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1.  Foraminal Synovial Cyst Associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis 
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is frequently associated with inflammatory lesions of the spine and continuous fatigue stress fractures; however, an association with an intraspinal synovial cyst has not been previously reported. A 55-year-old man with a five year history of AS who presented with back pain and a right radiculopathy was admitted to the hospital. Five years previously, he underwent a percutaneous vertebroplasty for an osteoporotic L1 compression fracture, and was diagnosed with AS at that time. Plain radiographs showed aggravated kyphosis and a stress fracture through the ossified posterior element, below the prior vertebroplasty. Magnetic resonance images revealed a right foraminal cystic lesion at the L2-L3 level with effacement of the nerve root. A 1.6 cm cystic lesion that appeared to arise from the L2-L3 facet joint without direct communication was excised from the L2-L3 foramen. Pathological examination confirmed synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after surgery except for a mild dysesthesia of the right leg. We report herein a rare case of foraminal synovial cyst associated with AS accompanying posterior element fracture with a review of literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.54
PMCID: PMC3159883  PMID: 21892407
Synovial cyst; Ankylosing spondylitis
2.  Sudden Foot Drop Caused by Foraminal Gas Pseudocyst 
A foraminal gas pseudocyst is a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy. The association with a sudden foot drop has not been previously reported. Here, a 67-year-old woman with sudden foot drop on the left side is reported. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging identified a foraminal gas containing lesion compressing the left L5 root at the L5-S1 foramen. The foraminal gas containing lesion compressing the L5 ganglion was successfully removed by the posterior approach. The histological diagnosis was a gas pseudocyst. This unique case of surgically proven gas pseudocyst indicates that it should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sudden foot drop.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.384
PMCID: PMC3158487  PMID: 21887402
Gas pseudocyst; Foramen; Foot drop
3.  Chronic Spinal Epidural Hematoma Related to Kummell's Disease 
Chronic spinal epidural hematoma related to Kummell's disease is extremely rare. An 82-year-old woman who had been managed conservatively for seven weeks with the diagnosis of a multi-level osteoporotic compression fracture was transferred to our institute. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance images revealed vertebral body collapse with the formation of a cavitary lesion at L1, and a chronic spinal epidural hematoma extending from L1 to L3. Because of intractable back pain, a percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed. The pain improved dramatically and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging obtained three days after the procedure showed a nearly complete resolution of the hematoma. Here, we present the rare case of a chronic spinal epidural hematoma associated with Kummell's disease and discuss the possible mechanism.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.231
PMCID: PMC3098428  PMID: 21607183
Spinal epidural hematoma; Kummell's disease; Percutaneous vertebroplasty
4.  Paraspinal Muscle Sparing versus Percutaneous Screw Fixation : A Prospective and Comparative Study for the Treatment of L5-S1 Spondylolisthesis 
Objective
Both the paraspinal muscle sparing approach and percutaneous screw fixation are less traumatic procedures in comparison with the conventional midline approach. These techniques have been used with the goal of reducing muscle injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the safety and efficacy of the paraspinal muscle sparing technique and percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of L5-S1 spondylolisthesis.
Methods
Twenty patients who had undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) at the L5-S1 segment for spondylolisthesis were prospectively studied. They were divided into two groups by screw fixation technique (Group I : paraspinal muscle sparing approach and Group II: percutaneous screw fixation). Clinical outcomes were assessed by Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for back and leg pain at different times after surgery. In addition, modified MacNab's grading criteria were used to assess subjective patients' outcomes 6 months after surgery. Postoperative midline surgical scarring, intraoperative blood loss, mean operation time, and procedure-related complications were analyzed.
Results
Excellent or good results were observed in all patients in both groups 6 months after surgery. Patients in both groups showed marked improvement in terms of LBOSs all over time intervals. Postoperative midline surgical scarring and intraoperative blood loss were lower in Group II compared to Group I although these differences were not statistically significant. Low back pain (LBP) and leg pain in both groups also showed significant improvement when compared to preoperative scores. However, at 7 days and 1 month after surgery, patients in Group II had significantly better LBP scores compared to Group I.
Conclusion
In terms of LBP during the early postoperative period, patients who underwent percutaneous screw fixation showed better results compared to ones who underwent screw fixation via the paraspinal muscle sparing approach. Our results indicate that the percutaneous screw fixation procedure is the preferable minimally invasive technique for reducing LBP associated with L5-S1 spondylolisthesis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.3.163
PMCID: PMC3085812  PMID: 21556236
Spondylolisthesis; Paraspinal muscle sparing approach; Percutaneous screw fixation; Back pain

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