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1.  Excessive crying: behavioral and emotional regulation disorder in infancy 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(6):229-233.
In the pediatric literature, excessive crying has been reported solely in association with 3-month colic and is described, if at all, as unexplained crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life. The bouts of crying are generally thought to be triggered by abdominal colic (over-inflation of the still immature gastrointestinal tract), and treatment is prescribed accordingly. According to this line of reasoning, excessive crying is harmless and resolves by the end of the third month without long-term consequences. However, there is evidence that it may cause tremendous distress in the mother-infant relationship, and can lead to disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation at the toddler stage (such as sleep and feeding disorders, chronic fussiness, excessive clinginess, and temper tantrums). Early treatment of excessive crying focuses on parent-infant communication, and parent-infant interaction in the context of soothing and settling the infant to sleep is a promising approach that may prevent later behavioral and emotional disorders in infancy.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.6.229
PMCID: PMC3174357  PMID: 21949516
Excessive crying; Behavioral and emotional regulation disorder; Infant
2.  B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Assay for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(3):192-196.
Background and Objectives
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Measurement of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been reported to be a useful bedside screening tool for the presence of hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) in neonates. This study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of a BNP assay as a biochemical marker for the diagnosis of hsPDA and predictive biomarker of the response to indomethacin in preterm infants.
Subjects and Methods
Preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age were prospectively enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Plasma BNP levels were measured on days 1, 4, and 7. Significant PDA was diagnosed by large ductal flow with left to right shunt on color Doppler echocardiography, along with clinical features of PDA. Following that, hsPDA was treated with indomethacin.
Results
A total of 28 preterm infants were prospectively enrolled in this study. Seven infants with PDA had higher on day 4 plasma BNP values (median 654.68 pg/mL; range 428.29-1280.00) compared to the control group (median 124.52 pg/mL; range 37.21-290.49). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for the detection of hsPDA was high: 0.998 (95% confidence interval: 0.995-1.002). The cutoff of BNP concentration for the diagnosis of hsPDA was determined to be 412 pg/mL (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 95%).
Conclusion
B-type natriuretic peptide can be a useful biomarker for the screening and diagnosis of PDA in preterm infants. Serial BNP measurements are valuable for assessing the clinical course and indomethacin responsiveness of PDA.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.3.192
PMCID: PMC3318091  PMID: 22493614
Patent ductus arteriosus; B-type natriuretic peptide; Echocardiography
3.  Intermediate and Long-Term Results of Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale Using the Amplatzer Patent Foramen Ovale Occluder: One Case of Pulmonary Embolism Irrespective of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(7):356-362.
Background and Objectives
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) due to paradoxical embolism, and in the pathogenesis of migraine. This paper reports the intermediate and long-term results of transcatheter closure of PFO associated with cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), TIAs and migraine, using the Amplatzer PFO occluder. This paper also reports a case of pulmonary embolism which developed in one patient after PFO closure.
Subjects and Methods
From January 2003 to May 2010, 16 patients with PFO (seven males and nine females) with a history of at least one episode of cryptogenic stroke/TIA, CVA, or migraine and who underwent percutaneous transcatheter closure of PFO using the Amplatzer occluder. All the procedures were performed under general anesthesia and were assisted by transesophageal echocardiography.
Results
The device was implanted without any significant complications in all the patients, and the PFOs were effectively closed. At an average follow-up period of 54 months, the 15 patients with TIA/CVA had no recurrence of any thromboembolic event. The symptoms in one patient with migraine subsided after occlusion of the PFO. In this study, pulmonary embolism occurred five months after PFO closure in one patient, but the cause of pulmonary embolism was not identified. However, it is believed that the pulmonary embolism occurred without stroke recurrence because occlusion of the PFO was performed when the patient had a stroke event.
Conclusion
It can be concluded that according to the intermediate and long-term follow-up results, transcatheter PFO closure is an effective and safe therapeutic modality in the prevention of thromboembolic events, especially in the patients with cryptogenic stroke/TIA, and PFO closure is helpful in the treatment of migraine. However, this study involved a small number of patients and also the follow-up period was not long enough. Hence, randomized, controlled trials are necessary to determine if this approach is preferable to medical therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke or as primary treatment for patients with migraine headache.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.7.356
PMCID: PMC3152729  PMID: 21860636
Patent foramen ovale; Stroke; Transient ischemic attack; Migraine; Pulmonary embolism
4.  The effect of ephedrine on intraoperative hypothermia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;60(4):250-254.
Background
Prevention of intraoperative hypothermia has become a standard of operative care. Since ephedrine has a thermogenic effect and it is frequently used to treat hypotension during anesthesia, this study was designed to determine the effect of ephedrine on intraoperative hypothermia of patients who are undergoing spine surgery.
Methods
Twenty-four patients were randomly divided to receive an ephedrine (the ephedrine group, n = 12) or normal saline (the control group, n = 12) infusion for 2 h. The esophageal temperature (the core temperature), the index finger temperature (the peripheral temperature) and the hemodynamic variables such as the mean blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 minutes after the intubation.
Results
At the end of the study period, the esophageal temperature and hemodynamic variables were significantly decreased in the control group, whereas those in the ephedrine group were stably maintained. The index finger temperature was significantly lower in the ephedrine group compared to that in the control group, suggesting the prevention of core-to-peripheral redistribution of the heat as the cause of temperature maintenance.
Conclusions
An intraoperative infusion of ephedrine minimized the decrease of the core temperature and it stably maintained the hemodynamic variables during spine surgery with the patient under general anesthesia.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.60.4.250
PMCID: PMC3092959  PMID: 21602974
Anesthesia; General; Hypothermia; Temperature
5.  Caudal analgesia reduces the sevoflurane requirement for LMA removal in anesthetized children 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;58(6):527-531.
Background
An anesthetic state can reduce adverse airway reaction during laryngeal mask airway (LMA) removal in children. However, the anesthetic state has risks of upper airway obstruction or delayed emergence; so possibly less anesthetic depth is advisable. Caudal analgesia reduces the requirement of anesthetic agents for sedation or anesthesia; it is expected to reduce the sevoflurane requirement for LMA removal. Therefore, we determined the EC50 of sevoflurane for LMA removal with caudal analgesia and compared that to the EC50 without caudal analgesia.
Methods
Forty-three unpremedicated children aged 1 to 6 yr were enrolled. They were allocated to receive or not to receive caudal block according to their parents' consent. General anesthesia were induced and maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in air. EC50 of sevoflurane for a smooth LMA removal with and without caudal analgesia were estimated by the Dixon up-and-down method. The LMA was removed when predetermined end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was achieved, and the sevoflurane concentration of a subsequent patient was determined by the success or failure of the previous patient with 0.2% as the step size; success was defined by the absence of an adverse airway reaction during and after LMA removal. EC50 of sevoflurane with caudal block, and that without caudal block, were compared by a rank-sum test.
Results
The EC50 of sevoflurane to achieve successful LMA removal in children with caudal block was 1.47%; 1.81% without caudal block. The EC50 were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Caudal analgesia significantly reduced the sevoflurane concentration for a smooth LMA removal in anesthetized children.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.58.6.527
PMCID: PMC2892585  PMID: 20589176
Caudal analgesia; Laryngeal mask airway; Sevoflurane
6.  Increased Expression of Sodium Transporters in Rats Chronically Inhibited of Nitric Oxide Synthesis 
The present study was done to determine whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the regulation of sodium transporters in the kidney. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/L drinking water) for 4 weeks. Control rats were supplied with tap water without drugs. Expression of Na, K-ATPase, type 3 Na/H exchanger (NHE3), Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (BSC1), and thiazide-sensitive Na/Cl cotransporter (TSC) proteins was determined in the kidney by Western blot analysis. Catalytic activity of Na,K-ATPase was also determined. The treatment with L-NAME significantly and steadily increased the systemic blood pressure. Total and fractional excretion of urinary sodium decreased significantly, while creatinine clearance remained unaltered. Neither plasma renin activity nor aldosterone concentration was significantly altered. The ╬▒1 subunit expression and the catalytic activity of Na, K-ATPase were increased in the kidney. The expression of NHE3, BSC1 and TSC was also increased significantly. These results suggest that endogenously-derived NO exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on the expression of sodium transporters, including Na, K-ATPase, NHE3, BSC1, and TSC, in the kidney.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.1.1
PMCID: PMC2733954  PMID: 16479055
Nitric Oxide; Na, K-ATPase; NHE3; BSC1; Sodium-Potassium Chloride Cotransporter 2 Protein; TSC

Results 1-6 (6)