This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea.
In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics.
There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality.
Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.
Cardiovascular diseases; Cohort studies; Cox proportional hazards models; Life style; Mortality
DNA repair competency is one determinant of sensitivity to certain chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Cancer cells with intact DNA repair can avoid the accumulation of genome damage during growth and also can repair platinum-induced DNA damage. We sought genomic signatures indicative of defective DNA repair in cell lines and tumors, and correlated these signatures to platinum sensitivity. The number of sub-chromosomal regions with allelic imbalance extending to the telomere (NtAI) predicted cisplatin sensitivity in-vitro, and pathologic response to preoperative cisplatin treatment in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In serous ovarian cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, higher NtAI forecast better initial response. We found an inverse relationship between BRCA1 expression and NtAI in sporadic TNBC and serous ovarian cancers without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Thus, accumulation of tAI is a marker of platinum sensitivity and suggests impaired DNA repair.
DNA damage; allelic imbalance; chemotherapy sensitivity; triple negative breast cancer
Mitochondrial fission is a process that involves cleavage of mitochondria into smaller fragments and is regulated by the GTPase Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Higher levels of mitochondrial fission are associated with the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, current methods to accurately quantify mitochondrial fission in order to compare therapeutics that target this process are often ambiguous or rely on subjective assessment. Mitochondria are also prone to aggregation, making accurate analysis difficult. Here we describe an improved approach for the quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation involving several differences from currently existing methods. Cells are first subjected to cytological centrifugation, which reduces cellular z-axis height and disperses individual mitochondria for easier observation. Three commercially available fluorescence analysis tools are then applied to disambiguate remaining mitochondrial clusters that require further inspection. Finally, cut-off scoring is applied, which can be tailored to individual cell type. The resultant approach allows for the efficient and objective assessment of mitochondrial fragmentation in response to treatment. We applied this technique to an experimental question involving chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer (OVCA) cells. Cisplatin and the phytochemical piperlongumine were found to induce both mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in chemosensitive cells, while only piperlongumine was able to elicit these cellular responses in chemoresistant cells. Piperlongumine-induced apoptosis appeared to be mediated by Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission since the apoptotic response was attenuated by the presence of the Drp1 inhibitor mDivi-1. Our study provides groundwork for a more objective approach to the quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation, and sheds further light on a potential mechanism of action for piperlongumine in the treatment of chemoresistant OVCA.
Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements.
motion-capture camera; wind tunnel test; 3D displacement measurement; vision-based monitoring
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer and is increasingly considered for patients with operable disease. Recently, as many clinical trials have demonstrated favorable outcomes of anthracycline-taxane based regimen, this approach has been widely used in the neoadjuvant setting.
We compared women who received adriamycine and docetaxel (AD) with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (AC-T) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AD group was scheduled for six cycles of AD (50 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2, respectively) at a 3-week interval. The AC-T group was scheduled for four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively) followed by four cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) at a 3-week interval.
The responses of chemotherapy were equivalent (overall response rate [AD, 75.7% vs. AC-T, 80.9%; P = 0.566], pathologic complete response [pCR] rate [breast and axilla: AD, 10.8% vs. AC-T, 12.8%; P = 1.000; breast only: AD, 18.9% vs. AC-T, 14.9%, P = 0.623], breast conserving surgery rate [P = 0.487], and breast conserving surgery conversion rate [P = 0.562]). The pCR rate in the breast was higher in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive cases (HER2 positive 33.3% vs. negative 10%, P = 0.002). Although nonhematologic toxicities were comparable, hematologic toxicities were more severe in the AD group. Most women in the AD group suffered from grade 3/4 neutropenia (P < 0.001) and neutropenic fever (P < 0.001).
Tumor responses were not different in various variables between the two groups. However, AC-T was a more tolerable regimen than AD in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast neoplasms; Neoadjuvant therapy
Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in human body fluids, such as serum and ovarian follicular fluids. Several reports indicated that BPA exposure is associated with the occurrence of several female reproductive diseases resulting from the disruption of steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adult ovary.
Objective: We hypothesized that long-term exposure to low concentrations of BPA disrupts 17β-estradiol (E2) production in granulosa cells via an alteration of steroidogenic proteins in ovarian cells.
Methods: Adult female rats received BPA for 90 days by daily gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, or 0.1 mg/kg body weight. We determined serum levels of E2, testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also analyzed the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3β-HSD), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the ovary.
Results: Exposure to BPA significantly decreased E2 serum concentration, which was accompanied by augmented follicular atresia and luteal regression via increase of caspase-3–associated apoptosis in ovarian cells. After BPA exposure, P450arom and StAR protein levels were significantly decreased in granulosa cells and theca-interstitial (T-I) cells, respectively. However, P450scc and 3β-HSD protein levels remained unchanged. The increase in LH levels appeared to be associated with the decreased synthesis of T in T-I cells after BPA exposure via homeostatic positive feedback regulation.
Conclusions: BPA exposure during adulthood can disturb the maintenance of normal ovarian functions by reducing E2. The steroidogenic proteins StAR and P450arom appear to be targeted by BPA.
17β-estradiol; aromatase; bisphenol A; follicular atresia; luteal regression; ovary; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
Among several animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the more recently developed rd10 mouse with later onset and slower rate of retinal degeneration than rd1 mouse is a more suitable model for testing therapeutic modalities. We therefore investigated the time course of retinal degeneration in rd10 mice before adopting this model in our interventional studies. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were carried out in postnatal weeks (PW) 3~5 rd10 (n=23) and wild-type (wt) mice (n=26). We compared the amplitude and implicit time of the b-wave of ERG records from wt and rd10 mice. Our results showed that b-wave amplitudes in rd10 mice were significantly lower and the implicit time of b-waves in rd10 mice were also significantly slower than that in wt mice (20~160 µV vs. 350~480 µV; 55~75 ms vs. 100~150 ms: p<0.001) through PW3 to PW5. The most drastic changes in ERG amplitudes and latencies were observed during PW3 to PW4. In multichannel recording of rd10 retina in PW2 to PW4.5, we found no significant difference in mean spike frequency, but the frequency of power spectral peak of local field potential at PW3 and PW3.5 is significantly different among other age groups (p<0.05). Histologic examination of rd10 retinae showed significant decrease in thickness of the outer nuclear layer at PW3. TUNEL positive cells were most frequently observed at PW3. From these data, we confirm that in the rd10 mouse, the most precipitous retinal degeneration occurs between PW3~PW4 and that photoreceptor degeneration is complete by PW5.
Electroretinogram (ERG); Multichannel recording; rd10 mice; Retinal degeneration; Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
Aromadendrin, a flavonol, has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic properties. However, the underlying mechanism by which aromadendrin exerts its biological activity has not been extensively demonstrated. The objective of this study is to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of aromadedrin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Aromadendrin significantly suppressed LPS-induced excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. In accordance, aromadendrin attenuated LPSinduced overexpression iNOS and COX-2. In addition, aromadendrin significantly suppressed LPS-induced degradation of IκB, which sequesters NF-κB in cytoplasm, consequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF- κB. To elucidate the underlying signaling mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of aromadendrin, MAPK signaling pathway was examined. Aromadendrin significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of JNK, but not ERK and p38, in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates that aromadendrin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of JNK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Aromadendrin; COX-2; iNOS; JNK; Lipopolysaccharide; NF-κB; RAW 264.7 cells
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Regulation and interaction of a multitude of genes required for follicular development are found to be altered in PCOS. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate posttranscriptional gene regulation by binding to the 3´ untranslated region of mRNAs to either inhibit or enhance translation. However, the extent and regulation of miRNA expression in PCOS is poorly understood and the current study is the first to describe altered expression of miRNAs in PCOS.
A chronically androgenized [5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated] rat model which recapitulates many of the phenotypes of human PCOS, and miRNA PCR array was used to investigate the expression of 349 miRNAs in DHT treated rat ovaries. The ovarian expression of several selected miRNAs was also analyzed by in situ localization experiment.
DHT-treated rats exhibit increased body weight, disrupted estrus cyclicity, decreased insulin sensitivity and decreased ovarian weight, with the latter phenomenon readily rescued by gonadotropin treatment in vivo. In general, 24% of the 349 miRNAs investigated were found to be differentially expressed between DHT-treated and control rats. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be predominantly localized in the theca cells of the follicles. In silico analysis of the potential target genes of dysregulated miRNAs revealed their possible involvement in various pathways in the regulation of ovarian function.
Our current findings suggest that miRNAs are differentially regulated in hyperandrogenism, a condition possibly involved in the dysregulation of steroid hormone receptors and intra-ovarian factors, and that miRNAs may be involved in the etiology of PCOS.
PCOS; miRNA; Dihydrotestosterone
Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerotic disease and an independent predictor of subsequent vascular morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to investigate the association of AAC with lifestyle and risk factors of cardiovascular disease.
The results of the abdominal computed tomography of 380 patients who visited Chungnam National University Hospital for a health checkup from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were reviewed. A six-point scale was used in grading the overall severity of the calcification in three areas of the abdominal aorta, including the area superior to the renal artery, the upper-half area inferior to the renal artery, and the lower-half area inferior to the renal artery, in addition to the common iliac artery. The association of the AAC severity with the age, lifestyle factors, and risk factors of cardiovascular disease was analyzed via multiple linear regression analysis.
In the male subjects, the age, presence of dyslipidemia and smoking were positively related to AAC, but exercising was negatively related to AAC (total R2 = 0.563). In the female subjects, the age and presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were positively related to AAC, but exercising was negatively related to AAC (total R2 = 0.547).
AAC was related to both the male and female subjects' age, presence of dyslipidemia, and exercising, to smoking in the male subjects and to the presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the female subjects.
Aorta; Calcification; Atherosclerosis; Life Style
Background and Purpose
The aims of this study were to elucidate the cognitive functions of narcoleptics and determine whether intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood in these patients.
Sixty-six subjects (33 narcoleptics, 33 controls) were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and an individual standardized intelligence test. The cognitive functions of the narcoleptic patients and the healthy controls were compared, as were those of high-IQ and mid-to-low-IQ narcoleptic patients.
Narcoleptics exhibited significantly lower scores in the Corsi Block-Tapping Test forward and backward, and the digit symbol tests, and significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than the controls. However, verbal attention, verbal-visual long-term memory, and executive function task scores did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The mid-to-low-IQ patient group had lower mean digit span backward test, phonemic and semantic fluency Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Korean version of the Boston Naming Test scores, and a higher total score and general depressive symptoms subscales Beck Depression Inventory score than the high-IQ patient group. However, controls exhibited no IQ-related differences in cognitive performance or depressive mood. Patients in the high-IQ group exhibited impaired visual attention and working memory as compared with controls.
The findings of the present study show that narcolepsy patients have deficits in visual attention and visual working memory, and tend to feel more general depressive symptoms but not somatic symptoms than their control, nonnarcoleptic counterparts. In addition, it appears that higher intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood.
narcolepsy; memory; attention; cognitive function; intelligence; neuropsychological test
Background and Purpose
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has potential as a noninvasive neuromodulation treatment method for various neuropsychiatric disorders, and repeated sessions of rTMS are more likely to enhance the therapeutic efficacy. This study investigated neurophysiologic and spatiodynamic changes induced by repeated 1-Hz rTMS of the temporal cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) indices and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).
Twenty-seven healthy subjects underwent daily 1-Hz active or sham rTMS of the right temporal cortex for 5 consecutive days. TMS indices of motor cortical excitability were measured in both hemispheres daily before and after each rTMS session, and 2 weeks after the last stimulation. FDG-PET was performed at baseline and after the 5 days of rTMS sessions.
All subjects tolerated all of the sessions well, with only three of them (11.1%) reporting mild transient side effects (i.e., headache, tinnitus, or local irritation). One-Hz rTMS decreased motor evoked potential amplitudes and delayed cortical silent periods in the stimulated hemisphere. Statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data revealed a focal reduction of glucose metabolism in the stimulated temporal area and an increase in the bilateral precentral, ipsilateral superior and middle frontal, prefrontal and cingulate gyri.
Repeated rTMS sessions for 5 consecutive days were tolerated in all subjects, with only occasional minor side effects. Focal 1-Hz rTMS of the temporal cortex induces cortico-cortical modulation with widespread functional changes in brain neural networks via long-range neural connections.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); cortical excitability; fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET); cortico-cortical modulation
Histone methylation at specific lysine residues is a crucial regulatory process in transcriptional regulation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis, we found that the H3K9-me2 target gene JAK2 was an important factor during differentiation of the HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment. Here, we report that the H3K9 methyltransferase G9a negatively regulated JAK2 transcription in histone methyltransferase activity and in a YY1-dependent manner during ATRA-mediated leukemia cell differentiation. We found that G9a knockdown repressed ATRA-mediated HL-60 cell differentiation. We demonstrated that G9a interacts with YY1 and is recruited to the JAK2 promoter along with corepressors, including histone deacetylase, that induced H3K9-me2. Repression of JAK2 transcription by G9a decreased H3Y41 phosphorylation and promoted inhibition of the recently identified JAK2-H3Y41P-HP1α pathway-mediated leukemogenesis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) coronary heart disease (CHD) with socioeconomic status (SES).
The participants were 2,170 (631 men and 1,539 women), aged over 40 years who had visited for health screening from April to December in 2009. We classified them into three SES levels according to their education and income levels. MS was defined using the criteria of modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and CHD risk was defined using Framingham risk score (FRS) ≥ 10%.
High, middle, and low SES were 12.0%, 73.7%, and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of MS was 18.1%. For high, middle, and low SES, after adjusted covariates (age, drinking, smoking, and exercise), odds ratios for MS in men were 1.0, 1.41 (confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 2.38; P > 0.05), and 1.50 (CI, 0.69 to 3.27; P > 0.05), respectively and in women were 1.0, 1.74 (CI, 1.05 to 3.18; P < 0.05), and 2.81 (CI, 1.46 to 2.43; P < 0.05), respectively. The prevalence of FRS ≥ 10% was 33.5% (adjusted covariates were drinking, smoking, and exercise) and odds ratios for FRS ≥ 10% in men were 1.0, 2.86 (CI, 1.35 to 6.08; P < 0.001), and 3.12 (CI, 1.94 to 5.00; P < 0.001), respectively and in women were 1.0, 3.24 (CI, 1.71 to 6.12; P < 0.001), and 8.80 (CI, 4.50 to 17.23; P < 0.001), respectively.
There was an inverse relationship between SES and FRS ≥ 10% risk in men, and an inverse relationship between SES and both risk of MS and FRS ≥ 10% in women.
Social Class; Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes not only loss of sensory and motor function below the level of injury but also chronic pain, which is difficult and challenging of the treatment. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the motor cortex, of non-invasive therapeutic methods, has the motor and sensory consequences and modulates pain in SCI-patients. In the present study, we studied the effectiveness of rTMS and the relationship between the modulation of pain and the changes of neuroglial expression in the spinal cord using a rat SCI-induced pain model. Elevated expressions of Iba1 and GFAP, specific microglial and astrocyte markers, was respectively observed in dorsal and ventral horns at the L4 and L5 levels in SCI rats. But in SCI rats treated with 25 Hz rTMS for 8 weeks, these expressions were significantly reduced by about 30%. Our finding suggests that this attenuation of activation by rTMS is related to pain modulation after SCI. Therefore, rTMS might provide an alternative means of attenuating neuropathic pain below the level of SCI.
Spinal Cord Injury; Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Microglia; Astrocytes
A Pyrosequencing assay has been used in identification of fungal species such as Candida or Aspergillus and diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori but there has been no report on successful isolation and identification of Malassezia yeasts using the pyrosequencing method.
Examine the applicability and plausibility of the pyrosequencing method in identification of the Malassezia species.
At internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sites 1 and 2, three primers were developed using Pyrosequencing Assay Design Software (Biotage AB). Pyrosequencing was performed on 11 standard strains and 83 genomic DNA samples obtained from 66 healthy controls aged from 1 to 80.
The eleven Malassezia standard species and 83 genomic DNA samples were successfully identified using the pyrosequencing assay.
The pyrosequencing method is a new tool for analysis of Malassezia yeasts, and its precision and rapidity suggests its clinical applicability.
Malassezia yeasts; Pyrosequencing assay
Histone lysine methylation and demethylation are considered critical steps in transcriptional regulation. In this report, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis to examine the genome-wide occupancy of H3K9-me2 during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Using this approach, we found that KDM3B, which contains a JmjC domain, was downregulated during differentiation through the recruitment of a corepressor complex. Furthermore, KDM3B displayed histone H3K9-me1/2 demethylase activity and induced leukemogenic oncogene lmo2 expression via a synergistic interaction with CBP. Here, we found that KDM3B repressed leukemia cell differentiation and was upregulated in blood cells from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type leukemia patients. The combined results of this study provide evidence that the H3K9-me1/2 demethylase KDM3B might play a role in leukemogenesis via activation of lmo2 through interdependent actions with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex containing CBP.
Dyslipidemia is implicated in increased cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in the progression of renal damage. This study compared 4 different lipid-related ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglyceride [TG]/HDL-C, calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [c-LDL-C]/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio) for prediction of CKD stage 3 or more to investigate the association between them. This cross-sectional study included 8,650 adults who participated in the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The overall prevalence of CKD stage 3 or more was 6.4%. For TG/HDL-C, the prevalence with CKD stage 3 or more increased with increasing quartile group in both sexes (P value for trend = 0.046 in men, 0.002 in women) while other lipid-related ratios showed increasing prevalence only in women. In comparison with the lowest quartile of the lipid-related ratios, only the fourth quartile of TG/HDL-C was associated with the prevalence of CKD stage 3 or more in both sexes after adjustment for multiple covariates (odds ratio [OR] for TG/HDL-C-Q4, 1.82; 95% CI [confidence interval], 1.09-3.03 in men, OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.95 in women). In conclusion, TG/HDL-C is the only lipid-related ratio that is independently associated with CKD stage 3 or more in both sexes of Koreans.
Kidney Failure, Chronic; Dyslipidemias; Glomerular Filtration Rate
This study attempted to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the differentiation of adipocytes. After cells were treated with various concentrations of resveratrol (0, 10, 20, and 40 µmol/L), adipocyte proliferation, the protein expression of transcription factors, and MMPs' activities were determined. Cell proliferation was inhibited more within 4 days of incubation (P < 0.05), and lipid accumulation in adipocyte was significantly inhibited by 93.8%, 92.4% and 91.5%, respectively, after two days of 10, 20, and 40 µmol/L resveratrol treatment (P < 0.05). Six days of incubation with the three resveratrol concentrations caused a significantly decreases of 63%, 59.9%, and 25.1% GPDH activity as a dose-dependent response. The triglyceride concentration also decreased significantly with the increase of resveratrol concentration (P < 0.05). The protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPβ) was decreased significantly by 56% and 30% while PPARγ was significantly reduced by 57% and 15% with resveratrol treatments of 20 and 40 µmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). The protein expression of C/EBPα was decreased by 83%, 74%, and 38% to increased dosage levels, with significance determined for this decrease from 20 µmol/L of resveratrol. The protein expression of fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) was decreased significantly by 88%, 72%, and 46% with the increase of resveratrol concentration. The activity of MMP-2 was decreased significantly by 84%, 70%, and 63% while MMP-9 activity was decreased significantly by 74%, 62%, and 39% with the increased resveratrol concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 µmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05).
Adipocyte; resveratrol; transcription factor; matrix metalloproteinase; differentiation
suppresAvicularin, quercetin-3-α-L-arabinofuranoside, has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects. However, the underlying mechanism by which avicularin exerts its anti-inflammatory activity has not been clearly demonstrated. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of avicularin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Avicularin significantly inhibited LPS-induced excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 and the protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and PGE2, respectively. Avicularin also suppressed LPS-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Furthermore, avicularin significantly suppressed LPS-induced degradation of IκB, which retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm, consequently inhibiting the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes by NF-κB in the nucleus. To understand the underlying signaling mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of avicularin, involvement of multiple kinases was examined. Avicularin significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of ERK signaling pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates that avicularin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the suppression of ERK signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Avicularin; RAW 264.7 cells; Lipopolysaccharide; iNOS; COX-2; NF-κB
Why do opiates make human beings itch ? Spinal opioid-induced itch, a prevalent side effect of pain management, has been considered to occur as a result of pain inhibition. We report that morphine-induced scratching (MIS) is abolished in mice lacking either gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) or the μ opioid receptor (MOR). Using exon-specific knockdown, we identified the MOR1D isoform as essential for MIS, whereas MOR1 is important for morphine-induced analgesia (MIA) with no cross activity present. MOR1D and GRPR form constitutive heterodimers in the spinal cord and relay itch information upon morphine activation. Morphine induces internalization of both GRPR and MOR1D, whereas GRP induces that of GRPR but not MOR1D, when co-expressed. Moreover, GRP-induced scratching (GIS) is independent of MOR activation. These results suggest a unidirectional cross-activation of GRPR signaling by MOR1D via heterodimerization, and that opioid-induced itch is an active process concomitant with but independent of opioid analgesia.
To evaluate the mechanism of the development of therapeutic resistance after temozolomide treatment, we focused on changes in O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and mismatch repair (MMR) between initial and recurrent glioblastomas. Tissue samples obtained from 24 paired histologically confirmed initial and recurrent adult glioblastoma patients who were initially treated with temozolomide were used for MGMT and MMR gene promoter methylation status and protein expression analysis using methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe amplification (MS-MLPA), methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), and immunohistochemical staining. There was a significant decrease in the methylation ratio of the MGMT promoter determined by MS-MLPA, which was not detectable with MSP, and MGMT protein expression changes were not remarkable. However, there was no epigenetic variability in MMR genes, and a relatively homogeneous expression of MMR proteins was observed in initial and recurrent tumors. We conclude that the development of reduced methylation in the MGMT promoter is one of the mechanisms for acquiring therapeutic resistance after temozolomide treatment in glioblastomas.
This study aimed to investigate whether stimulated C-peptide is associated with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 192 type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma basal C-peptide and stimulated C-peptide were measured before and 6 minutes after intravenous injection of 1 mg glucagon. The relationship between C-peptide and microvascular complications was statistically analyzed.
In patients with retinopathy, basal C-peptide was 1.9±1.2 ng/mL, and stimulated C-peptide was 2.7±1.6 ng/mL; values were significantly lower compared with patients without retinopathy (P=0.031 and P=0.002, respectively). In patients with nephropathy, basal C-peptide was 1.6±0.9 ng/mL, and stimulated C-peptide was 2.8±1.6 ng/mL; values were significantly lower than those recorded in patients without nephropathy (P=0.020 and P=0.026, respectively). Stimulated C-peptide level was associated with increased prevalence of microvascular complications. Age-, DM duration-, and hemoglobin A1c-adjusted odds ratios for retinopathy in stimulated C-peptide value were 4.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 12.51) and 3.35 (95% CI, 1.09 to 10.25), respectively. The multiple regression analysis between nephropathy and C-peptide showed that stimulated C-peptide was statistically correlated with nephropathy (P=0.03).
In patients with type 2 diabetes, the glucagon stimulation test was a relatively simple method of short duration for stimulating C-peptide response. Stimulated C-peptide values were associated with microvascular complications to a greater extent than basal C-peptides.
Basal C-peptide; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Glucagon stimulation test; Microvascular complications; Stimulated C-peptide
Ubiquitin modification plays a critical role in immune responses. Some cytoplasmic factors require ubiquitination to execute proper signaling upon pathogen and cytokine stimulation. However, ubiquitin modification and its functional significance have not been fully studied for many nuclear proteins. We report here that stimulation of RAW macrophages with interferon-γ and toll-like receptor ligands that activates innate immune responses triggers a global increase in ubiquitinated proteins in the nucleus, pointing to the role for ubiquitin modification in regulating nuclear events during innate immune responses. By immunopurification and mass-spectrometry analyses, we found that more than 200 proteins are directly or indirectly associated with ubiquitin in stimulated RAW cells. These proteins included proteins in the ubiquitin pathways, those involved in DNA metabolism, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, and mRNA processing. The largest group of proteins found in our list was ribosomal proteins important for protein translation. Other proteins found here were heat shock proteins and stress-response factors, suggesting a link between macrophage activation and stress response. In conclusion, upon macrophage activation, a large number of nuclear proteins become associated with ubiquitin modification, presumably leading to a global shift in the genome activity, important for proper execution of innate immune responses.