Glioma stemness has been recognized as the most important reason for glioma relapse and drug resistance. Differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been implicated as a novel approach to target recurrent glioma. However, the detailed molecular mechanism involved in the differentiation of GSCs has not yet been elucidated. This study identified CPEB1 as the key modulator that induces the differentiation of GSCs at the post-transcriptional level. Gain and loss of function experiments showed that CPEB1 expression reduced sphere formation ability and the expression of stemness markers such as Nestin and Notch. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the action of CPEB1, we investigated the interacting ribonome of the CPEB1 complex using a Ribonomics approach. CPEB1 specifically suppressed the translation of HES1 and SIRT1 by interacting with a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element. The expression profile of CPEB1 negatively correlated with overall survival in glioma patients. Overexpression of CPEB1 decreased the number of GSCs in an orthotopically implanted glioma animal model. These results suggest that CPEB1-mediated translational control is essential for the differentiation of GSCs and provides novel therapeutic concepts for differentiation therapy.
Glioma stem cell; self-renewal; differentiation; CPEB1
More than 98% of eukaryotic tanscriptomes are composed of non-coding RNAs with no functional protein-coding capacity. Those transcripts also include tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are emerging as key elements of cellular homeostasis, essentially tumorigenesis steps. However, we are only beginning to understand the nature and extent of the involvement of lncRNAs on tumorigeneis. Here, we highlight recent progresses that have identified a myriad of molecular functions on tumorigenesis for several lncRNAs including metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), prostate cancer associated non-coding RNA 1 (PRNCR1), prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1), H19, and homeobox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and several new lncRNAs for glioma development. Potential therapeutic approaches for the lncRNAs in various human diseases are also discussed.
Non-coding RNA; lncRNA; Tumorigenesis; Glioma
Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β) in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activator protein (AP)-1 and (2) IκB kinase ε (IKKε)/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.
To evaluate the effect of femoral condylar offset and posterior tibial slope on maximal flexion angle of the knee in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-sacrificing total knee arthroplasty (TKA, Medial-Pivot Knee System).
Materials and Methods
Forty-five knees in 35 patients who could be followed up more than 1 year after PCL-sacrificing TKA were evaluated retrospectively. We measured and analyzed the preoperative and postoperative maximal flexion angle, posterior femoral condylar offset difference, posterior femoral condylar offset ratio difference, and tibial slope.
The mean maximal flexion angle after TKA was 118.44°±9.8° and significantly related to postoperative tibial slope (11.78°±6.2°) in correlation analysis (R=0.451, p=0.002). There was no statistical relationship between the postoperative maximal flexion angle and the posterior femoral condylar offset difference (3.24±3.862 mm, R=0.105, p=0.493) and posterior femoral condylar offset ratio difference (0.039±0.029 mm, R=-0.163, p=0.284).
The maximal flexion angle of the knee after PCL-sacrificing TKA was significantly related to the postoperative tibial slope. Therefore, posterior tibial slope can be considered as a factor that affects maximal flexion angle after PCL-sacrificing TKA.
Maximal flexion angle; Posterior femoral offset; Posterior femoral offset ratio; Posterior tibial slope; Cruciate-sacrificing total knee arthroplasty
Radiation is a core part of therapy for malignant glioma and is often provided following debulking surgery. However, resistance to radiation occurs in most patients, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of radio-resistance are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that microRNA 21 (miR-21), a well-known onco-microRNA in malignant glioma, is one of the major players in radio-resistance. Radio-resistance in different malignant glioma cell lines measured by cytotoxic cell survival assay was closely associated with miR-21 expression level. Blocking miR-21 with anti-miR-21 resulted in radio-sensitization of U373 and U87 cells, whereas overexpression of miR-21 lead to a decrease in radio-sensitivity of LN18 and LN428 cells. Anti-miR-21 sustained γ-H2AX DNA foci formation, which is an indicator of double-strand DNA damage, up to 24 hours and suppressed phospho-Akt (ser473) expression after exposure to γ-irradiation. In a cell cycle analysis, a significant increase in the G2/M phase transition by anti-miR-21 was observed at 48 hours after irradiation. Interestingly, our results showed that anti-miR-21 increased factors associated with autophagosome formation and autophagy activity, which was measured by acid vesicular organelles, LC3 protein expression, and the percentage of GFP-LC3 positive cells. Furthermore, augmented autophagy by anti-miR-21 resulted in an increase in the apoptotic population after irradiation. Our results show that miR-21 is a pivotal molecule for circumventing radiation-induced cell death in malignant glioma cells through the regulation of autophagy and provide a novel phenomenon for the acquisition of radio-resistance.
Background and Object
Nearly 25 genetic loci associated with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been identified by several large studies. However, there have been limited studies to identify the genes associated with radiographic severity of the disease. Thus we investigated which genes involved in bone formation pathways might be associated with radiographic severity in AS.
A total of 417 Korean AS patients were classified into two groups based on the radiographic severity as defined by the modified Stoke’ Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS) system. Severe AS was defined by the presence of syndesmophytes and/or fusion in the lumbar or cervical spine (n = 195). Mild AS was defined by the absence of any syndesmophyte or fusion (n = 170). A total of 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 52 genes related to bone formation were selected and genotyped. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were analysed by multivariate logistic regression controlling for age at onset of symptoms, sex, disease duration, and smoking status as covariates.
We identified new loci of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) associated with radiographic severity in patients with AS that passed false discovery rate threshold. Two SNPs in BMP6 were significantly associated with radiologic severity [rs270378 (OR 1.97, p = 6.74×10−4) and rs1235192 [OR 1.92, p = 1.17×10−3]) adjusted by covariates.
This is the first study to demonstrate that BMP6 is associated with radiographic severity in AS, supporting the role wingless-type like/BMP pathway on radiographic progression in AS.
We evaluated the utility of follow-up interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or new tuberculosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα). The study participants (n=127) had a negative IGRA screening before receiving anti-TNFα and were evaluated by follow-up IGRA. We retrospectively examined data of the subjects according to age, gender, tuberculosis prophylaxis, concomitant medications, IGRA conversion and anti-TNFα, including type and treatment duration. The median duration of anti-TNFα was 21.5 months, and the median age was 35.3 yr. Of the 127 patients, IGRA conversion was found in 10 patients (7.9%). There was no significant variation between IGRA conversion rate and any risk factors except for age. IGRA conversion rate was not significantly different between AS and rheumatoid arthritis (P=0.12). IGRA conversion was observed in AS patients receiving anti-TNFα in Korea. A follow-up IGRA test can be helpful for identifying LTBI or new tuberculosis in AS patients receiving anti-TNFα.
Ankylosing Spondylitis; Interferon-Gamma Release Assay; Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor; Latent Tuberculosis Infection
Hypothermia is considered a useful intervention for limiting pathophysiological changes after brain injury. Local hypothermia is a relatively safe and convenient intervention that circumvents many of the complications associated with systemic hypothermia. However, successful hypothermia treatment requires careful consideration of several factors including its practicality, feasibility, and associated risks. Here, we review the protective effects-and the cellular mechanisms that underlie them-of delayed and prolonged local hypothermia in rodent and canine brain injury models. The data show that the protective effects of therapeutic hypothermia, which mainly result from the modulation of inflammatory glial dynamics, are limited. We argue that decompressive craniectomy can be used to overcome the limitations of local brain hypothermia without causing histological abnormalities or other detrimental effects to the cooled area. Therefore, delayed and prolonged local brain hypothermia at the site of craniectomy is a promising intervention that may prove effective in the clinical setting.
hypothermia; stroke; traumatic brain injury; astrocyte; microglia; neuroinflammation
To compare the differences of diagnostic rates, of the two widely used test positions, in measuring vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and selecting the most appropriate analytical method for diagnostic criteria for the patients with vertigo.
Thirty-two patients with vertigo were tested in two comparative testing positions: turning the head to the opposite side of the evaluating side and bowing while in seated position, and bowing while in supine positions. Abnormalities were determined by prolonged latency of p13 or n23, shortening of the interpeak latency, and absence of VEMP formation.
Using the three criteria above for determining abnormalities, both the seated and supine positions showed no significant differences in diagnostic rates, however, the concordance correlation of the two positions was low. When using only the prolonged latency of p13 or n23 in the two positions, diagnostic rates were not significantly different and their concordance correlation was high. On the other hand, using only the shortened interpeak latency in both positions showed no significant difference of diagnostic rates, and the degree of agreement between two positions was low.
Bowing while in seated position with the head turned in the opposite direction to the area being evaluated is found to be the best VEMP test position due to the consistent level of sternocleidomastoid muscle tension and the high level of compliance. Also, among other diagnostic analysis methods, using prolonged latency of p13 or n23 as the criterion is found to be the most appropriate method of analysis for the VEMP test.
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP); Patient positioning; Data interpretation
Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer prevents effective treatment and leads to unnecessary and burdensome chemotherapy. Therefore, prediction of 5-FU resistance is imperative.
To identify the proteins linked to 5-FU resistance, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was performed using the human colon cancer cell line SNU-C4R with induced 5-FU resistance. Proteins showing altered expression in SNU-C4R were identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight analysis, and their roles in susceptibility to 5-FU or radiation were evaluated in various cell lines by transfection of specific siRNA or creation of overexpression constructs. Changes in cellular signaling and expression of mitochondrial apoptotic factors were investigated by Western Blot analysis. A mitochondrial membrane potential probe (JC-1 dye) and a flow cytometry system were employed to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, protein levels were determined by Western Blot analysis in tissues from 122 patients with rectal cancer to clarify whether each identified protein is a useful predictor of a chemoradiation response.
We identified mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (mPEPCK) as a candidate predictor of 5-FU resistance. PEPCK was downregulated in SNU-C4R compared with its parent cell line SNU-C4. Overexpression of mPEPCK did not significantly alter the susceptibility to either 5-FU or radiation. Suppression of mPEPCK led to a decrease in both the cellular level of phosphoenolpyruvate and the susceptibility to 5-FU and radiation. Furthermore, the cellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate (an end product of PEPCK and a substrate of pyruvate kinase), phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated 4EBP1 were decreased significantly secondary to the mPEPCK suppression in SNU-C4. However, mPEPCK siRNA transfection induced changes in neither the mitochondrial membrane potential nor the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptotic factors such as Bax, Bcl-2, and Bad. Downregulation of total PEPCK was observed in tissues from patients with rectal cancer who displayed poor responses to preoperative 5-FU-based radiation therapy.
Our overall results demonstrate that mPEPCK is a useful predictor of a response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.
mPEPCK; 5-FU resistance; Colon cancer; Chemoradiotherapy; Prediction
Translational control of mRNAs in dendrites is essential for certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. CPEB is an RNA-binding protein that regulates local translation in dendrites. Here, we identify poly(A) polymerase Gld2, deadenylase PARN, and translation inhibitory factor neuroguidin (Ngd) as components of a dendritic CPEB-associated polyadenylation apparatus. Synaptic stimulation induces phosphorylation of CPEB, PARN expulsion from the ribonucleoprotein complex, and polyadenylation in dendrites. A screen for mRNAs whose polyadenylation is altered by Gld2 depletion identified >100 transcripts including one encoding NR2A, an NMDA receptor subunit. shRNA depletion studies demonstrate that Gld2 promotes and Ngd inhibits dendritic NR2A expression. Finally, shRNA-mediated depletion of Gld2 in vivo attenuates protein synthesis-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal dentate gyrus synapses; conversely Ngd depletion enhances LTP. These results identify a pivotal role for polyadenylation and the opposing effects of Gld2 and Ngd in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.
Sulcal pit analysis has been providing novel insights into brain function and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of sulcal pit extraction with respect to the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. Five subjects were scanned 4 times at 3 MRI centers and other 5 subjects were scanned 3 times at 2 MRI centers, including 1 test-retest session. Sulcal pits were extracted on the white matter surfaces reconstructed with both Montreal Neurological Institute and Freesurfer pipelines. We estimated similarity of the presence of sulcal pits having a maximum value of 1 and their spatial difference within the same subject. The tests showed high similarity of the sulcal pit presence and low spatial difference. The similarity was more than 0.90 and the spatial difference was less than 1.7 mm in most cases according to different scan sessions or scanners, and more than 0.85 and about 2.0 mm across surface extraction tools. The reliability of sulcal pit extraction was more affected by the image processing-related factors than the scan session or scanner factors. Moreover, the similarity of sulcal pit distribution appeared to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of the sulcal pits on the shallow and small folds. We suggest that our sulcal pit extraction from MRI is highly reliable and could be useful for clinical applications as an imaging biomarker.
Induced therapeutic hypothermia is the one of the most effective tools against brain injury and inflammation. Even though its beneficial effects are well known, there are a lot of pitfalls to overcome, since the potential adverse effects of systemic hypothermia are still troublesome. Without the knowledge of the precise mechanisms of hypothermia, it will be difficult to tackle the application of hypothermia in clinical fields. Better understanding of the characteristics and modes of hypothermic actions may further extend the usage of hypothermia by developing novel drugs based on the hypothermic mechanisms or by combining hypothermia with other therapeutic modalities such as neuroprotective drugs. In this review, we describe the potential therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs, with a focus on signal pathways, gene expression, and structural changes of cells. Theapeutic hypothermia has been shown to attenuate neuroinflammation by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory mediators in the central nervous system. Along with the mechanism-based drug targets, applications of therapeutic hypothermia in combination with drug treatment will also be discussed in this review.
Hypothermia; pharmacotherapy; drug target; signal pathway; neuroinflammation.
Therapeutic hypothermia is one of the neuroprotective strategies that improve neurological outcomes after brain damage in ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Microglial cells become activated following brain injury and play an important role in neuroinflammation and subsequent brain damage. The aim of this study was to determine the time-dependent effects of hypothermia on microglial cell activation and migration, which are accompanied by neuroinflammation.
Microglial cells in culture were subjected to mild (33 °C) or moderate (29 °C) hypothermic conditions before, during, or after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hypoxic stimulation, and the production of nitric oxide (NO), proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and neurotoxicity was evaluated. Effects of hypothermia on microglial migration were also determined in in vitro as well as in vivo settings.
Early-, co-, and delayed-hypothermic treatments inhibited microglial production of inflammatory mediators to varying degrees: early treatment was the most efficient, and delayed treatment showed time-dependent effects. Delayed hypothermia also suppressed the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS, and attenuated microglial neurotoxicity in microglia-neuron co-cultures. Furthermore, delayed hypothermia reduced microglial migration in the Boyden chamber assay and wound healing assay. In a stab injury model, delayed local hypothermia reduced migration of microglia toward the injury site in the rat brain.
Taken together, our results indicate that delayed hypothermia is sufficient to attenuate microglial activation and migration, and provide the basis of determining the optimal time window for therapeutic hypothermia. Delayed hypothermia may be neuroprotective by inhibiting microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, indicating the therapeutic potential of post-injury hypothermia for patients with brain damages exhibiting some of the inflammatory components.
Hypothermia; Microglia; Cell migration; Neuroinflammation; Neuroprotection
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA) and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA), which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system.
In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles.
The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner.
Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.
Aberrant miR-21 expression is closely associated with cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, migration, invasion, and metastasis in various cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 biogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the tumor suppressor PTEN negatively regulates the expression of oncogenic miR-21 at the post-transcriptional level. Moreover, our results suggest that PTEN plays such a role through the indirect interaction with the Drosha complex. To elucidate how PTEN regulates pri- to pre-miR-21 processing, we attempted to find PTEN-interacting proteins and identified an RNA-regulatory protein, RNH1. Using the sensor to monitor pri-miR-21 processing, we demonstrated that RNH1 is necessary and sufficient for pri-miR-21 processing. Moreover, our results propose that the nuclear localization of RNH1 is important for this function. Further analysis showed that RNH1 directly interacts with the Drosha complex and that PTEN blocks this interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that the PTEN-mediated miR-21 regulation is achieved by inhibiting the interaction between the Drosha complex and RNH1, revealing previously unidentified role of PTEN in the oncogenic miR-21 biogenesis.
Translation of many cellular and viral mRNAs is directed by internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Several proteins that enhance IRES activity through interactions with IRES elements have been discovered. However, the molecular basis for the IRES-activating function of the IRES-binding proteins remains unknown. Here, we report that NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), which augments several cellular and viral IRES activities, enhances hepatitis C viral (HCV) IRES function by facilitating the formation of translation-competent 48S ribosome–mRNA complex. NSAP1, which is associated with the solvent side of the 40S ribosomal subunit, enhances 80S complex formation through correct positioning of HCV mRNA on the 40S ribosomal subunit. NSAP1 seems to accomplish this positioning function by directly binding to both a specific site in the mRNA downstream of the initiation codon and a 40S ribosomal protein (or proteins).
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causative agents of virus-related hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Translation of the HCV polyprotein is mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of the genome. Here, we report that a cellular protein, hnRNP D, interacts with the 5′ border of HCV IRES (stem-loop II) and promotes translation of HCV mRNA. Overexpression of hnRNP D in mammalian cells enhances HCV IRES-dependent translation, whereas knockdown of hnRNP D with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) inhibits translation. In addition, sequestration of hnRNP D with an interacting DNA oligomer inhibits the translation of HCV mRNA in an in vitro system. Ribosome profiling experiments reveal that HCV RNA is redistributed from heavy to light polysome fractions upon suppression of the hnRNP D level using specific siRNA. These results collectively suggest that hnRNP D plays an important role in the translation of HCV mRNA through interactions with the IRES. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP D with siRNA significantly hampers infection by HCV. A potential role of hnRNP D in HCV proliferation is discussed.
TheBiP protein, a stress response protein, plays an important role in the proper folding and assembly of nascent protein and in the scavenging of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Translation of BiP is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of the BiP mRNA. BiP IRES activity increases when cells are heat stressed. Here we report that NSAP1 specifically enhances the IRES activity of BiP mRNA by interacting with the IRES element. Overexpression of NSAP1 in 293T cells increased the IRES activity of BiP mRNA, whereas knockdown of NSAP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the IRES activity of BiP mRNA. The amount of NSAP1 bound to the BiP IRES increased under heat stress conditions, and the IRES activity of BiP mRNA was increased. Moreover, the increase in BiP IRES activity with heat treatment was not observed in cells lacking NSAP1 after siRNA treatment. BiP mRNAs were redistributed from the heavy polysome to the light polysome in NSAP1 knockdown cells. Together, these data indicate that NSAP1 modulates IRES-dependent translation of BiP mRNA through an RNA-protein interaction under heat stress conditions.
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) is the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis regulated by circadian rhythm. To date, our understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of melatonin has been limited to autoregulatory transcriptional and posttranslational regulations of AANAT mRNA. In this study, we identify three proteins from pineal glands that associate with cis-acting elements within species-specific AANAT 3′ untranslated regions to mediate mRNA degradation. These proteins include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R), hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L. Their RNA-destabilizing function was determined by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Expression patterns of these factors in pineal glands display robust circadian rhythm. The enhanced levels detected after midnight correlate with an abrupt decline in AANAT mRNA level. A mathematical model for the AANAT mRNA profile and its experimental evidence with rat pinealocytes indicates that rhythmic AANAT mRNA degradation mediated by hnRNP R, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L is a key process in the regulation of its circadian oscillation.
The p27Kip1 protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell proliferation through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Translation of p27Kip1 is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of p27Kip1 mRNA. Here, we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) specifically enhances the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA through an interaction with the IRES element. We found that addition of PTB to an in vitro translation system and overexpression of PTB in 293T cells augmented the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA but that knockdown of PTB by introduction of PTB-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) diminished the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA. Moreover, the G1 phase in the cell cycle (which is maintained in part by p27Kip1) was shortened in cells depleted of PTB by siRNA knockdown. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation in HL60 cells was used to examine PTB-induced modulation of p27Kip1 protein synthesis during differentiation. The IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA in HL60 cells was increased by TPA treatment (with a concomitant increase in PTB protein levels), but the levels of p27Kip1 mRNA remained unchanged. Together, these data suggest that PTB modulates cell cycle and differentiation, at least in part, by enhancing the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA.
Translational initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA occurs by internal entry of ribosomes into an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) at the 5′ nontranslated region. A region encoding the N-terminal part of the HCV polyprotein has been shown to augment the translation of HCV mRNA. Here we show that a cellular protein, NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), augments HCV mRNA translation through a specific interaction with an adenosine-rich protein-coding region within the HCV mRNA. The overexpression of NSAP1 specifically enhanced HCV IRES-dependent translation, and knockdown of NSAP1 by use of a small interfering RNA specifically inhibited the translation of HCV mRNA. An HCV replicon RNA capable of mimicking the HCV proliferation process in host cells was further used to confirm that NSAP1 enhances the translation of HCV mRNA. These results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of translational enhancement that acts through the interaction of an RNA-binding protein with a protein coding sequence.
The translation of numerous eukaryotic mRNAs is mediated by internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). IRES-dependent translation requires both canonical translation initiation factors and IRES-specific trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Here we report a strategy to identify and characterize ITAFs required for IRES-dependent translation. This process involves steps for identifying oligodeoxynucleotides affecting IRES-dependent translation, purifying proteins interacting with the inhibitory DNA, identifying the specific proteins with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and confirming the roles of these proteins in IRES-dependent translation by depletion and repletion of proteins from an in vitro translation system. Using this strategy, we show that poly(rC)-binding proteins 1 and 2 enhance translation through polioviral and rhinoviral IRES elements.
The c-myc proto-oncogene plays a key role in the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and regulation of the cell cycle. Recently, it was demonstrated that the 5′ nontranslated region (5′ NTR) of human c-myc mRNA contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we investigated cellular proteins interacting with the IRES element of c-myc mRNA. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) was identified as a cellular protein that interacts specifically with a heptameric U sequence in the c-myc IRES located between two alternative translation initiation codons CUG and AUG. Moreover, the addition of hnRNP C1 in an in vitro translation system enhanced translation of c-myc mRNA. Interestingly, hnRNP C was partially relocalized from the nucleus, where most of the hnRNP C resides at interphase, to the cytoplasm at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Coincidently, translation mediated through the c-myc IRES was increased at the G2/M phase when cap-dependent translation was partially inhibited. On the other hand, a mutant c-myc mRNA lacking the hnRNP C-binding site, showed a decreased level of translation at the G2/M phase compared to that of the wild-type message. Taken together, these findings suggest that hnRNP C, via IRES binding, modulates translation of c-myc mRNA in a cell cycle phase-dependent manner.
Translation initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA occurs by internal entry of a ribosome into the 5′ nontranslated region in a cap-independent manner. The HCV RNA sequence from about nucleotide 40 up to the N terminus of the coding sequence of the core protein is required for efficient internal initiation of translation, though the precise border of the HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) has yet to be determined. Several cellular proteins have been proposed to direct HCV IRES-dependent translation by binding to the HCV IRES. Here we report on a novel cellular protein that specifically interacts with the 3′ border of the HCV IRES in the core-coding sequence. This protein with an apparent molecular mass of 68 kDa turned out to be heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L). The binding of hnRNP L to the HCV IRES correlates with the translational efficiencies of corresponding mRNAs. This finding suggests that hnRNP L may play an important role in the translation of HCV mRNA through the IRES element.