The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve.
The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL≤3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL≥4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study.
A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL.
A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium; Lasers; Quality of life
One of the annoying complications of radical prostatectomy is urinary incontinence. Post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) causes a significant impact on the patient's health-related quality of life. Although PPI is stress urinary incontinence caused by intrinsic sphincter deficiency in most cases, bladder dysfunction and vesicourethral anastomotic stenosis can induce urine leakage also. Exact clinical assessments, such as a voiding diary, incontinence questionnaire, pad test, urodynamic study, and urethrocystoscopy, are necessary to determine adequate treatment. The initial management of PPI is conservative treatment including lifestyle interventions, pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback, and bladder training. An early start of conservative treatment is recommended during the first year. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is recommended. Surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy can be divided into minimally invasive and invasive treatments. Minimally invasive treatment includes injection of urethral bulking agents, male suburethral sling, and adjustable continence balloons. Invasive treatment includes artificial urinary sphincter implantation, which is still the gold standard and the most effective treatment of PPI. However, the demand for minimally invasive treatment is increasing, and many urologists consider male suburethral slings to be an acceptable treatment for PPI. The male sling is usually recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. It is necessary to improve our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of PPI and to compare different procedures for the development of new and potentially better treatment options.
Postoperative complications; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms; Urinary incontinence
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korea, to assess the variation in prevalence by sex and age, and to measure the impact of OAB on quality of life.
A population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between April and June 2010 with a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of OAB, demographics, and the impact of OAB on quality of life. A geographically stratified random sample of men and women aged ≥30 years was selected.
The overall prevalence of OAB was 22.9% (male, 19%; female, 26.8%). Of a total of 458 participants with OAB, 37.6% and 19.9% reported moderate or severe impact on their daily life and sexual life (5.6% and 3.5%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Anxiety and depression were reported by 22.7% and 39.3% of participants with OAB, respectively (9.7% and 22.8%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Only 19.7% of participants with OAB had consulted a doctor for their voiding symptoms, but 50.7% of respondents with OAB were willing to visit a hospital for the management of their OAB symptoms.
This study confirmed that OAB symptoms are highly prevalent in Korea, and many sufferers appear to have actively sought medical help. OAB has severe effects on daily and sexual life as well as psychological health.
Overactive urinary bladder; Prevalence; Demography
Many patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have storage symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) on storage symptoms in patients with BPH.
This study was conducted in 738 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH. Patients with a prostate volume of higher than 30 mL on the transrectal ultrasound were classified into two groups: group A, in which an alpha blocker was solely administered for at least 12 months, and group B, in which a combination treatment regimen of an alpha blocker plus 5ARI was used. This was followed by an analysis of the changes in parameters such as the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), voiding symptom subscore, and storage symptom subscore between the two groups. In addition, we examined whether there was a significant difference between the two groups in the degree of change in storage symptoms between before and after the pharmacological treatment.
Of the 738 men, 331 had a prostate volume ≥30 mL, including 150 patients in group A and 181 patients in group B. Total IPSS, the voiding symptom subscore, and the storage symptom subscore were significantly lower after treatment than before treatment in both groups (P<0.05). A comparison of the degree of change between before and after treatment, however, showed no significant differences in the storage symptom subscore between the two groups (P>0.05).
Alpha blocker and 5ARI combination treatment is effective for patients with BPH including storage symptoms. However, 5ARI does not exert a significant effect on storage symptoms in BPH patients.
Prostatic hyperplasia; 5-alpha reductase inhibitors; Overactive urinary bladder
We studied the influence of preoperative bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on postoperative continence rates and patient satisfaction after the midurethral sling procedure.
A total of 159 women who underwent the midurethral sling procedure were evaluated. Using the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram, we assigned the patients were assigned to Group I (n=37, no obstruction), Group II (n=89, mild obstruction), or Group III (n=33, moderate to severe obstruction). Continence rates, patient satisfaction, urinary sensation scale and uroflowmetry were evaluated postoperatively.
There were no significant differences in continence rates, satisfaction, or postoperative maximal flow rate between the 3 groups. Postoperative urgency was improved after surgery in Groups I and II (P<0.05) but not in Group III.
BOO does not seem to be a risk factor for failure after the midurethral sling procedure. However, BOO may be considered as a potential factor for persistent storage symptoms after the midurethral sling.
Bladder outlet obstruction; Suburethral sling; Urinary stress incontinence
The tension-free vaginal tape SECUR® (TVT-S) is a new, minimally invasive sling procedure for treating female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, results of comparisons of the TVT-S with the transobturator tape (TOT) sling are lacking. Therefore, we investigated outcome and satisfaction of the TVT-S procedure compared with the TOT procedure.
Materials and Methods
We included 64 patients with SUI who underwent the TVT-S (n=31) or TOT (MONARC®, n=33) procedure and were followed up for more than 1 year. The preoperative evaluation included history taking, pelvic examination, consecutive 3-day voiding diary, and urodynamic study including Valsalva leak point pressure. Postoperatively, continence status and subjective patient satisfaction were evaluated. Cure was defined as the absence of any episodes of involuntary urine leakage during stressful activities and a stress cough test.
The TVT-S group (71.0%) showed a slightly lower cure rate than did the MONARC group (84.8%); however, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (p=0.179). Nine of the patients who underwent the TVT-S showed incontinence postoperatively. Among them, the H approach was used in 7 patients and the U approach was done in 2 patients. Following TVT-S and MONARC, the patients' reported satisfaction was 80.6% and 78.8%, respectively. Patient satisfaction did not differ significantly between the two groups (p=0.854).
Our results showed that the TVT-S and MONARC procedures may be comparable in terms of cure rate and patient satisfaction after more than 1 year of follow-up.
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Treatment outcome; Urinary stress incontinence
Recently, as the number of transobturator tape (TOT) procedures has increased, recurrence after this procedure has been frequently reported. However, there are no standard guidelines for treatment. We describe our experience with shortening the previously implanted tape in patients with recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the TOT procedure.
Materials and Methods
We enrolled 10 women who underwent shortening of the previously implanted tape and were followed up for 3 years. Shortening of the previously implanted tape was done by a figure-eight suture with 1-0 Prolene. One year after TOT shortening, we investigated continence status, patient satisfaction by means of a questionnaire, maximal flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual urine volume. Three years after TOT shortening, we evaluated continence status and patient satisfaction.
The mean period of TOT shortening was 4.2 months (range, 1-12 months) after the TOT procedure. One year after TOT shortening, 7 patients showed complete dryness, 2 patients showed improvement, and 1 patient reported failure. Eight patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the 1-year result after TOT shortening. The mean preoperative and postoperative Qmax were 23.8 and 26.7ml/s, respectively, and there was no significant difference. Three years after TOT shortening, 6 patients showed complete dryness, 2 patients showed improvement, and 2 patients reported failure. Among them,1 had failed from 1 year after TOT shortening and the other had shown 1 year of complete dryness. Eight patients were very satisfied or satisfied and 2 patients were dissatisfied with the 3-year result after TOT shortening.
Most of the patients who underwent TOT shortening reported satisfaction as well as improvement of incontinence after a 3-year follow up. Therefore, we suggest that TOT shortening may be recommended primarily in patients with recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the TOT sling procedure.
Urinary stress incontinence; Suburethral sling; Transobturator tape
Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP.
This meta-analysis used a Medline search assessing the period from 1997 to 2011. A total of 784 randomized controlled trials were identified in an electronic search. Among the 784 articles, 36 randomized controlled trials that provided the highest level of evidence (level 1b) were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted a quality analysis of selected articles.
Only 2 articles (5.56%) were assessed as having a low risk of bias by use of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. On the other hand, by use of the Jadad scale, there were 26 high-quality articles (72.22%). Furthermore, 28 articles (77.78%) were assessed as high-quality articles by use of the van Tulder scale. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) showed the highest reduction of the International Prostate Symptom Score compared with TURP (P<0.0001). Bipolar TURP, bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate, HoLEP, and open prostatectomy showed superior outcome in postvoid residual urine volume and maximum flow rate. The intraoperative complications of the minimally invasive surgeries had no statistically significant inferior outcomes compared with TURP. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the modalities compared with TURP.
The selection of an appropriate surgical modality for BPH should be assessed by fully understanding each patient's clinical conditions.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium; Lasers; Potassium titanylphosphate; Transurethral resection of prostate; Meta-analysis
To investigate the antiproliferative effects of zinc-citrate compound on hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
HRPC cell line (DU145) and normal prostate cell line (RWPE-1) were treated with zinc, citrate and zinc-citrate compound at different time intervals and concentrations to investigate the effect of zinc-citrate compound. Mitochondrial (m)-aconitase activity was determined using aconitase assay. DNA laddering analysis was performed to investigate apoptosis of DU145 cells. Molecular mechanism of apoptosis was investigated by Western blot analysis of P53, P21waf1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax, and also caspase-3 activity analysis.
Treatment with zinc-citrate compound resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cell number of DU145 cells in comparison with RWPE-1. M-aconitase activity was significantly decreased. DNA laddering analysis indicated apoptosis of DU145 cells. Zinc-citrate compound increased the expression of P21waf1 and P53, and reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins but induced the expression of Bax protein. Zinc-citrate compound induced apoptosis of DU145 cells by activation of the caspase-3 pathway.
Zinc-citrate compound can induce apoptotic cell death in DU145, by caspase-3 activation through up-regulation of apoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins.
Prostatic neoplasm; Zinc; Apoptosis
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) have different mechanisms of action. We believe that alteration of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity may contribute to UUI because the lower urinary tract is regulated through the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) allows measurement of autonomic nervous function, therefore we measured and compared HRV parameters in women with urinary incontinence.
From March 2008 to March 2010, we evaluated all patients who visited 2 university hospitals for treatment of urinary incontinence. Theywere performed 3-day voiding diary, urodynamic study, physical examination and routine laboratory examination. We excluded subjects who had diabetes, cardiovascular problems, or other condition that affect ANS. Patients with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) were also excluded. Finally 47 women with SUI (group 1) and 29 women with UUI (group 2) were enrolled according to their symptoms and voiding diary. We compared their HRV parameters. And excluding 11 patients who had detrusor underactivity, we divided them again into group A, 53 women without detrusor overactivity (DO) and group B, 12 women with DO. We compared HRV parameters between DO and non-DO group.
Older women had a higher incidence of UUI and DO. In HRV parameters, only the ratio of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1 (3.5±3.6 vs. 1.6±1.1, P<0.05). Also group A had higher mean LF/HF ratio than group B (4.3±3.8 vs. 1.9±1.9, P<0.05).
Increased LF/HF values indicate relative sympathetic hyperactivity over parasympathetic activity. Changes in ANS activity could indicate the presence of UUI and potentially DO.
Heart rate; Incontinence; Autonomic nervous system
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
In order to gain insight into the physicians' awareness of and attitude towards management of overactive bladder (OAB) in males, we performed a nationwide survey of the current strategies that urologists use to diagnose and manage OAB in male patients.
Materials and Methods
A probability sample was taken from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians, and a random sample of 289 Korean urologists were mailed a structured questionnaire that explored how they manage benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
A total of 185 completed questionnaires were returned. The consent rate in the survey was 64.5%. Eighty-one (44%) urologists believed that of all males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 20% or more had OAB and 72 (39%) believed that 10-20% had OAB. Half of the urologists surveyed believed that the most bothersome symptom in male OAB patients was nocturia. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported that they prescribed alpha blockers with anticholinergics for first line management, while 19% of urologists prescribed alpha blocker monotherapy but not anticholinergics for OAB patients. Though acute urinary retention (AUR) was considered the anticholinergic adverse event of most concern, the most frequently observed adverse event was dry mouth (95%).
The present study provides insights into urologist views of male OAB. There is a discrepancy between the awareness of urologists and actual patterns of diagnosis and treatment of male OAB. This finding indicates the need to develop further practical guidelines based on solid clinical data.
Overactive bladder; physician's practice patterns; bladder outlet obstruction; benign prostatic hyperplasia; anticholinergics
We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP).
Materials and Methods
This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I.
The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion.
Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.
Prospective studies; Treatment outcome; Pelvic organ prolapse
To identify autonomic dysfunction among patients with urinary incontinence (UI) with or without detrusor overactivity (DO), we measured and compared heart rate variability (HRV) in these groups.
Materials and Methods
We studied HRV in 12 female UI patients with DO (mean age, 57.3±11.0 years) and 53 female UI patients without DO (mean age, 56.8±9.8 years). HRV parameters were measured by SA-3000P®. Heart rates, the time domain index, and the frequency domain index were compared. To compare time domain indexes, we used the standard deviation of the N-N interval (SDNN), the square root of the mean squared differences of successive N-N intervals (RMSSD), and the frequency domain indexes total power (TP), very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio).
RMSSD values were lower in UI patients with DO than in those without DO, but the values of SDNN and HR showed no significant difference. Whereas the values of LF and HF were lower in UI patients with DO than in those without DO, the LF/HF ratio was higher. TP and VLF were not significantly different.
RMSSD, HF, and LF were lower in DO patients than in controls without DO, but the LF/HF ratio was higher. This suggests that both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is attenuated in DO, but the autonomic imbalance is higher.
Heart rate; Urinary incontinence
We aimed to prove the safety and feasibility of right-sided hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN).
Materials and Methods
Between May 2006 and May 2009, 16 patients underwent right-sided HALDN at our institution. Of these patients, 15 showed significantly lower renal function in the right kidney than in the left one and 1 had a stone in the right kidney. When the right renal vein was divided, an EndoGIA stapling device was placed on the wall of the inferior vena cava to gain a maximal length of the vein. We evaluated intraoperative and postoperative parameters such as operative time, delivery time, warm ischemic time, estimated blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative complication rates, length of hospital stay, and serum creatinine levels of donors (at the time of discharge) and recipients (4 weeks postoperatively), comparing the right-sided HALDN group (our study) with a left-sided HALDN group (from a previously reported study).
A total of 16 right-sided HALDNs were successfully performed without any complications or open conversion. All of the intraoperative and postoperative parameters were similar between the right-sided HALDN and left-sided HALDN groups. There were no technical problems in the recipients in the anastomosis of the renal vein, and the ureteral anastomoses were also successful.
Right-sided HALDN is safe and technically feasible in a donor, showing favorable graft outcomes. The results of our study suggest that right-sided HALDN may be preferable in patients with significantly lower renal function in the right kidney than in the left one.
Laparoscopy; Living donors; Nephrectomy; Hand
We analyzed the effects of obesity on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) in Korean benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. This is a multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective study conducted in four centers in Korea. A total of 602 men with LUTSs secondary to BPH were included. BPH/LUTSs cases were men aged ≥ 40 years with international prostate symptom scores (IPSS) ≥ 8 points. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Among the 602 patients, 156 patients had a waist circumference above 90 cm, representing central obesity, and 215 patients had a body mass index above 25 kg m−2. Waist circumference was positively correlated with prostate volume (P = 0.034). Men with waist circumference > 90 cm experienced a 1.36-fold increased risk of severe LUTSs (95% CI 0.82–2.41) compared with men with waist circumference ≤ 90 cm. Prostate volume was positively correlated with urgency and nocturia in men with central obesity. In this population of Korean men diagnosed with BPH, central obesity rather than overall obesity seems to be the more important predictor of LUTSs correlated with BPH.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; central obesity; lower urinary tract symptom; prostate