Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a rare and critical congenital vascular anomaly that requires an early operation. However, initial symptoms of TAPVR may be non-specific, and cardiovascular findings may be minimal. The heart may not be enlarged and there is often no cardiac murmur. Without cardiac murmur, these symptoms are similar to those of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion and an early diagnosis of TAPVR are important. This condition generally occurs without a family history and has a low recurrence rate, but several familial cases, including siblings, have been reported worldwide. Additionally, several chromosomal or gene abnormalities associated with TAPVR have been reported. In the case presented here, two brothers with a 6-year age gap were diagnosed with TAPVR. Surgery was performed without cardiac or neurological complications. This is the first report on TAPVR in siblings in Korea.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return; TAPVR; Sibling
Meningioma rarely manifests as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and invasion directly into a major intracranial artery is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, meningioma presenting with an SAH associated with major intracranial arterial invasion has never been reported. We present a case of sphenoid ridge meningotheliomatous meningioma manifesting as an SAH without pathologically atypical or malignant features, due to direct tumor invasion into the middle cerebral artery.
Brain, hemorrhage; Brain neoplasms; Arteries, middle cerebral
The image quality management of bone mineral density (BMD) is the responsibility and duty of radio-technologists who carry out examinations. However, inaccurate conclusions due to the lack of understanding and ignorance regarding the methodology of image quality management can be a fatal error to patients. The accuracy and precision of BMD measurement must be maintained at the highest level so that actual biological changes can be detected with even slight changes in BMD. Accuracy and precision should be continuously preserved for image quality of machines. Those factors will contribute to ensure the reliability of BMD examination. The enforcement of proper quality control of radiologists performing BMD inspections which brings about the durability extensions of equipment and accurate results of calculations will help the assurance of reliable inspections.
Bone density; Densitometry; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Precision; Quality control
In recent years, mechanical thrombectomy using Solitaire stent retrieval has been tried for treating acute ischemic stroke with a large artery occlusion. We systematically reviewed published articles to appraise the evidence that supports the safety and efficacy of the mechanical thrombectomy in acute strokes with Solitaire stent.
Materials and Methods
Systematic searches using Medline and Scopus were performed for studies evaluating mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent in acute ischemic stroke. Articles were included if they were published since 2008, contained at least 5 subjects, and provided clinical results.
Thirteen articles (262 cases) were included in this review. The mean time of the procedures ranged from 37 to 95.6 minutes in 10 studies. The success of recanalization was achieved in 89.7% and the recanalization rate varied from 66.7% to 100% in all 13 studies. The overall rates of the symptomatic hemorrhagic complications and mortality were 6.8% and 11.1%, respectively. A favorable outcome of mRS 2 or under was 47.3%. Procedure-induced complications developed in 3.4%.
The present review suggested that mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent in acute ischemic stroke was effective in recanalizing the occluded artery. The rate of procedural complications was small.
Stroke; Mechanical recanalization; Self-expanding stent; Solitaire; Systematic review
The complex angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) sometimes preclude angiographic analyses or superselective procedures. Therefore, the effectiveness of 3 dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) as a detailed imaging technique for SDAVFs was evaluated.
Materials and Methods
Of 57 patients with spinal vascular malformations, recent 13 SDAVF patients underwent 3DRA. The advantage of 3DRA compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in imaging SDAVF was assessed. Angioarchitecture of SDAVF was focused on location, number, and course of feeders and draining vein. Appropriate angled views were also selected to reveal the segmental artery and feeders.
3DRA technique provided additional information for imaging evaluation of SDAVFs compared to DSA; the presence of multiple feeders, including their transdural portions, as well as their courses. The contralaterally angled anterior-oblique-caudal (spider) view showed the radicular feeder by separating the intercostal artery and the dorsal muscular branch. The bottom-to-up (tunnel) view was useful for revealing the location (ventral vs. dorsal) including sharp medial turn of the dural feeder. The dual mode, which displays both vessels and bones, revealed the course of the feeders and the fistula related to the spinal bony column.
Because spinal vasculature overlaps in DSA, 3DRA revealed additional information for evaluations of the number and transdural course of fistular feeders in SDAVFs, and it offers working angles to obtain appropriate views.
Arteriovenous fistula; Spine; Imaging, Three-dimensional
VerifyNow antiplatelet assays were performed before and after stenting for various cerebral artery stenoses to determine the effect of the procedure itself to the function of dual antiplatelets given.
Materials and Methods
A total of 30 consecutive patients underwent cerebral arterial stenting procedure were enrolled. The antiplatelet pretreatment regimen was aspirin (100 mg daily) and clopidogrel (300 mg of loading dose followed by 75mg daily). VerifyNow antiplatelet assay performed before and right after stenting. The two test results were compared in terms of aspirin-reaction unit (ARU), P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), baseline (BASE), and percentage inhibition. We evaluated occurrence of any intra-procedural in-stent thrombosis or immediate thromboembolic complication, and ischemic events in 1-month follow-up.
The median Pre-ARU was 418 (range, 350-586). For clopidogrel the medians of the pre-BASE, PRU, and percent inhibition were 338 (279-454), 256 (56-325), and 27% (0-57%). The medians of the post-ARU, BASE, PRU, and percent inhibition after stenting were 469 (range, 389-573), 378 (288-453), 274 (81-370), and 26% (0-79%). There was a significant increase of ARU (p=0.045), BASE (p=0.026), and PRU (p=0.018) before and after stenting. One immediate thromboembolic event was observed in poor-response group after stenting. There was no in-stent thrombosis and ischemic event in 1-month follow-up.
We observed a significant increase of platelet reactivity to dual antiplatelet therapy right after stenting procedure for various cerebral arterial stenoses.
Stent; Cerebrovascular disorders; Atherosclerosis; Antiplatelet drugs; VerifyNow antiplatelet assay
We describe a new method to automatically discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls, based on multidimensional classification of hippocampal shape features. This approach uses spherical harmonics (SPHARM) coefficients to model the shape of the hippocampi, which are segmented from magnetic resonance images (MRI) using a fully automatic method that we previously developed. SPHARM coefficients are used as features in a classification procedure based on support vector machines (SVM). The most relevant features for classification are selected using a bagging strategy. We evaluate the accuracy of our method in a group of 23 patients with AD (10 males, 13 females, age±standard-deviation (SD)=73±6 years, mini-mental score (MMS)=24.4±2.8), 23 patients with amnestic MCI (10 males, 13 females, age±SD=74±8 years, MMS=27.3±1.4) and 25 elderly healthy controls (13 males,12 females, age±SD=64±8 years), using leave-one-out cross-validation. For AD vs controls, we obtain a correct classification rate of 94%, a sensitivity of 96%, and a specificity of 92%. For MCI vs controls, we obtain a classification rate of 83%, a sensitivity of 83%, and a specificity of 84%. This accuracy is superior to that of hippocampal volumetry and is comparable to recently published SVM-based whole-brain classification methods, which relied on a different strategy. This new method may become a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease; MCI; Hippocampus; Magnetic resonance imaging; Support vector machines
To investigate the effect of adjuvant hormonal therapy on the endometrium and ovary of breast cancer patients.
A retrospective review was performed on the 207 patients who had taken tamoxifen or anastrozole, as adjuvant hormonal therapy after breast cancer surgery between January 2003 and December 2006. Gynecologic surveillance constituted of ultrasonographic exam of the endometrial thickness and ovarian cyst formation. The patients were classified into three groups and analyzed; premenopausal/postmenopausal women receiving tamoxifen and women receiving anastrozole.
Mean duration of follow up was 20.6±6.6 months. There was no difference of mean endometrial thickness before hormonal therapy among the three groups (p=0.327). In women receiving tamoxifen, the endometrium was continuously thickened in proportion to the duration of the therapy irrespective of menopausal status while it remained unchanged in women receiving anastrozole (p<0.05). Endometrial biopsies were performed in 28 patients receiving tamoxifen. The most common histologic finding was proliferative endometrium in premenopausal women (7/21) and atrophic endometrium in postmenopausal women (6/7). There was no case of endometrial cancer in both groups. Ovarian cyst was found in 32 women and the most were developed in premenopausal women receiving tamoxifen (30/32). All of them showed benign nature on transvaginal ultrasonographic findings.
Women undergoing adjuvant hormonal therapy after breast cancer surgery exhibited changes in the endometrium and ovary. However most changes were not a serious problem in this study and frequent gynecologic surveillance in these patients needs further investigation.
Breast cancer; Tamoxifen; Anastrozole; Endometrium
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare disease that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Despite the progressive nature of the disease, the changes on MRI during the disease course - which may help in monitoring the disease process - have seldom been reported. Here we describe a patient with polymerase-chain-reaction-proven PML examined using serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent-diffusion-coefficient mapping. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) revealed that the demyelinating process was more active without significant neuronal loss at the newer and advancing edge of a lesion than in the older central part of the lesion. This case shows that MRI findings such as DWI and MRS may improve the diagnosis and the understanding of the pathophysiology of PML.
AIDS; Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Diffusion-weighted imaging
Hyperdense lesions can frequently be observed on the CT obtained immediately after intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, and it is sometimes difficult to differentiate contrast extravasation from the hemorrhagic lesions. The purposes of this study are to classify the hyperdense lesions according to their morphologic features and to track the outcome of those lesions.
Materials and Methods
Among the 94 patients who suffered with anterior circulation ischemic stroke and who were treated with IA thrombolysis, 31 patients revealed hyperdense lesions on the CT obtained immediately after the procedure. The lesions were categorized into four types according to their volume, shape, location and density: cortical high density (HD), soft HD, metallic HD and diffuse HD. The follow-up images were obtained 3-5 days later in order to visualize the morphologic changes and hemorrhagic transformation of the lesions.
Among the 31 patients with HD lesions, 18 (58%) showed hemorrhagic transformation of their lesion, and six of them were significant. All the cortical HD lesions (n = 4) revealed spontaneous resolution. Seven of the soft HD lesions (n = 13) showed spontaneous resolution, while the rest of the group showed hemorrhagic transformation. Among them the hemorrhage was significant in only two patients (2/6) who did not achieve successful recanalization. All the metallic HD lesions (n = 10) resulted in hemorrhagic transformation; among them, three cases (30%) with a maximum CT value more than 150 HU (Hounsfield unit) subsequently showed significant hemorrhagic transformation on the follow-up CT. There were four diffuse HD lesions, and two of them showed hemorrhagic transformation.
The parenchymal hyperdense lesions observed on the CT obtained immediately after IA thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients exhibited varying features and they were not always hemorrhagic. Most of the soft HD lesions were benign, and although all of the metallic HD lesions were hemorrhagic, some of them were ultimately found to be benign.
Brain, CT; Cerebral blood vessels, brain infarction; Thrombolysis; Brain, hemorrhage
To determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT arthrography and virtual arthroscopy in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus pathology.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent CT arthrography and arthroscopy of the knee were included in this study. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 52 years and all of the patients were male. Sagittal, coronal, transverse and oblique coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were reformatted from CT arthrography. Virtual arthroscopy was performed from 6 standard views using a volume rendering technique. Three radiologists analyzed the MPR images and two orthopedic surgeons analyzed the virtual arthroscopic images.
The sensitivity and specificity of CT arthrography for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament abnormalities were 87.5%-100% and 93.3-96.7%, respectively, and those for meniscus abnormalities were 91.7%-100% and 98.1%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament abnormalities were 87.5% and 83.3-90%, respectively, and those for meniscus abnormalities were 83.3%-87.5% and 96.1-98.1%, respectively.
CT arthrography and virtual arthroscopy showed good diagnostic accuracy for anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal abnormalities.
Knee, CT; Knee, arthrography; Knee, ligaments, menisci, and cartilage
We report two cases of supratentorial gangliocytomas mimicking an extra-axial tumor. MR imaging indicated that the tumors were extra-axial, and meningiomas were thus initially diagnosed. Relative to gray matter, the tumors were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. On contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, homogeneous enhancement was observed, while CT scanning revealed calcification in one of the two cases.
Brain, CT; Brain, MR; Brain, neoplasms; Gangliocytoma
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses