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1.  Tumor origin and growth pattern at diagnosis and surgical hypothalamic damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma 
Journal of Neuro-Oncology  2013;113(3):417-424.
Severe obesity is a major problem in pediatric craniopharyngioma. We investigated whether tumor origin, growth pattern, and surgical damage predict obesity in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Subjects were 58 patients (30 males) with no tumor recurrence during the first postoperative 18 months. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement was classified into no (pre_G0, n = 19), little (pre_G1, n = 21), and severe (pre_G2, n = 18) involvement groups based on sub- or supradiaphragmatic tumor origin and growth patterns. Postoperative hypothalamic involvement was classified into no (post_G0, n = 4), minimal (post_G1, n = 19), and significant (post_G2, n = 35) involvement groups according to follow-up imaging. The prevalence of obesity increased from 13.2 % at diagnosis (mean age = 8.1 years) to 37.9 % at last follow-up (mean duration = 9.1 years). Only the body mass index (BMI) Z-score increment of the first postoperative year (first-year ΔBMI_Z) was significant (P = 0.007). Both the preoperative BMI_Z (P = 0.001) and the first-year ΔBMI_Z (P = 0.017) showed an increasing trend from the pre_G0 to pre_G1 to pre_G2 group. For the 40 patients with pre_G0 or pre_G1, the first-year ΔBMI_Z was higher in the post_G2 group than the post_G1 group (0.02 ± 0.91 vs. 0.89 ± 0.72, P = 0.003). Tumor origin and growth pattern affect preoperative BMI_Z and postoperative weight gain. Despite little or no hypothalamic involvement at diagnosis, surgical damage contributes to postoperative weight gain in patients with craniopharyngioma.
PMCID: PMC3684719  PMID: 23579339
Craniopharyngioma; Hypothalamus; Obesity; Pediatric
2.  Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: New High Resolution Computed Tomography Scoring System and Correlation between the High Resolution Computed Tomography Score and Clinical Severity 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(2):350-360.
To develop an high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system for the assessment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and determine its usefulness as compared with the chest radiographic score.
Materials and Methods
Forty-two very low-birth-weight preterm infants with BPD (25 male, 17 female) were prospectively evaluated with HRCT performed at the mean age of 39.1-week postmenstrual age. Clinical severity of BPD was categorized as mild, moderate or severe. The HRCT score (0-36) of each patient was the sum of the number of bronchopulmonary segments with 1) hyperaeration and 2) parenchymal lesions (linear lesions, segmental atelectasis, consolidation and architectural distortion), respectively. We compared the HRCT scores with the chest radiographic scores (the Toce system) in terms of correlation with clinical severity.
The HRCT score had good interobserver (r = 0.969, p < 0.001) and intraobserver (r = 0.986, p < 0.001) reproducibility. The HRCT score showed better correlation (r = 0.646, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the chest radiographic score (r = 0.410, p = 0.007). The hyperaeration score showed better correlation (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the parenchymal score (r = 0.523, p < 0.001).
We have developed a new HRCT scoring system for BPD based on the quantitative evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities of BPD consisting of the hyperaeration score and the parenchymal score. The HRCT score shows better correlation with the clinical severity of BPD than the radiographic score.
PMCID: PMC3590352  PMID: 23483104
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Scoring system; HRCT; Chest radiography; Preterm infants
3.  Spinal Cord Glioblastoma Induced by Radiation Therapy of Nasopharyngeal Rhabdomyosarcoma with MRI Findings: Case Report 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(5):652-657.
Radiation-induced spinal cord gliomas are extremely rare. Since the first case was reported in 1980, only six additional cases have been reported.; The radiation-induced gliomas were related to the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, thyroid cancer, and medullomyoblastoma, and to multiple chest fluoroscopic examinations in pulmonary tuberculosis patient. We report a case of radiation-induced spinal cord glioblastoma developed in a 17-year-old girl after a 13-year latency period following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma. MRI findings of our case are described.
PMCID: PMC3435866  PMID: 22977336
Radiation induced glioma; Glioblastoma; Spinal cord; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Magnetic resonance imaging
4.  Cerebrospinal fluid M staging for medulloblastoma: Reappraisal of Chang's M staging based on the CSF flow 
Neuro-Oncology  2010;13(3):334-344.
Tumor seeding is a strong negative prognostic factor for patients with medulloblastoma. Because Chang's M staging is based primarily on CT and myelographic findings and might be contradictory to the direction of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, seeding patterns and appropriate staging of medulloblastoma need to be revisited in patients diagnosed in the MRI era. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of 86 patients with a diagnosis of medulloblastoma who were treated in the MRI era. The presence of seeding in each subarachnoid space compartment and the patterns of seeding were analyzed in correlation with patient survival data. Thirty-four patients had gross seeding on perioperative MRI. Thirty-two patients had seeding in the spinal compartment. Sixteen and 12 patients had seeding in the infratentorial and supratentorial compartments, respectively. There was an apparent hierarchy of seeding (ie, from seeding in the spinal compartment up to the supratentorial compartment). Patients with seeding in the spinal compartment had longer progression-free survival (P = .038) and a tendency toward better overall survival (P = .053) compared with patients with seeding in intracranial compartments. We modified Chang's M staging based on the CSF flow and termed this approach “CSF M staging.” CSF M staging for medulloblastoma, in which intracranial seeding occupies a higher rank than spinal seeding, was a better predictor of patient prognosis. This modified staging method may be applied to metastatic staging of brain tumors located in the fourth ventricle.
PMCID: PMC3064600  PMID: 21134897
cerebrospinal fluid, medulloblastoma; prognosis; seeding; staging
5.  Unusual Thymic Hyperplasia Mimicking Lipomatous Tumor in an Eight-Year-Old Boy with Concomitant Pericardial Lipomatosis and Right Facial Hemihypertrophy 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;12(3):376-381.
We report a case of thymic hyperplasia accompanied by pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy in an 8-year-old boy. On imaging studies, the hyperplastic thymus had prominent curvilinear and nodular fatty areas simulating a fat-containing anterior mediastinal mass, which is an unusual finding in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion.
PMCID: PMC3088855  PMID: 21603297
Thymus; Thymic hyperplasia; Mediastinum; Anterior mediastinal mass; Pericardial lipomatosis; Facial hemihypertrophy; Children; Pediatric; Computed tomography (CT); Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
6.  Clinical Application of Liver MR Imaging in Wilson's Disease 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(6):665-672.
To determine whether there is a correlation between liver MR findings and the clinical manifestations and severity of liver dysfunction in patients with Wilson's disease.
Materials and Methods
Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated MR images of the liver in 50 patients with Wilson's disease. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and informed consent was waived. MR images were evaluated with a focus on hepatic contour abnormalities and the presence of intrahepatic nodules. By using Fisher's exact test, MR findings were compared with clinical presentations (neurological and non-neurological) and hepatic dysfunction, which was categorized by the Child-Pugh classification system (A, B and C). Follow-up MR images were available for 17 patients.
Contour abnormalities of the liver and intrahepatic nodules were observed in 31 patients (62%) and 25 patients (50%), respectively. Each MR finding showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) among the three groups of Child-Pugh classifications (A, n = 36; B, n = 5; C, n = 9), except for splenomegaly (p = 0.243). The mean age of the patients with positive MR findings was higher than that of patients with negative MR findings. For patients with Child-Pugh class A (n = 36) with neurological presentation, intrahepatic nodules, surface nodularity, and gallbladder fossa widening were more common. Intrahepatic nodules were improved (n = 8, 47%), stationary (n = 5, 29%), or aggravated (n = 4, 24%) on follow-up MR images.
MR imaging demonstrates the contour abnormalities and parenchymal nodules of the liver in more than half of the patients with Wilson's disease, which correlates with the severity of hepatic dysfunction and clinical manifestations.
PMCID: PMC2974229  PMID: 21076593
Hepatolenticular degeneration; Liver; Magnetic resonance (MR)
7.  Chiari 1.5 Malformation : An Advanced Form of Chiari I Malformation 
The Chiari 1.5 malformation is defined as a tonsillar herniation within a Chiari I malformation with additional caudal descent of the brainstem through the foramen magnum. We describe a patient with Chiari I malformation who evolved to Chiari 1.5 malformation during longitudinal follow-up. A 15-year-old girl presented with neck pain during exercise for two years. She had been diagnosed with Chiari I malformation with mild hydrocephalus after minor cervical trauma at the age of six years. At that time, she was asymptomatic. After she complained of aggravated neck pain, neuroimaging (nine years after first imaging) revealed caudal descent of the brainstem and syringomyelia in addition to progression of tonsillar herniation. Posterior fossa decompressive surgery resulted in complete resolution of neck pain. Based on neuroimaging and operative findings, she was diagnosed as Chiari 1.5 malformation. Neuroimaging performed seven months after surgery showed an increased anterior-posterior diameter of the medulla oblongata and markedly decreased syringomyelia. This case demonstrates progressive developmental process of the Chiari 1.5 malformation as an advanced form of the Chiari I malformation.
PMCID: PMC2982921  PMID: 21113370
Chiari 1.5 malformation; Asymptomatic hydrocephalus; Syringomyelia
8.  Balloon Dilatation for Corrosive Esophageal Strictures in Children: Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(2):203-210.
We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of the esophageal balloon dilatation (EBD) in children with a corrosive esophageal stricture.
Materials and Methods
The study subjects included 14 patients (M:F = 8:6, age range: 17-85 months) who underwent an EBD due to a corrosive esophageal stricture. The causative agents for the condition were glacial acetic acid (n = 9) and lye (n = 5).
A total of 52 EBD sessions were performed in 14 patients (range 1-8 sessions). During the mean 15-month follow-up period (range 1-79 months), 12 patients (86%) underwent additional EBD due to recurrent esophageal stricture. Dysphagia improved after each EBD session and oral feeding was possible between EBD sessions. Long-term success (defined as dysphagia relief for at least 12 months after the last EBD) was achieved in two patients (14%). Temporary success of EBD (defined as dysphagia relief for at least one month after the EBD session) was achieved in 17 out of 52 sessions (33%). A submucosal tear of the esophagus was observed in two (4%) sessions of EBD.
Only a limited number of children with corrosive esophageal strictures were considered cured by EBD. However, the outcome of repeated EBD was sufficient to allow the children to eat per os prior to surgical management.
PMCID: PMC2827784  PMID: 20191068
Esophagus; Balloon dilatation; Dysphagia; Corrosive esophagitis; Esophageal stricture; Children
9.  Imperforate Anus: Determination of Type Using Transperineal Ultrasonography 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(4):355-360.
This study was designed to assess the usefulness of transperineal ultrasonography (US) for the determination of imperforate anus (IA) type.
Materials and Methods
From January 2000 to December 2004, 46 of 193 patients with an IA underwent transperineal US prior to corrective surgery. Sonographic findings were reviewed to identify the presence of internal fistulas and to determine "distal rectal pouch to perineum (P-P)" distances. IA types were determined based on the sonographic findings, and the diagnostic accuracy of transperineal US was evaluated based on surgical findings.
Of the 46 patients, 17 patients were surgically confirmed as having a high-type IA, three patients were confirmed as having an intermediate-type IA and 26 patients were confirmed as having a low-type IA. The IA type was correctly diagnosed by the use of transperineal US in 39 of the 46 patients (85%). In 14 of the 17 patients with a high-type IA, internal fistulas were correctly identified. All cases with a P-P distance > 16 mm were high-type IAs and all cases with a P-P distance < 5 mm were low-type IAs.
Transperineal US is a good diagnostic modality for the identification of internal fistulas in cases of high-type IA and for defining the IA level.
PMCID: PMC2702044  PMID: 19568463
Anus; Imperforate anus; Ultrasound (US); Ultrasonography; Infant
10.  Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Results of Pediatric Osteosarcoma: The Role of High Dose Chemotherapy with Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation 
In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and treatment results of osteosarcoma during the past 7 years, and evaluated the role of high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients who were diagnosed as osteosarcoma at our center from January, 2000 to December, 2007.
The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival of the patients were 72.6% and 55.9%, respectively. Seventeen (41.5%) patients showed disease progression during treatment or relapse after the end of treatment. The patients who had metastasis at diagnosis or who had a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed decreased overall and event-free survival. Four patients received ASCT after HDCT, and 3 of them are alive without disease.
The patients who relapsed or had refractory osteosarcoma or who had metastasis at diagnosis or a lower grade of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed poor prognosis. HDCT with ASCT could be an alternative treatment option for these patients.
PMCID: PMC2697476  PMID: 19688126
Osteosarcoma; Autologous stem cell transplantation; High dose chemotherapy; Pediatrics
11.  Power Doppler Imaging in Acute Renal Vein Occlusion and Recanalization: a Canine Model 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(2):128-133.
To evaluate the dynamic changes of the power Doppler (PD) in acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model.
Materials and Methods
We performed a PD of the kidney during graded renal vein occlusion and recanalization induced by balloon inflation and deflation in nine dogs. The PD images were transferred to a personal computer, and the PD signals were quantified.
We observed the temporal change of the PD signal during renal vein occlusion and recanalization, with a decrease in the PD signal during occlusion and an increase during recanalization. The mean PD signal decreased gradually as the renal vein was occluded, and conversely increased gradually with sequential relief of occlusion. The sequential change of the mean value of the PD signal was statistically significant.
The PD can detect a change in renal blood flow during acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. The PD may be used as a helpful tool for the early detection of acute renal vein thrombosis and the monitoring of renal perfusion.
PMCID: PMC2627218  PMID: 18385559
Renal vein; Renal vein thrombosis; Power Doppler; Ultrasonography
12.  Radiological Spectrum of Hepatic Mesenchymal Hamartoma in Children 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(6):498-505.
A hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma is an uncommon benign tumor in children and little is known about the spectrum of its radiological features. The purpose of this study is to describe the spectrum of radiological features of a hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma in children.
Materials and Methods
Thirteen children with a pathologically confirmed hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma (M:F = 7:6; mean age, 3 years 2 months) were included in our study. Ultrasonography (US) was performed in nine patients including color and power Doppler US (n = 7). CT scans were performed in all patients. We evaluated the imaging findings of the hepatic mesenchymal hamartomas and the corresponding pathological features.
Each patient had a single tumor (mean diameter: 13 cm [1.8-20 cm]). On CT and/or US, four patients (31%) had a "multiseptated cystic tumor", five patients (38%) had a "mixed solid and cystic tumor", and four patients (31%) had a "solid tumor." The septa of the cystic portion were thin in the multiseptated cystic tumors and irregularly thick in the mixed solid and cystic tumors as seen on US. On a post-contrast CT scan, solid portions or thick septa of the tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement. The amount of hepatocytes was significantly different among the three tumor groups according to the imaging spectrum (p = 0.042).
A hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma in children can show a wide spectrum of radiological features, from a multiseptated cystic tumor to a mixed solid and cystic tumor, and even a solid tumor.
PMCID: PMC2627452  PMID: 18071280
Children; Hepatic tumor; Mesenchymal hamartoma
13.  CT and MR Imaging of the Buccal Space: Normal Anatomy and Abnormalities 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2005;6(1):22-30.
The buccal space is an anatomical compartment lying anterior to the masticator space and lateral to the buccinator muscle. Since the major purpose of imaging is to define the likely anatomic origin and also the extent of a given lesion, thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of the buccal space is essential, and this knowledge can aid the physician in narrowing down the list of possible maladies on the differential diagnosis. We illustrate here in this paper the important anatomic landmarks and typical pathologic conditions of the buccal space such as the developmental lesions and the neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of the expected pathologic conditions is useful for the radiologist when interpreting facial CT and MR images.
PMCID: PMC2684993  PMID: 15782016
Magnatic resonance (CT); Computed tomography (MR); Buccal space; Face
14.  Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Korean Infants and Children: Imaging Findings and Diverse Clinical Outcome 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(3):171-177.
The purpose of our study was to describe acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean infants and children, and we sought to evaluate the prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy was diagnosed in 14 Korean infants and children. We retrospectively analyzed the neuroimaging findings including the follow-up changes. The clinical course of the disease was graded, and we evaluated prognostic factors including age, serum level of the aminotransferase, hemorrhage, and localized atrophy of the brain.
This encephalopathy predominantly affected the bilateral thalami (n=14), pons (n=12), and midbrain (n=10) in a symmetrical pattern. Hemorrhage was observed in eight patients (57%). On the follow-up images (n=12), the brain lesions were reduced in extent for all patients, and generalized atrophy was seen in six patients. Localized tissue loss was observed in five patients and a complete resolution occurred for one patient. All the patients survived and two recovered completely; mild (n=6) to severe (n=6) neurological deficits persisted in the remaining 12 patients. The significant prognostic factors identified in this study were the presence of hemorrhage (p = 0.009) and localized atrophy (p = 0.015).
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in Korean patients showed the characteristic patterns of the post-infectious encephalopathy as described in the literature. The high survival rate and the relatively favorable clinical course observed for the present study suggest a more diverse spectrum of disease severity than was previously described. The presence of hemorrhage and localized tissue loss on MR images may suggest a poor prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2698159  PMID: 15467414
Brain, encephalopathy; Infants and children, disease; Brain, MR
15.  Distribution of lengths of the normal femur and tibia in Korean children from three to sixteen years of age. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(5):715-721.
To develop a standard growth curve of the lower extremity in Korean children from 3 to 16 yr of age, the lengths from a total of 2087 normal long bone segments (582 femurs and 645 tibias in boys, and 417 femurs and 443 tibias in girls) were measured. Children were grouped by years of bone age, which was determined by using the Korean specific bone age standard; TW2-20 method. The growth spurt occurred in girls from eight to eleven years by bone age, and in boys from eleven to thirteen years. The mean tibial length relative to the mean femoral length was 0.78 in boys and 0.79 in girls. The overall growth pattern was similar to that observed in American children in the 1960s. Korean children and adolescents appear to have a different tempo of skeletal maturation during pubertal growth from that of English and American children and adolescents. The Korean standard growth curve and the Korean bone age chart allow determination of the presence of any existent growth abnormalities and prediction of future remaining growth in lower extremities. These normative growth standards can be used for leg-length equalization purposes in children with anisomelia.
PMCID: PMC3055116  PMID: 14555826
16.  Intracranial and Spinal Ependymomas: Review of MR Images in 61 Patients 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(4):219-228.
To compare the age distribution and characteristic MR imaging findings of ependymoma for each typical location within the neuraxis.
Materials and Methods
During a recent eleven-year period, MR images of 61 patients with histologically proven ependymomas were obtained and retrospectively reviewed in terms of incidence, peak age, location, size, signal intensity, the presence or absence of cyst and hemorrhage, enhancement pattern, and other associated findings.
Among the 61 patients, tumor location was spinal in 35 (57%), infrartentorial in 19 (31%), and supratentorial in seven (12%). In four of these seven, the tumor was located in brain parenchyma, and in most cases developed between the third and fifth decade. Approximately half of the infratentorial tumors occurred during the first decade. The signal intensity of ependymomas was non-specific, regardless of their location. A cystic component was seen in 71% (5/7) of supratentorial, 74% (14/19) of infratentorial, and 14% (5/35) of spinal cord tumors. Forty-nine percent (17/35) of those in the spinal cord were associated with rostral and/or caudal reactive cysts. Intratumoral hemorrhage occurred in 57% (4/7) of supratentorial, 32% (6/19) of infratentorial, and 9% (3/35) of spinal cord tumors. In 17% (6/35) of spinal ependymomas, a curvilinear low T2 signal, suggesting marginal hemorrhage, was seen at the upper and/or lower margins of the tumors. Peritumoral edema occurred in 57% (4/7) of supratentorial, 16% (3/19) of infratentorial and 23% (8/35) of spinal cord tumors. Seventy-two percent (5/7) of supratentorial and 95% (18/19) of infratentorial tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement, while in 50% (17/34) of spinal cord tumors, enhancement was homogeneous.
Even though the MR imaging findings of ependymomas vary and are nonspecific, awareness of these findings, and of tumor distribution according to age, is helpful and increases the likelihood of correct preoperative clinical diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC2713843  PMID: 12514338
Brain, ependymoma; Brain, MR; Spinal cord, ependymoma; Spinal cord, MR
17.  Disseminated BCG Infection in a patient with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2000;1(2):114-117.
Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic deficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.
PMCID: PMC2718164  PMID: 11752940
Bones, infection; Infants, newborn, skeletal system; Tuberculosis, gastrointestinal; Tuberculosis, musculoskeletal

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