Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resected gallbladder cancer may improve survival for some patients, identifying which patients will benefit remains challenging because of the rarity of this disease. The specific aim of this study was to create a decision aid to help make individualized estimates of the potential survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with resected gallbladder cancer.
Patients with resected gallbladder cancer were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) –Medicare database who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. Covariates included age, race, sex, stage, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Propensity score weighting was used to balance covariates between treated and untreated groups. Several types of multivariate survival regression models were constructed and compared, including Cox proportional hazards, Weibull, exponential, log-logistic, and lognormal models. Model performance was compared using the Akaike information criterion. The primary end point was overall survival with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or CRT.
A total of 1,137 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. The lognormal survival model showed the best performance. A Web browser–based nomogram was built from this model to make individualized estimates of survival. The model predicts that certain subsets of patients with at least T2 or N1 disease will gain a survival benefit from adjuvant CRT, and the magnitude of benefit for an individual patient can vary.
A nomogram built from a parametric survival model from the SEER-Medicare database can be used as a decision aid to predict which gallbladder patients may benefit from adjuvant CRT.
In Korea, few studies have been performed on screening instruments for the detection of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders in the elderly. This study evaluated the validity of three screening instruments in elderly male drinkers.
The subjects were 242 Korean men aged ≥ 65 years. Face-to-face interviews were used to identify at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders. At-risk drinking was defined according to the criteria for heavy or binge drinking of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder was diagnosed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-text revision. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-geriatric version (SMAST-G), and cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire were used as the alcohol-screening instruments. Based on the diagnostic interview results, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the instruments were compared.
For identification of at-risk drinking, the AUDIT AUROC demonstrated greater diagnostic power than did those of SMAST-G and CAGE (both P < 0.001). In screening for alcohol use disorders, the AUDIT AUROC was also significantly higher than those of SMAST-G and CAGE (both P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of screening for at-risk drinking with an AUDIT score ≥ 7 were 77.3% and 85.1%, respectively, whereas those for the alcohol use disorders with an AUDIT score ≥ 11 were 91.3% and 90.8%, respectively.
The results suggest that the AUDIT is the most effective tool in identifying problem drinkers among elderly male drinkers.
Alcohol; Mass Screening; Aged; Alcoholism
This study examined the effects of the method of delivery of brief advice on the readiness to change in at-risk drinkers.
The participants were 103 at-risk male drinkers who visited Chungnam National University Hospital for general health examinations. Baseline data on drinking behavior, readiness to change drinking behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from a questionnaire. Family physicians gave two minutes of advice by telephone or in-person. The brief advice comprised a simple statement that the patient's drinking exceeded the recommended limits and could lead to alcohol-related problems. It also included advice to moderate one's drinking. One month later, the readiness to change was assessed again by telephone. The improvement in the readiness to change according to each method of delivery was investigated.
Initially, among the 58-patient in-person advice group, 12 patients were in the precontemplation stage, 38 in the contemplation stage, and 8 in the action stage. One month after the advice was given to the patients, the distribution had changed significantly (P < 0.001) to 1, 21, and 36 patients, respectively. Among the 45-patient telephone advice group, 7 patients were in the precontemplation stage, 32 patients were in the contemplation stage, and 6 patients were in the action stage before the advice. The distribution had changed significantly (P < 0.001) to 1, 17, and 27 patients, respectively, 1 month after the advice.
These results suggest that brief advice by family physicians is effective in improving the readiness to change of at-risk drinkers, regardless of the delivery method.
Drinking; Counseling; Physicians; Telephone; Attitude
This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a marker of heavy drinking in Korean males. The subjects (143 Korean males) were classified into 2 groups according to the amount of drinking, moderate drinkers (72 individuals) who drank 14 drinks or less per week and heavy drinkers (71 individuals) who drank more than 14 drinks per week. Using %CDT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as clinical markers for heavy drinking, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were investigated. Sensitivities of %CDT, GGT, AST, and ALT were 83.1%, 67.6%, 52.1% and 46.5%, respectively. Specificities were 63.9%, 45.8%, 72.2%, and 54.2%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 69.4%, 55.2%, 64.9%, and 50.0% respectively. Negative predictive values were 79.3%, 58.9%, 60.5%, and 50.6% respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) for %CDT, GGT, AST, and ALT were 0.823 (0.755-0.891), 0.578 (0.484-0.673), 0.622 (0.528-0.717), and 0.516 (0.420-0.613), respectively. CDT is considered as the most reliable marker for detecting heavy drinking in Korean males.
Drinking; Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin; Diagnosis
This study was performed to investigate the effect of insight on the readiness to change in alcoholism. The subjects were 131 Korean male patients with alcohol dependence who were being hospitalized in a community-based alcohol treatment center. The patients' readiness to change was classified into precontemplation, contemplation, and action stage through the readiness to change questionnaire. The state of the patients' insight was measured through the Hanil alcohol insight scale. Fourteen patients (10.7%) were in the stage of precontemplation, 65 (49.6%) in contemplation and 52 (39.7%) in action stage. The insight score of the patients in precontemplation stage was significantly lower (p<0.001) than that of others. On the basis of the precontemplation stage, multinomial logistic regression analysis for the control of the differences in the patients' characteristics among each stage of the readiness to change showed that the possibility of contemplation and action stage went up 1.231 (p<0.01) and 1.249 (p<0.01) times higher as the insight score increased.
Alcoholism; Motivation; Awareness; Readiness to Change
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to alcohol consumption for those subjects showing facial flushing, as well as the absence of facial flushing.
One thousand two hundred and one males were recruited in the health promotion center of a university hospital. Evaluation of alcohol consumption and facial flushing was assessed via questionnaires and interviews. The criteria for MS were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with a modified waist circumference cutoff value (men ≥ 90 cm) for Korean subjects. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the amount of alcohol they consume: nondrinkers, moderate drinkers (≤14 standard drinks per week), and heavy drinkers (>14 standard drinks per week). They were also separated into two groups according to facial flushing: non-flushers (no occurrence) and flushers (steady occurrence). Factors related to MS were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
In non-flushing moderate drinkers, the risk of MS did not significantly increase compared to non-drinkers. However in flushing moderate drinkers, there was significant increase (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 3.06) compared to non-drinkers. In non-flushing and flushing heavy drinkers, significant increase (OR, 2.23; CI, 1.23 to 4.04; OR, 2.90; CI, 1.25 to 6.73, respectively) was evident compared to non-drinkers.
Non-flushing moderate drinkers did not show an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the non-drinkers, but flushing moderate drinkers showed an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to non-drinkers.
Flushing; Alcohol; Metabolic Syndrome
Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers) have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols.
Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH)3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J) were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure) were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines), blood (total and differential cell counts), lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics.
Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt) respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). However no neutrophilic inflammation in BAL fluid was found and neutrophils were below 1% in all groups. No significant differences were found in total protein, activity of LDH, or cytokines levels (IL-6, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF-α, and MIP-2) between shams and exposed mice.
Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.
Aluminum; Nanowhiskers; High aspect ratio nanomaterial; Inhalation; Murine model; Pulmonary response; Toxicity
Human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) and environmental bacteria can occur simultaneously. NPs induce inflammatory responses and oxidative stress but may also have immune-suppressive effects, impairing macrophage function and altering epithelial barrier functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential pulmonary effects of inhalation and instillation exposure to copper (Cu) NPs using a model of lung inflammation and host defense.
We used Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) in a murine lung infection model to determine if pulmonary bacterial clearance is enhanced or impaired by Cu NP exposure. Two different exposure modes were tested: sub-acute inhalation (4 hr/day, 5 d/week for 2 weeks, 3.5 mg/m3) and intratracheal instillation (24 hr post-exposure, 3, 35, and 100 μg/mouse). Pulmonary responses were evaluated by lung histopathology plus measurement of differential cell counts, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.
Cu NP exposure induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of total cells and neutrophils to the lungs as well as increased total protein and LDH activity in BAL fluid. Both inhalation and instillation exposure to Cu NPs significantly decreased the pulmonary clearance of K.p.-exposed mice measured 24 hr after bacterial infection following Cu NP exposure versus sham-exposed mice also challenged with K.p (1.4 × 105 bacteria/mouse).
Cu NP exposure impaired host defense against bacterial lung infections and induced a dose-dependent decrease in bacterial clearance in which even our lowest dose demonstrated significantly lower clearance than observed in sham-exposed mice. Thus, exposure to Cu NPs may increase the risk of pulmonary infection.
Copper; nanoparticles; inhalation; instillation; bacterial clearance; murine; pulmonary infection; Klebsiella pneumoniae
Since we reported about a landmark technique to reopen an occluded subclavian artery, we have faced difficulty in using protection devices in the vertebral artery to protect against thromboembolism from the reversed steal phenomenon after angioplasty and stenting. Therefore, we are presenting an optimal solution in using a protection device while recanalizing the occluded subclavian artery.
Materials and Methods
Among 21 cases of stenting for subclavian artery steno-occlusion, we applied the landmark technique at the opposite end of an occluded segment in 4 patients and used a protection device in two patients. Because the embolic protection device was placed in the vertebral artery via the brachial artery, optimal angioplasty and stenting via the brachial route were limited. Therefore, angioplasty via the trans-brachial approach was needed to be followed by stenting through a trans-femoral approach. We estimated the safe and optimal steps for placement and retrieval of the protection devices in addition to stenting.
The procedure was safely performed when a stent was introduced via the femoral artery and a protection device was used via the brachial artery. However, in cases when a guidewire wasn't passed via the transfemoral route, simultaneous use of two systems via the brachial route could cause friction of devices or trapping of protection devices in a stent. When a protection device was trapped in a deployed stent, we retrieved the protection device with a 4F angiocatheter by selectively rotating the catheter tip. To avoid such procedural difficulty, we recommend using a transbrachial angioplasty followed by trans-femoral stenting while placing the protection device in the vertebral artery via the trans-brachial route.
If a guidewire is not passed through using a trans-femoral approach while performing the landmark technique, changing the stenting route from brachial to the femoral artery can be useful after securing the lumen in the occluded subclavian artery after angioplasty via the brachial artery.
Subclavian artery; Stents; Endovascular techniques; Embolic Protection; Devices
Sparganosis is a rare parasitic infection affecting various organs, including the central nervous system, especially the lumbar epidural space. This report describes the identification of disease and different strategies of treatments with preoperative information. A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of urinary incontinence and impotence. He had a history of ingesting raw frogs 40 years ago. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an intramedullary nodular mass at conus medullaris and severe inflammation in the cauda equina. A 51-year-old woman was admitted with acute pain in the left inguinal area. We observed a lesion which seemed to be a tumor of the lumbar epidural space on MR imaging. She also had a history of ingesting inadequately cooked snakes 10 years ago. In the first patient, mass removal was attempted through laminectomy and parasite infection was identified during intra-operative frozen biopsy. Total removal could not be performed because of severe arachnoiditis and adhesion. We therefore decided to terminate the operation and final histology confirmed dead sparganum infection. We also concluded further surgical trial for total removal of the dead worm and inflammatory grannulation totally. However, after seeing another physician at different hospital, he was operated again which resulted in worsening of pain and neurological deficit. In the second patient, we totally removed dorsal epidural mass. Final histology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed living sparganum infection and her pain disappeared. Although the treatment of choice is surgical resection of living sparganum with inflammation, the attempt to remove dead worm and adhesive granulation tissue may cause unwanted complications to the patients. Therefore, the result of preoperative ELISA, as well as the information from image and history, must be considered as important factors to decide whether a surgery is necessary or not.
Sparganosis; Sparganosis in the lumbar vertebrae; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Computational flow dynamic (CFD) study has not been widely applied in intracranial artery stenosis due to requirement of high resolution in identifying the small intracranial artery. We described a process in CFD study applied to symptomatic severe intracranial (M1) stenosis before and after stenting.
Materials and Methods
Reconstructed 3D angiography in STL format was transferred to Magics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) for smoothing of vessel surface and trimming of branch vessels and to HyperMesh (Altair Engineering Inc., Auckland, New Zealand) for generating tetra volume mesh from triangular surface-meshed 3D angiogram. Computational analysis of blood flow in the blood vessels was performed using the commercial finite element software ADINA Ver 8.5 (ADINA R & D, Inc., Lebanon, MA). The distribution of wall shear stress (WSS), peak velocity and pressure in a patient was analyzed before and after intracranial stenting.
Computer simulation of wall shear stress, flow velocity and wall pressure before and after stenting could be demonstrated three dimensionally by video mode according to flow vs. time dimension. Such flow model was well correlated with angiographic finding related to maximum degree of stenosis. Change of WSS, peak velocity and pressure at the severe stenosis was demonstrated before and after stenting. There was no WSS after stenting in case without residual stenosis.
Our study revealed that CFD analysis before and after intracranial stenting was feasible despite of limited vessel wall dimension and could reveal change of WSS as well as flow velocity and wall pressure.
Cerebral artery; Atherosclerosis; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Plaque rupture; Fluid structure interaction
There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure.
In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size). Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight) immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu.
Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.
Patients' insight has a critical role in the recovery from problematic behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a brief intervention to promote insight among alcohol-dependent patients. A total of 41 alcohol-dependent patients (30 males, 11 females) in an insight-deficient state who had been admitted to a community-based alcohol treatment center, were randomized into two groups based on their admission order: an intervention group (IG) (n = 20) and a control group (CG) (n = 21). Patients in both the IG and CG participated in an identical treatment program with one exception: patients in the IG were required to undergo five sessions of brief individual intervention focusing on insight enhancement. Changes in insight state were assessed after the intervention. The IG exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in the distribution of insight level, while the CG did not exhibit any significant changes in the distribution of insight level. The insight score after intervention was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the IG than the CG with adjustment for the baseline characteristics. The results suggest that a brief individual intervention focused on insight enhancement may be an effective tool to improve insight among alcohol-dependent patients.
Insight; Brief Intervention; Alcohol Dependence; Individual Counseling; Patient Education
Susceptibility to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has recently associated with three intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on human chromosome 2p16.3, just outside of the POAG-linkage locus GLC1H (2p15–16.2), in an Afro-Caribbean population. Especially, association of one SNP (rs12994401) was very strong (odds ratio 35) and later replicated in Afro-Americans but not in Ghanaians or Japanese. An extended region was examined in this study to look for SNPs of cross-population association.
The three reported SNPs and all 63 SNPs considerably correlating with rs12994401 (r2≥0.3) in the African-descendent Yoruba were examined for POAG susceptibility association in a Korean population of 1,159 unrelated participants including 226 cases with glaucoma. As these 66 SNPs were spread from 2p14 to 2p21, all SNPs in this extended region were imputed for susceptibility association tests.
No susceptibility association was detected with rs12994401 in comparisons between 933 controls and 188 POAG (or 175 high-tension glaucoma) cases (statistical power of 100%), as well as with all 19 other typed SNPs, using logistic regression with adjustment for age and gender. The other 46 SNPs were deemed non-polymorphic in Koreans. Among 21,201 SNPs located in 2p14–21, only 4,260 were imputed to be non-monomorphic, but none of them passed a significance level of multiple testing. No association was observed when the samples were stratified by age or gender.
No typed or imputed SNPs within 2p14–21 showed association with susceptibility to POAG, suggesting that the population inconsistency in 2p16.3 association was unlikely due to linkage disequilibrium differences.
To describe detailed clinical and radiological features of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viral infection among healthy young males in a semi-closed institutionalized setting.
Materials and Methods
A total of 18 patients confirmed with the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection from July 18 to July 30, 2009 were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent an evaluation to determine detailed clinical and radiological features.
All patients presented with high fever (> 38.0℃), with accompanying symptoms of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) values with no leukocytosis nor elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). All patients, including one patient who progressed into acute respiratory distress syndrome, were treated with oseltamivir phosphate and quickly recovered from their symptoms. Chest radiographs showed abnormalities of small nodules and lobar consolidation in only two out of 18 patients. However, six of 12 patients who underwent thin-section CT examinations showed abnormal findings for small ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in addition to poorly-defined nodules with upper lobe predominance.
In a population of healthy young adults, elevated CRP with normal ESR and white blood cell levels combined with GGOs and nodules on thin-section CT scans may indicate early signs of infection by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus.
Swine flu; Pandemic H1N1 2009; Influenza virus; Chest radiograph; Computed tomography (CT)
The Cox proportional hazards model is the most commonly used survival model in oncology; however, this semi-parametric model may not be the most appropriate survival model when the proportionality assumption does not hold. In this study, we consider the use of several types of accelerated failure time parametric survival techniques for modeling the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for gallbladder cancer. In comparing the Weibull, exponential, log-logistic, and log-normal models, we found that the log-normal had the most favorable Akaike Information Criterion, and additional analyses of this model indicated that our gallbladder cancer dataset exhibited a good fit with the log-normal cumulative hazard function. This log-normal survival model can be used to help predict which patients will benefit from adjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
A small localized infarction in the dorsal pontine area can cause various eye-movement disturbances, such as abducens palsy, horizontal conjugate gaze palsy, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and one-and-a-half syndrome. However, complete loss of vertical saccades and pursuit with horizontal gaze palsy has not been reported previously in a patient with a small pontine lesion. We report a 67-year-old man with a small dorsal caudal pontine infarct who exhibited total horizontal gaze palsy as well as loss of vertical saccades and pursuit.
Ophthalmoplegia; Pontine infarction; Omnipause neurons
This study was performed to examine the relationship between the abstinence results of alcohol dependents after discharge and the level of insight at the time of discharge. 117 male Korean alcohol dependents discharged from a community-based alcohol treatment center were followed up to determine the initial months of abstinence on a successive basis (IMA), total months of abstinence during 12-month period (TMA), and complete abstinence for one full year after discharge. Analyses of abstinence results with adjustment for the differences in baseline characteristics were performed for subjects' insight levels (poor, fair and good). The mean IMA of patients with good insight was significantly (p<0.01) longer than that of patients with poor insight and TMA of patients with good insight was significantly (p<0.001) longer than that of others. Using patients with good insight as the reference, patients with poor insight showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.01-0.75, p<0.05) for complete abstinence for one full year after discharge and patients with fair insight, adjusted OR of 0.17 (95% CI=0.03-0.81, p<0.05). These results suggest that alcohol dependents' insight could be regarded as a factor related with abstinence.
Insight; Alcoholism; Alcohol Dependence; Abstinence
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature animals. A nutritive mixture solution (NMS) was composed of elementary nutrients such as glucose or dextrose, amino acids and ascorbic acid. It was administered five times (at weeks 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16) into the unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transected knee joints of mature New Zealand White rabbits, and the effect of NMS injection was compared with that of normal saline. OA progression was histopathologically evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining, by the Mankin grading method and by scanning electron microscopy at week 19. NMS injection decreased progressive erosion of articular cartilage overall compared with injection of normal saline (P < 0.01), and nms joints exhibited no differences relative to normal cartilage that had not undergone transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, as assessed using the mankin grading method. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy findings also indicated that nms injection, in constrast to normal saline injection, restored the cartilage matrix, which is known to be composed of a collagen and proteoglycan network. thus, nms injection is a potent treatment that significantly retards oa progression, which in turn prevents progressive destruction of joints and functional loss in mature animals.
The outcome evaluation for the revascularization of intracranial vascular stenoses has not been fully described due to the highly technical nature of the procedure. We report here on the early and late clinical outcomes of angioplasty and/or stenting of symptomatic severe intracranial vascular stenoses at a single institute.
Materials and Methods
Since 1995, we have treated 35 patients with symptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis (more than 70% stenosis, mean stenosis: 78.6% ± 6.2%). Angioplasty (n = 19) was performed for the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery (M1) (n = 16) and the basilar artery (BA) (n = 1), the intradural vertebral artery (VA) (n = 1), and the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) (n = 1). Stenting (n = 16) was performed for the cavernous or petrous ICAs (n = 9), the intradural VA (n = 3), BA (n = 2), and M1 (n = 2) artery. We assessed the angiographic success (defined as residual stenosis < 50%) rate, the periprocedural complications during the 30-day periprocedural period, the symptomatic recurrence and restenosis during a mean 22-month follow-up (FU) period. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative event-free rate of the major cerebrovascular events, i.e. death, stroke or restenosis, was also done.
Angiographic success was achieved in 97% of our patients (34/35). There were four procedure-related complications (11%) including a death and a minor stroke. During the mean 22-month FU, the asymptomatic restenosis rate was 9% and the symptomatic restenosis rate was 6% in the target lesion and 9% in all the vascular territories. The Kaplan-Meier estimate was 70.6% (95% confidence interval = 46.5-94.7) after 33 months of FU.
In addition to a high angiographic success rate and an acceptable periprocedural complication rate, intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting revealed a relatively low symptomatic recurrence rate. Hemorrhage is a rare, but the physician must aware that potentially fatal periprocedural complications can occur.
Cerebral blood vessels, transluminal angioplasty; Stents and prostheses
We wished to evaluate the effect of the Pringle maneuver (occlusion of both the hepatic artery and portal vein) on the pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone in rabbit livers.
Materials and Methods
Radiofrequency (RF) ablation zones were created in the livers of 24 rabbits in vivo by using a 50-W, 480-kHz monopolar RF generator and a 15-gauge expandable electrode with four sharp prongs for 7 mins. The tips of the electrodes were placed in the liver parenchyma near the porta hepatis with the distal 1 cm of their prongs deployed. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the groups with (n=12 rabbits) and without (n=12 rabbits) the Pringle maneuver. Three animals of each group were sacrificed immediately, three days (the acute phase), seven days (the early subacute phase) and two weeks (the late subacute phase) after RF ablation. The ablation zones were excised and serial pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone were evaluated.
With the Pringle maneuver, portal vein thrombosis was found in three cases (in the immediate [n=2] and acute phase [n=1]), bile duct dilatation adjacent to the ablation zone was found in one case (in the late subacute phase [n=1]), infarction adjacent to the ablation zone was found in three cases (in the early subacute [n=2] and late subacute [n=1] phases). None of the above changes was found in the livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver. On the microscopic findings, centrilobular congestion, sinusoidal congestion, sinusoidal platelet and neutrophilic adhesion, and hepatocyte vacuolar and ballooning changes in liver ablated with Pringle maneuver showed more significant changes than in those livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver (p < 0.05)
Radiofrequency ablation with the Pringle maneuver created more severe pathologic changes in the portal vein, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone compared with RF ablation without the Pringle maneuver. Therefore, we suggest that RF ablation with the Pringle maneuver should be performed with great caution in order to avoid unwanted thermal injury.
Animals; Liver, interventional procedure; Radiofrequency (RF) ablation
The computational fluid dynamics methods for the limited flow rate and the small dimensions of an intracranial artery stenosis may help demonstrate the stroke mechanism in intracranial atherosclerosis. We have modeled the high wall shear stress (WSS) in a severe M1 stenosis. The high WSS in the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle was well-correlated with a thick fibrous cap atheroma with enhancement, as was determined using high-resolution plaque imaging techniques in a severe stenosis of the middle cerebral artery.
Cerebral artery; Atherosclerosis; MRI, Plaque rupture, Fluid structure interaction