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2.  Applying the ACR Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Fibromyalgia 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(3):173-182.
Background
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain with a low pain threshold. The aim of this study was to compare two criteria for the diagnosis and assessment of FM and to analyze the correlation and agreement between the 1990 and 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM.
Methods
We studied 98 patients who had already been diagnosed as having FM using the 1990 criteria or 2010 preliminary criteria. Tender point examination, FM impact questionnaire (FIQ) and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were obtained. According to the preliminary criteria, FM was quantified as WPI (widespread pain index) and the SS scale (symptom severity) and the two criteria were compared.
Results
Among 98 patients, 78.6% of the patients were diagnosed with the 1990 ACR criteria and 93.9% of the patients were diagnosed with the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria, and there was also significant agreement between the two criteria (P < 0.01). There was a correlation with the WPI and the tender point, with the SS and the FIQ, and with the sum of the WPI and SS and the FIQ.
Conclusions
The ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM were in agreement with the 1990 ACR criteria during the disease course. The preliminary criteria were the more sensitive method than the 1990 criteria. In addition, the 2010 criteria might have advantages since it is easy to assess the physical and psychological symptoms and can be quantified. Therefore, the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM could be used more conveniently for clinical diagnosis and follow up evaluation after starting management of FM.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2012.25.3.173
PMCID: PMC3389322  PMID: 22787548
fibromyalgia; 1990 criteria; 2010 preliminary criteria
4.  Advances in Systems Biology Approaches for Autoimmune Diseases 
Immune Network  2014;14(2):73-80.
Because autoimmune diseases (AIDs) result from a complex combination of genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as an altered immune response to endogenous or exogenous antigens, systems biology approaches have been widely applied. The use of multi-omics approaches, including blood transcriptomics, genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, and metabolomics, not only allow for the discovery of a number of biomarkers but also will provide new directions for further translational AIDs applications. Systems biology approaches rely on high-throughput techniques with data analysis platforms that leverage the assessment of genes, proteins, metabolites, and network analysis of complex biologic or pathways implicated in specific AID conditions. To facilitate the discovery of validated and qualified biomarkers, better-coordinated multi-omics approaches and standardized translational research, in combination with the skills of biologists, clinicians, engineers, and bioinformaticians, are required.
doi:10.4110/in.2014.14.2.73
PMCID: PMC4022781  PMID: 24851096
Autoimmune diseases; Systems biology; Multi-omics; Biomarker; Translational research; Network analysis
5.  Severe ischemic bowel necrosis caused by terlipressin during treatment of hepatorenal syndrome 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2013;19(4):417-420.
Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue that is widely used in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome or variceal bleeding. Because it acts mainly on splanchnic vessels, terlipressin has a lower incidence of severe ischemic complications than does vasopressin. However, it can still lead to serious complications such as myocardial infarction, skin necrosis, or bowel ischemia. Herein we report a case of severe ischemic bowel necrosis in a 46-year-old cirrhotic patient treated with terlipressin. Although the patient received bowel resection, death occurred due to ongoing hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Attention should be paid to patients complaining of abdominal pain during treatment with terlipressin.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2013.19.4.417
PMCID: PMC3894442  PMID: 24459647
Terlipressin; Necrosis; Hepatorenal syndrome
6.  A case of necrotizing pancreatitis subsequent to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2012;18(3):321-325.
Necrotizing pancreatitis is one of the rare complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Necrotizing pancreatitis after TACE may result from the development of ischemia caused by regurgitation of embolic materials into the vessels supplying the pancreas. We report a case of post-TACE necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had suffered hepatic artery injury due to repetitive TACE; during his 25th TACE procedure he had submitted to selective catheterization of the feeding vessel from the dorsal pancreatic artery with a cytotoxic agent and Gelfoam particles. The patient complained of abdominal pain after the TACE procedure, and a CT scan led to a diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation. The pancreatic abscess progressed despite general management of the pancreatitis, including antibiotics. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, and the symptoms of the patient improved.
doi:10.3350/cmh.2012.18.3.321
PMCID: PMC3467437  PMID: 23091814
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Therapeutic chemoembolization; Acute necrotizing pancreatitis
7.  Induction of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in ConA-Stimulated Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts through the P38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Signaling Pathway 
Background/Aims
This study was undertaken to identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved in induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts.
Methods
Human RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with concanavalin A (ConA), various cytokines, and inhibitors of signal transduction molecules. The production of MIF by synovial fibroblasts was measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. The expression of MIF mRNA was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in synovial fibroblasts was confirmed using Western blotting. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase in RA synovium was determined using dual immunohistochemistry.
Results
The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts increased in a dose-dependent manner after ConA stimulation. MIF was also induced by interferon-γ, CD40 ligand, interleukin-15, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts was significantly reduced after inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase was upregulated in the RA synovium compared with the osteoarthritis synovium.
Conclusions
These results suggest that MIF production was induced through a p38 MAP-kinase-dependent pathway in RA synovial fibroblasts.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2010.25.3.317
PMCID: PMC2932946  PMID: 20830230
Macrophage, migration-inhibitory factors; Arthritis rheumatoid; Synovial fibroblast; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases
8.  Serum Pro-hepcidin Could Reflect Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):348-352.
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum pro-hepcidin concentration and the anemia profiles of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate the pro-hepcidin could reflect the disease activity of RA. RA disease activities were measured using Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), tender/swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anemia profiles such as hemoglobin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and transferrin levels were measured. Serum concentration of pro-hepcidin, the prohormone of hepcidin, was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean concentration of serum pro-hepcidin was 237.6±67.9 ng/mL in 40 RA patients. The pro-hepcidin concentration was correlated with rheumatoid factor, CRP, ESR, and DAS28. There was a significant correlation between pro-hepcidin with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The pro-hepcidin concentration was significantly higher in the patients with active RA (DAS28>5.1) than those with inactive to moderate RA (DAS28≤5.1). However, the pro-hepcidin concentration did not correlate with the anemia profiles except hemoglobin level. There was no difference of pro-hepcidin concentration between the patients with anemia of chronic disease and those without. In conclusion, serum concentration of pro-hepcidin reflects the disease activity, regardless of the anemia states in RA patients, thus it may be another potential marker for disease activity of RA.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.348
PMCID: PMC2826733  PMID: 20191031
Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Anemia; Hepcidin; Prohepcidin
9.  Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Successfully Treated with Cyclosporine A : A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1124-1127.
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the serious complications of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and recently, cyclosporine A has been found to be effective in patients with corticosteroid-resistant MAS. A 29-yr-old male was admitted with high fever and jaundice for one month. He was diagnosed as juvenile arthritis 16 yr ago. Physical and laboratory results showed hepatosplenomegaly, high fever, pancytopenia and impaired liver and renal function tests, elevated triglyceride and serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow biopsy showed hyperplasia of histiocytes with active hemophagocytosis. He was diagnosed as MAS associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and managed with high-dose corticosteroids initially, but clinical symptoms and laboratory findings did not improve immediately. Finally, he completely recovered after treatment with cyclosporine A (3 mg/kg/day).
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.6.1124
PMCID: PMC2721943  PMID: 17179701
Macrophage activation syndrome; Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid; Cyclosporine
10.  Intraabdominal Cryptococcal Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1059-1061.
Cryptococcal infection is a rare, yet well recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case of mesenteric and retroperitoneal cryptococcal lymphadenitis resulting in the obstruction of the stomach and proximal duodenum in a patient suffering from SLE, while recently she did not receive any immunosuppressive treatment. A 42-yr-old woman was admitted due to high fever and diffuse abdominal pain for three weeks. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple conglomerated lymphadenopathies in the retroperitoneum and the mesentery resulting in luminal narrowing of the third portion of the duodenum. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis was proven by needle biopsy and she was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, followed by oral fluconazole. After fourteen-month antifungal therapies, the clinical symptoms and follow-up images improved. This case emphasize that the intrinsic immunological defects of SLE may be directly responsible for the predisposition to fungal infections.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.6.1059
PMCID: PMC2779309  PMID: 16361822
Mesenteric Lymphadenitis; Cryptococcus neoformans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic

Results 1-10 (10)