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Year of Publication
2.  Acute orbital myositis before Herpes zoster ophthalmicus 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(3):295-296.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.3.295
PMCID: PMC3315665  PMID: 22474562
3.  Long QT syndrome provoked by induction of general anesthesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(Suppl):S114-S118.
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic cardiovascular disorder resulting from mutations in cardiac ion channels. LQTS is characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization and frequently manifests itself as QT interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram (ECG). A variety of commonly prescribed anesthetic drugs possess the adverse property of prolonging cardiac repolarization and may provoke serious ventricular tachyarrhythmia called 'torsades de pointes', ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. We experienced a case of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation after anesthetic induction and it came out into the open that anesthetic induction provoked long QT syndrome.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.S.S114
PMCID: PMC3030014  PMID: 21286418
Cardiac arrest; Induction; Long QT syndrome
4.  Effect of remifentanil on consumption of sevoflurane in entropy monitored general anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(4):238-243.
Background
Monitoring of anesthetic depth is important for successful general anesthesia. It is well known that entropy or BIS monitoring assisted titration of anesthetic drugs decreases their consumption. This study evaluated the effect of remifentanil on consumption of sevoflurane during entropy monitored general anesthesia.
Methods
Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. The R group was administered 0.1 µg/kg/min of remifentanil and inhaled sevoflurane, while the S group was administered only inhaled sevoflurane. Anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane with nitrous oxide, and entropy was monitored. In both groups, the concentration of sevoflurane was adjusted to keep the state entropy (SE) value between 40 and 60. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET), entropy value, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at 5 minute intervals, during a 25 minute period after intubation, skin suture and the end of surgery.
Results
ET was significantly lower in the R group than the S group. There were no significant differences in entropy value between R and S groups.
Conclusions
Entropy monitored titration of sevoflurane with remifentanil administration decreased ET with stable hemodynamics.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.4.238
PMCID: PMC2966703  PMID: 21057612
Entropy; Remifentanil; Sevoflurane
5.  Clinical features and short-term outcomes of pediatric acute fulminant myocarditis in a single center 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(11):489-495.
Purpose
The aims of this study were to document our single-center experience with pediatric acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) and to investigate its clinical features and short-term outcomes.
Methods
We performed a retrospective chart review of all children <18 years old who were diagnosed with AFM between October 2008 and February 2013. Data about patient demographics, initial symptoms, investigation results, management, and outcomes between survivors and nonsurvivors were collected.
Results
Seventeen of 21 patients (80.9%) with myocarditis were diagnosed with AFM. Eleven patients (64.7%) survived to discharge, and 6 (35.3%) died. Electrocardiography on admission revealed dysrhythmia in 10 patients (58.8%); of these, all 7 patients with a complete atrioventricular block survived. Fractional shortening upon admission was significantly different between the survivors (16%) and nonsurvivors (8.5%) (P=0.01). Of the serial biochemical markers, only the initial brain natriuretic peptide (P=0.03) and peak blood urea nitrogen levels (P=0.02) were significantly different. Of 17 patients, 4 (23.5%) required medical treatment only. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in 13 patients (76.5%); the survival rate in these patients was 53.8%. ECMO support was initiated >24 hours after admission in 4 of the 13 patients (30.7%), and 3 of those 4 patients (75%) died.
Conclusion
AFM outcomes may be associated with complete atrioventricular block upon hospital admission, left ventricular fractional shortening at admission, time from admission to the initiation of ECMO support, initial brain natriuretic peptide level, and peak blood urea nitrogen level.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.11.489
PMCID: PMC4279010  PMID: 25550704
Myocarditis; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Child; Outcomes
6.  Unidirectional valve malfunction by the breakage or malposition of disc - two cases report - 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(4):337-340.
Malfunction of the unidirectional valve in a breathing circuit system may cause hypercapnia from the rebreathing of expired gas, ventilation failure, and barotrauma. Capnography is a useful method for monitoring the integrity of the unidirectional valve. We experienced two cases of malfunction of a unidirectional valve which caused leakage and reverse flow, diagnosed early as a change of the capnographic waveform. One case was caused by expiratory unidirectional valve breakage. The other was caused by an incorrectly-assembled inspiratory unidirectional valve.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.4.337
PMCID: PMC3822027  PMID: 24228148
Capnography; Hypercapnia; Unidirectional valve
7.  Subluxation of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Associated with the Extensor Digitorum Tendon Subluxation of the Long Finger 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2013;5(1):82-86.
A twenty-year-old male visited our clinic with wrist and long finger metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint pain. Dynamic ultrasonography revealed sagittal band (SB) ulnar subluxation and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) volar subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinal splitting and dislocation of the volar half slip of the ECU tendon. The redundant radial SB was augmented and ECU sheath was advanced to the periosteum using suture anchors. He was able to perform his previous activities at the last follow-up. We encountered a case of "simulateous" ECU dislocation with extensor tendon subluxation of the long finger at the MP joint. Therefore, we report this case with a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.4055/cios.2013.5.1.82
PMCID: PMC3582875  PMID: 23467477
Finger joint; Extensor carpi ulnaris; Sagittal band; Suture anchor
8.  Transient cauda equina syndrome related to a sacral schwannoma with cauda equine compression after a lumbar epidural block -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(Suppl):S222-S225.
A 53-year-old man had chronic low back and leg pain for four years without any history of trauma or neurological manifestations. There was a reduction in symptoms after a lumbar epidural block. Two hours later after the procedure, the patient complained of perineal numbness and lower extremity weakness. The neurological evaluation revealed loss of sensation in the saddle area and the posterior aspect of the leg. The deep-tendon reflexes were decreased in the leg. The patient was unable to urinate. The MRI revealed a schwannoma at the S3 level of the sacral spine with cauda equina compression. The patient's symptoms improved slightly over the next few hours. The patient had a gradual return of motor function and could feel the Foley catheter. All of the symptoms completely resolved over the next nine hours and the patient was discharged to home once completely recovered. This case illustrates the importance of clinical examination and continued vigilance for evaluation of neurological deterioration after epidural injections.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.S.S222
PMCID: PMC3030042  PMID: 21286446
Cauda equina syndrome; Low back pain; Schwannoma
9.  Pulsed radiofrequency lesioning for treatment of chronic breast neuropathic pain after breast reduction -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(Suppl):S238-S241.
Breast surgery is a common procedure performed in women. Many women who undergo breast surgery suffer from ill-defined pain syndromes. A nerve block is used in the treatment of the acute and chronic pain, but the effectiveness of the treatment has been limited because of its short duration. Recently, the advent of pulsed radiofrequency lesioning (PRF) has proved a successful treatment for chronic refractory pain involving the peripheral nerves. We experienced a case of a 52-year-old female patient complaining of chronic breast neuropathic pain after breast reduction, which was relieved after PRF lesioning of the 4th thoracic spinal nerve and its root.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.S.S238
PMCID: PMC3030046  PMID: 21286450
Breast reduction; Breast surgery; Chronic pain; Pulsed radiofrequency
10.  Autophagy induction and CHOP under-expression promotes survival of fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis patients under endoplasmic reticulum stress 
Introduction
Synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis show resistance to apoptotic stimuli, indicating they may be difficult to treat. To clearly understand these mechanisms of resistance, rheumatoid and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF and OASF) were exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as thapsigargin, Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor.
Methods
Fibroblasts were assessed microscopically for cell viability by trypan blue exclusion and for autophagic cells by LC-3II formation. Caspase-3 activity was measured as aminomethyl-coumarin (AMC) liberated from AC-DEVD-AMC. Immunoblotting was performed to compare protein expression in OASF and RASF.
Results
ER stress caused cell death in OASF but not in RASF. Thapsigargin, a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, did not change the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone in OASF and RASF, but induced another ER stress protein, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) differently, showing high levels in OASF and low levels in RASF. Thapsigargin increased the autophagy response in RASF, with autophagosome formation, beclin expression, and LC3-II conversion. Transfection with beclin siRNA inhibited autophagy and increased the susceptibility to ER stress-induced cell death. On the other hand, CHOP siRNA increased autophagy and improved cell survival, especially in RASF, indicating that CHOP is involved in regulation of autophagy and cell death, but that low expression of CHOP protects RASF from apoptosis.
Conclusions
Autophagy induction and CHOP under-expression increases cell resistance against ER stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis patients.
doi:10.1186/ar2921
PMCID: PMC2875648  PMID: 20122151
11.  En Bloc Partial Laminectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Foraminal Spinal Stenosis 
Asian Spine Journal  2009;3(2):66-72.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
An en bloc partial laminectomy and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in spinal stenosis patients with severe foraminal narrowing has a shorter operation time, less neural manipulation and allows indirect decompression by restoring the interforaminal height compared to other procedures. This study investigated the efficacy of the procedure.
Overview of Literature
PLIF is one of the most popular surgery for degenerative spine such as foraminal spinal stenosis, instability spondylolisthesis and discogenic pain. Various techniques for PLIF have their own advantages and disadvantages. But in some severe cases, we need an efficient method of PLIF for decompression and fusion.
Methods
This study examined 61 patients, who had 85 levels treated with PLIF using an en bloc partial laminectomy and facetectomy, and could be followed up for more than 2 years. The mean age of the patients and mean follow up period was 66 years and 39 months, respectively. The clinical results were evaluated using the MacNab's criteria, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, and Korea Version Oswestry Disability Index (KODI). The union of the intervertebral space was evaluated using Lenke's criteria. The intervertebral angle and height of the posterior intervertebral disc were also measured.
Results
Excellent and good results were obtained in 54 cases (89%) according to MacNab's criteria. The VAS and KODI scores were 8.1 and 34.6, preoperatively, and 3.4, and 14.1, postoperatively. Bone union was A and B grades according to Lenke's criteria in 57 cases. The mean segmental angle and mean height of the posterior disc were respectively, 7.4° and 6.5 mm preoperatively, 9.1° and 10.6 mm postoperatively, and 8.0° and 9.7 mm in the last follow-up. There were 5 cases of postoperative infection, 4 cases of junctional problems and 1 case of screw malposition.
Conclusions
En bloc partial laminectomy and PLIF is an effective method for treating severe spinal stenosis with foraminal narrowing.
doi:10.4184/asj.2009.3.2.66
PMCID: PMC2852073  PMID: 20404950
Lumbar vertebra; Spinal stenosis; Laminectomy; Posterior lumbar interbody fusion
12.  The effect of low temperature aging on the mechanical property & phase stability of Y-TZP ceramics 
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Recently Yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been introduced due to superior flexural strength and fracture toughness compared to other dental ceramic systems. Although zirconia has outstanding mechanical properties, the phenomenon of decrease in the life-time of zirconia resulted from degradation in flexural strength after low temperature aging has been reported.
PURPOSE
The objective of this study was to investigate degradation of flexural strength of Y-TZP ceramics after various low temperature aging treatments and to evaluate the phase stability and micro-structural change after aging by using X-ray diffraction analysis and a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Y-TZP blocks of Vita In-Ceram YZ (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) were prepared in 40 mm (length) × 4 mm (width) × 3 mm (height) samples. Specimens were artificially aged in distilled water by heat-treatment at a temperature of 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, and 225℃ for 10 hours, in order to induce the phase transformation at the surface. To measure the mechanical property, the specimens were subjected to a four-point bending test using a universal testing machine (Instron model 3365; Instron, Canton, Mass, USA). In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis (DMAX 2500; Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) and SEM (Hitachi s4700; Jeol Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) were performed to estimate the phase transformation. The statistical analysis was done using SAS 9.1.3 (SAS institute, USA). The flexural strength data of the experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and to detect statistically significant differences (α= .05).
RESULTS
The mean flexural strength of sintered Vita In-Ceram YZ without autoclaving was 798 MPa. When applied aging temperature at below 125℃ for 10 hours, the flexural strength of Vita In-Ceram YZ increased up to 1,161 MPa. However, at above 150℃, the flexural strength started to decrease. Although low temperature aging caused the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation related to temperature, the minimum flexural strength was above 700 MPa.
CONCLUSION
The monoclinic phase started to appear after aging treatment above 100℃. With the higher aging temperature, the fraction of monoclinic phase increased. The ratio of monoclinic/tetragonal + monoclinic phase reached a plateau value, circa 75% above 175℃. The point of monoclinic concentration at which the flexural strength begins to decrease was between 12% and 54%.
doi:10.4047/jap.2009.1.3.113
PMCID: PMC2994687  PMID: 21165265
Low temperature aging; Y-TZP ceramic; Phase transformation; Mechanical property
13.  The Complete Genome Sequence of Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 Reveals a Mixed Heterotrophic and Carboxydotrophic Metabolism▿ † 
Journal of Bacteriology  2008;190(22):7491-7499.
Members of the genus Thermococcus, sulfur-reducing hyperthermophilic archaea, are ubiquitously present in various deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems and are considered to play a significant role in the microbial consortia. We present the complete genome sequence and feature analysis of Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent area, which reveal clues to its physiology. Based on results of genomic analysis, T. onnurineus NA1 possesses the metabolic pathways for organotrophic growth on peptides, amino acids, or sugars. More interesting was the discovery that the genome encoded unique proteins that are involved in carboxydotrophy to generate energy by oxidation of CO to CO2, thereby providing a mechanistic basis for growth with CO as a substrate. This lithotrophic feature in combination with carbon fixation via RuBisCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) introduces a new strategy with a complementing energy supply for T. onnurineus NA1 potentially allowing it to cope with nutrient stress in the surrounding of hydrothermal vents, providing the first genomic evidence for the carboxydotrophy in Thermococcus.
doi:10.1128/JB.00746-08
PMCID: PMC2576655  PMID: 18790866

Results 1-13 (13)