between shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). We assess the feasibility of SWL for managing solitary, lower calyceal stones over 1 cm by comparing the results of lower pole calculi treatment between patients that underwent SWL or PNL.
We retrospectively reviewed clinical data for patients who had undergone PNL or SWL due to lower calyceal stones over 1 cm. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent SWL to treat lower pole renal calculi from 2010 to 2011. Group 2 included patients who underwent PNL to manage lower pole renal calculi from 2008 to 2009. We compared patient age, gender, stone size, comorbidities, postoperative complications, additional interventions and anatomical parameters between the two groups.
A total of 55 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean ages (±SD) of groups 1 (n = 33) and 2 (n = 22) were 55.1 (±13.0) and 50.0 (±10.6) years (p = 0.133) and mean stone sizes were 1.6 (±0.7) and 1.9 (±0.8) cm (p = 0.135), respectively. There were no significant differences in gender distribution, comorbidities or stone laterality between the two groups. No significant differences in various parameters were observed between patients with stones 1 to 2 cm and ones with stones 2 cm or larger.
Our results demonstrated that SWL is a safe, feasible treatment for solitary, lower calyceal stones over 1 cm.
PMCID: PMC3612404  PMID: 23589749
21.  Lab-on-a-chip for Urology 
PMCID: PMC3627991  PMID: 23610704
22.  Modified Distal Urethral Polypropylene Sling (Canal Transobturator Tape) Procedure: Efficacy for Persistent Stress Urinary Incontinence After a Conventional Midurethral Sling Procedure 
Despite reports of persistent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in patients after the midurethral sling (MUS) procedure, there is no widely accepted definition or cause of the condition. In many cases, the mesh implanted in the previous MUS procedure has been found to have migrated proximally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified distal urethral polypropylene sling, or canal transobturator tape (TOT), procedure for persistent SUI after a conventional MUS procedure on the assumption that persistent SUI after MUS is due to the location of the sling.
From January 2008 to April 2012, 31 female patients who underwent the canal TOT procedure presented with incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were included in this study. We identified patients who had been operated on by use of the conventional MUS procedure at other medical facilities, whose Valsalva leak pressure point was less than 120 cm-H2O by urodynamic study, and who were also diagnosed with persistent SUI. If vaginal or urethral mesh exposure was concomitant with persistent SUI, the mesh was removed completely or in part. Surgical procedures for canal TOT were identical to the original TOT procedures, except in the number and location of the vaginal incisions. Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6) scores were assessed preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.
There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Twenty-eight patients (90.3%) showed improvement in incontinence or other LUTS. Postoperative scores of the IIQ-7 (0.65±0.48) and UDI-6 (3.48±2.28) were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (1.26±0.58 and 7.52±4.30, respectively; P<0.05).
Improper sling location is one of the major causes of persistent SUI after the conventional MUS procedure. Our results demonstrate that canal TOT may be an alternative method in the treatment of persistent SUI after the conventional MUS procedure.
PMCID: PMC3627993  PMID: 23610707
Stress urinary incontinence; Suburethral slings; Recurrence
23.  Bladder Failure? 
PMCID: PMC3547185  PMID: 23346490
24.  A New Turnaround on the Urologist's Stance over the Inflammatory Signals 
PMCID: PMC3321397  PMID: 22500247
25.  Effects of Tamsulosin on Urinary Bladder Function and Neuronal Activity in the Voiding Centers of Rats with Cyclophosphamide-induced Overactive Bladder 
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
PMCID: PMC3321398  PMID: 22500249
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats

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