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2.  Applying the ACR Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Fibromyalgia 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(3):173-182.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain with a low pain threshold. The aim of this study was to compare two criteria for the diagnosis and assessment of FM and to analyze the correlation and agreement between the 1990 and 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM.
We studied 98 patients who had already been diagnosed as having FM using the 1990 criteria or 2010 preliminary criteria. Tender point examination, FM impact questionnaire (FIQ) and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were obtained. According to the preliminary criteria, FM was quantified as WPI (widespread pain index) and the SS scale (symptom severity) and the two criteria were compared.
Among 98 patients, 78.6% of the patients were diagnosed with the 1990 ACR criteria and 93.9% of the patients were diagnosed with the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria, and there was also significant agreement between the two criteria (P < 0.01). There was a correlation with the WPI and the tender point, with the SS and the FIQ, and with the sum of the WPI and SS and the FIQ.
The ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM were in agreement with the 1990 ACR criteria during the disease course. The preliminary criteria were the more sensitive method than the 1990 criteria. In addition, the 2010 criteria might have advantages since it is easy to assess the physical and psychological symptoms and can be quantified. Therefore, the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM could be used more conveniently for clinical diagnosis and follow up evaluation after starting management of FM.
PMCID: PMC3389322  PMID: 22787548
fibromyalgia; 1990 criteria; 2010 preliminary criteria
3.  Rhabdomyolysis in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Presenting With Nausea and Vomiting as Chief Complaints: A Case Report 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2014;38(4):559-562.
Dealing with complications is crucial in the management of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis in SCI without apparent soft tissue injury, presenting with nausea and vomiting as chief complaints. Given that gastrointestinal discomfort is common in SCI, this case highlights the need to consider rhabdomyolysis as a potential cause of unexplained nausea and vomiting in SCI, and indicate the value of regular check-up of creatine kinase level in SCI patients. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent acute renal failure that can occur with rhabdomyolysis and minimize the potential threat of declined renal function in SCI patients.
PMCID: PMC4163597  PMID: 25229036
Spinal cord injuries; Rhabdomyolysis; Nausea
5.  Advances in Systems Biology Approaches for Autoimmune Diseases 
Immune Network  2014;14(2):73-80.
Because autoimmune diseases (AIDs) result from a complex combination of genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as an altered immune response to endogenous or exogenous antigens, systems biology approaches have been widely applied. The use of multi-omics approaches, including blood transcriptomics, genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, and metabolomics, not only allow for the discovery of a number of biomarkers but also will provide new directions for further translational AIDs applications. Systems biology approaches rely on high-throughput techniques with data analysis platforms that leverage the assessment of genes, proteins, metabolites, and network analysis of complex biologic or pathways implicated in specific AID conditions. To facilitate the discovery of validated and qualified biomarkers, better-coordinated multi-omics approaches and standardized translational research, in combination with the skills of biologists, clinicians, engineers, and bioinformaticians, are required.
PMCID: PMC4022781  PMID: 24851096
Autoimmune diseases; Systems biology; Multi-omics; Biomarker; Translational research; Network analysis
6.  Severe ischemic bowel necrosis caused by terlipressin during treatment of hepatorenal syndrome 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2013;19(4):417-420.
Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue that is widely used in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome or variceal bleeding. Because it acts mainly on splanchnic vessels, terlipressin has a lower incidence of severe ischemic complications than does vasopressin. However, it can still lead to serious complications such as myocardial infarction, skin necrosis, or bowel ischemia. Herein we report a case of severe ischemic bowel necrosis in a 46-year-old cirrhotic patient treated with terlipressin. Although the patient received bowel resection, death occurred due to ongoing hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Attention should be paid to patients complaining of abdominal pain during treatment with terlipressin.
PMCID: PMC3894442  PMID: 24459647
Terlipressin; Necrosis; Hepatorenal syndrome
7.  A case of necrotizing pancreatitis subsequent to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma 
Clinical and molecular hepatology  2012;18(3):321-325.
Necrotizing pancreatitis is one of the rare complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Necrotizing pancreatitis after TACE may result from the development of ischemia caused by regurgitation of embolic materials into the vessels supplying the pancreas. We report a case of post-TACE necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had suffered hepatic artery injury due to repetitive TACE; during his 25th TACE procedure he had submitted to selective catheterization of the feeding vessel from the dorsal pancreatic artery with a cytotoxic agent and Gelfoam particles. The patient complained of abdominal pain after the TACE procedure, and a CT scan led to a diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation. The pancreatic abscess progressed despite general management of the pancreatitis, including antibiotics. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, and the symptoms of the patient improved.
PMCID: PMC3467437  PMID: 23091814
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Therapeutic chemoembolization; Acute necrotizing pancreatitis
8.  Chemical compound 31002 stimulates cardiomyogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells 
Laboratory Animal Research  2011;27(3):205-212.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an emerging source for cell-based therapies aimed at repairing damaged organ tissues; however, the efficiency of directed differentiation is low and refinement of differentiation protocols is hampered by incomplete understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. To find new compounds which can improve the efficiency of directed differentiation of ESCs to cardiomyocytes, we screened several thousand chemical compounds and identified a promising group. All of the compounds found have a common structure of 1H-pyrrole,2,2'-(phenylmethylene)bis. Here we report the potential mechanism of action for 31002 which showed the strongest activity among the compounds selected. In the presence of 31002, 15 times more cardiomyocytes differentiated from ESCs, i.e., 3.5% to 52% of total differentiated cells. Moreover, the cardiomyocytes showed functional characteristics including rhythmic beating and marker gene expression. 31002 inhibited the down-regulation of genes related to the three germ layers in the late stage of ESCs differentiation, implying that 31002 supports a continuous fate commitment of undifferentiated ESCs to the cardiac lineage by prolonging the three germ layer stages. Therefore, compounds in this group, including 31002, might be useful as directed cardiomyogenic differentiation-inducers to produce cells for use in cell therapy aimed at restoring damaged heart tissue.
PMCID: PMC3188727  PMID: 21998609
Embryonic stem cells; 31002; cardiomyocytes; differentiation
9.  The expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in RA-FLS is induced by IL-17 via Act-1 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(4):R113.
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We conducted this study to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-17 on the expression and production of RAGE in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) in IL-17-induced RAGE expression in RA-FLS was also evaluated.
RAGE expression in synovial tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. RAGE mRNA production was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Act-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was produced and treated to evaluate the role of Act-1 on RAGE production.
RAGE, IL-17, and Act-1 expression increased in RA synovium compared to osteoarthritis synovium. RAGE expression and production increased by IL-17 and IL-1β (*P <0.05 vs. untreated cells) treatment but not by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RA-FLS. The combined stimuli of both IL-17 and IL-1β significantly increased RAGE production compared to a single stimulus with IL-17 or IL-1β alone (P <0.05 vs. 10 ng/ml IL-17). Act-1 shRNA added to the RA-FLS culture supernatant completely suppressed the enhanced production of RAGE induced by IL-17.
RAGE was overexpressed in RA synovial tissues, and RAGE production was stimulated by IL-17 and IL-1β. Act-1 contributed to the stimulatory effect of IL-17 on RAGE production, suggesting a possible inhibitory target for RA treatment.
PMCID: PMC3239351  PMID: 21749686
10.  Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances osteoclastogenesis through upregulation of RANKL expression from fibroblast-like synoviocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is one of key regulators in acute and chronic immune-inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the effect of MIF on osteoclastogenesis, which is known to play a crucial role in bone destruction in RA.
The concentration of MIF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in the synovial fluid was measured by ELISA. MIF-induced RANKL expression of RA synovial fibroblasts was determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Osteoclastogenesis was analyzed in culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with MIF. Osteoclastogenesis was also determined after co-cultures of rhMIF-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts with human PBMC.
Synovial fluid MIF concentration in RA patients was significantly higher than in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The concentration of RANKL correlated with that of MIF in RA synovial fluids (r = 0.6, P < 0.001). MIF stimulated the expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in RA synovial fibroblasts, which was partially reduced by blocking of interleukin (IL)-1β. Osteoclasts were differentiated from PBMC cultures with MIF and M-CSF, even without RANKL. Osteoclastogenesis was increased after co-culture of MIF-stimulated RA synovial fibroblasts with PBMC and this effect was diminished by RANKL neutralization. Blocking of PI3 kinase, p38 MAP kinase, JAK-2, NF-κB, and AP-1 also led to a marked reduction in RANKL expression and osteoclastogenesis.
The interactions among MIF, synovial fibroblasts, osteoclasts, RANKL, and IL-1β have a close connection in osteoclastogenesis and they could be a potential gateway leading to new therapeutic approaches in treating bone destruction in RA.
PMCID: PMC3132025  PMID: 21401926
11.  Induction of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in ConA-Stimulated Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts through the P38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Signaling Pathway 
This study was undertaken to identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved in induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts.
Human RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with concanavalin A (ConA), various cytokines, and inhibitors of signal transduction molecules. The production of MIF by synovial fibroblasts was measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. The expression of MIF mRNA was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in synovial fibroblasts was confirmed using Western blotting. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase in RA synovium was determined using dual immunohistochemistry.
The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts increased in a dose-dependent manner after ConA stimulation. MIF was also induced by interferon-γ, CD40 ligand, interleukin-15, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts was significantly reduced after inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase was upregulated in the RA synovium compared with the osteoarthritis synovium.
These results suggest that MIF production was induced through a p38 MAP-kinase-dependent pathway in RA synovial fibroblasts.
PMCID: PMC2932946  PMID: 20830230
Macrophage, migration-inhibitory factors; Arthritis rheumatoid; Synovial fibroblast; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases
12.  Serum Pro-hepcidin Could Reflect Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):348-352.
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum pro-hepcidin concentration and the anemia profiles of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate the pro-hepcidin could reflect the disease activity of RA. RA disease activities were measured using Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), tender/swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anemia profiles such as hemoglobin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, and transferrin levels were measured. Serum concentration of pro-hepcidin, the prohormone of hepcidin, was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean concentration of serum pro-hepcidin was 237.6±67.9 ng/mL in 40 RA patients. The pro-hepcidin concentration was correlated with rheumatoid factor, CRP, ESR, and DAS28. There was a significant correlation between pro-hepcidin with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The pro-hepcidin concentration was significantly higher in the patients with active RA (DAS28>5.1) than those with inactive to moderate RA (DAS28≤5.1). However, the pro-hepcidin concentration did not correlate with the anemia profiles except hemoglobin level. There was no difference of pro-hepcidin concentration between the patients with anemia of chronic disease and those without. In conclusion, serum concentration of pro-hepcidin reflects the disease activity, regardless of the anemia states in RA patients, thus it may be another potential marker for disease activity of RA.
PMCID: PMC2826733  PMID: 20191031
Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Anemia; Hepcidin; Prohepcidin
13.  Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Successfully Treated with Cyclosporine A : A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1124-1127.
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the serious complications of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and recently, cyclosporine A has been found to be effective in patients with corticosteroid-resistant MAS. A 29-yr-old male was admitted with high fever and jaundice for one month. He was diagnosed as juvenile arthritis 16 yr ago. Physical and laboratory results showed hepatosplenomegaly, high fever, pancytopenia and impaired liver and renal function tests, elevated triglyceride and serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow biopsy showed hyperplasia of histiocytes with active hemophagocytosis. He was diagnosed as MAS associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and managed with high-dose corticosteroids initially, but clinical symptoms and laboratory findings did not improve immediately. Finally, he completely recovered after treatment with cyclosporine A (3 mg/kg/day).
PMCID: PMC2721943  PMID: 17179701
Macrophage activation syndrome; Arthritis, Juvenile Rheumatoid; Cyclosporine
14.  Intraabdominal Cryptococcal Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1059-1061.
Cryptococcal infection is a rare, yet well recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case of mesenteric and retroperitoneal cryptococcal lymphadenitis resulting in the obstruction of the stomach and proximal duodenum in a patient suffering from SLE, while recently she did not receive any immunosuppressive treatment. A 42-yr-old woman was admitted due to high fever and diffuse abdominal pain for three weeks. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple conglomerated lymphadenopathies in the retroperitoneum and the mesentery resulting in luminal narrowing of the third portion of the duodenum. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis was proven by needle biopsy and she was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, followed by oral fluconazole. After fourteen-month antifungal therapies, the clinical symptoms and follow-up images improved. This case emphasize that the intrinsic immunological defects of SLE may be directly responsible for the predisposition to fungal infections.
PMCID: PMC2779309  PMID: 16361822
Mesenteric Lymphadenitis; Cryptococcus neoformans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
15.  Superior mesenteric artery syndrome due to an aortic aneurysm in a renal transplant recipient. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):552-554.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare disease in which the third portion of the duodenum is compressed by SMA. There are many causes leading to the SMA syndrome, however it's extremely rare that aortic aneurysm causes a SMA syndrome. We report a case of a successfully treated SMA syndrome due to an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was a 52-yr-old woman with a thin stature (weight 40 kg, height 164 cm). She received a renal transplant 8 yr before, and had hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Her SMA syndrome developed in a prolonged supine position for the accidental rib fractures and was diagnosed by clinical and radiological findings. After a surgical correction (resection of an aneurysm and aortobiiliac bypass with an inverted Y graft), her symptoms relieved without deterioration of the graft function.
PMCID: PMC3054917  PMID: 12172055

Results 1-15 (15)