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1.  Glycated Hemoglobin Value for Fasting Plasma Glucose of 126 mg/dL in Korean: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(6):480-483.
We aimed to estimate the cutoff value of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, A1c) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 126 mg/dL in the Korean adult population, using the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5,421 participants without a history of diabetes and over 19 years of age were included in the analysis. A point-wise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the optimal A1c cutoff value. A1c threshold of 6.1% produced the highest sum of sensitivity (85.2%) and specificity (90.5%) for FPG of 126 mg/dL (area under the curve, 0.941, P<0.001). A1c of 6.5% produced a sensitivity of 67.7% and specificity of 98.0% for FPG of 126 mg/dL. Considering A1c as one of three criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes and the specificity of an A1c cutoff of 6.5%, the current diagnostic criteria of A1c≥6.5% might be acceptable in the Korean adult population.
PMCID: PMC4273035  PMID: 25541612
Diabetes mellitus; Diagnosis; Hemoglobin A, glycated
2.  Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(2):150-157.
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.
The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI.
More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC4021302  PMID: 24851209
Aged; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Mild cognitive impairment
3.  The Association of Self-Reported Coronary Heart Disease with Diabetes Duration in Korea 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(5):350-356.
This study aimed to investigate the association of diabetes duration with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korea.
Among data from 34,145 persons compiled in the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, laboratory test and nutritional survey data from 5,531 persons were examined. The participants were asked to recall a physician's diagnosis of CHD (angina or myocardial infarction).
Age- and sex-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 3.59; not significant) for diabetes with duration of <1 year, 2.27 (95% CI, 1.14 to 4.54; P=0.020) for diabetes with a duration of 1 to 5 years, and 3.29 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.08; P<0.001) for diabetes with a duration >5 years, compared with non-diabetes as a control. Even after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking status, waist circumference, hypertension, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, relative risk for CHD was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.01 to 8.11; P=0.047) in diabetes with a duration of 6 to 10 years and 4.07 (95% CI, 1.73 to 9.63; P=0.001) in diabetes with duration of >10 years with non-diabetes as a control.
CHD prevalence increased with an increase in diabetes duration in Korean men and women. Recently detected diabetes (duration <1 year) was not significantly associated with CHD prevalence compared to non-diabetes. However, diabetes of a duration of >5 years was associated with an increase in CHD compared to non-diabetics after adjusting for several CHD risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3486981  PMID: 23130319
Coronary disease; Diabetes mellitus; Duration
4.  Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(4):300-306.
Major macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.
A total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years) who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.
High total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002). Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.
Total energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.
PMCID: PMC3428419  PMID: 22950062
Diabetes mellitus; Glycated hemoglobin; Korea; Macronutrient intake
5.  Metabolic Syndrome versus Framingham Risk Score for Association of Self-Reported Coronary Heart Disease: The 2005 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(3):237-244.
Several studies in Western populations have indicated that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inferior to the Framingham risk score (FRS) in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD). However there has been no study about the predictability of MetS vs. FRS for CHD in Korea.
Among the 43,145 persons from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, laboratory test and nutritional survey data from 5,271 persons were examined. Participants were also asked to recall a physician's diagnosis of CHD.
The median age was 46 (range, 20 to 78) in men (n=2,257) and 44 (range, 20 to 78) years in women (n=3,014). Prevalence of self-reported CHD was 1.7% in men and 2.1% in women. Receiver operating characteristic curves and their respective area under the curve (AUC) were used to compare the ability of the FRS and the number of components of MetS to predict self-reported CHD in each sex. In men, AUC of FRS was significantly larger than that of MetS (0.767 [0.708 to 0.819] vs. 0.677 [0.541 to 0.713], P<0.01). In women, AUC of FRS was comparable to that of MetS (0.777 [0.728 to 0.826] vs. 0.733 [0.673 to 0.795]), and was not significant.
The data suggested that FRS was more closely associated with CHD compared to MetS in Korean men.
PMCID: PMC3380128  PMID: 22737664
Coronary artery disease; Metabolic syndrome; Risk assessment
6.  Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference According to Glucose Tolerance Status in Korea: The 2005 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(5):518-524.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the stage of glucose intolerance in which persons showed a maximum obesity in Korea. A total of 4,479 participants, who were involved in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, was examined. The participants were divided into 5 groups by fasting plasma glucose (FPG); normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG < 90 mg/dL; NFG2, FPG 90-99 mg/dL; impaired fasting glucose (IFG)1, FPG 100-109 mg/dL; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dL; and diabetes mellitus, FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL or with anti-diabetes drugs. In those with FPG < 110 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were increased with increase of FPG (BMI in men; NFG1, 23.3 ± 0.1; NFG2, 24.4 ± 0.1; IFG1, 25.0 ± 0.2 kg/m2, in women; NFG1, 23.0 ± 0.1; NFG2, 24.0 ± 0.1; IFG1, 24.8 ± 0.2 kg/m2, WC in men; NFG1, 82.1 ± 0.3; NFG2, 85.3 ± 0.3; IFG1, 86.7 ± 0.5 cm, in women; NFG1, 77.1 ± 0.2; NFG2, 79.4 ± 0.3; IFG1, 81.8 ± 0.6 cm). In IFG2 and diabetes range, there was no more increase of BMI and WC with increase of FPG in each sex. The data suggest that degree of obesity increases with an increase of FPG in range of FPG < 100 mg/dL, peaked in FPG of 100-109 mg/dL, and then plateaus in higher FPG range in general Korean population.
PMCID: PMC3342543  PMID: 22563217
Body Mass Index; Waist Circumference; Diabetes Mellitus; Korea
7.  Risk Factors Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Hypertension 
Korean Diabetes Journal  2010;34(1):40-46.
Hypertension and age are recognized as important risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Some studies have shown that diabetes itself may also be an independent risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction, although this is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in the absence of hypertension or ischemic heart disease (IHD).
Participants in this study consisted of 65 type 2 diabetes patients (M : F = 45 : 20; mean age 51 [26 to 76] years; mean body mass index [BMI] 25.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2) without hypertension, heart disease, or renal disease. Individuals with ischemic electrocardiographic changes were excluded. LV diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler echocardiographic studies.
Fifteen patients (23.1%) showed LV diastolic dysfunction on Doppler echocardiographic studies. Patients with LV diastolic dysfunction were older than those without diastolic dysfunction (60.0 ± 2.5 vs. 50.5 ± 1.9 years; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age and sex, BMI was higher (26.6 ± 0.7 vs. 24.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2; P < 0.01) and diabetes duration was longer (9.65 ± 1.48 vs. 4.71 ± 0.78 years; P < 0.01) in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction than in those without diastolic dysfunction. There were no differences in sex, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profiles, hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, or diabetic microvascular complications between the LV diastolic dysfunction group and the normal diastolic function group. After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, diabetes duration was found to be independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.38; confidence interval 1.12 to 1.72; P = 0.003).
These results suggest that diabetes duration may be a risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients without hypertension or IHD.
PMCID: PMC2879905  PMID: 20532019
Diabetes duration; Diabetes mellitus; Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
8.  Association of the Estimated 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion with Albuminuria in Adult Koreans: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109073.
Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations.
This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria.
This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2), in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine.
On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001). Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71–2.21], p = 0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.
These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population.
PMCID: PMC4196757  PMID: 25313865
9.  Non-intubated single port thoracoscopic procedure under local anesthesia with sedation for a 5-year-old girl 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2014;6(7):E148-E151.
Medical thoracoscopy is a feasible procedure for the diagnosis or treatment of thoracic diseases, and it can be performed under local anesthesia without tracheal intubation in cooperative adult patients. However, for younger than school aged patients, even simple procedures require general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. In this case report, we demonstrated the safe performance of a single port thoracoscopic procedure without tracheal intubation in a 5-year-old girl under local anesthesia and sedation. Local anesthesia around the site of a previous chest tube and sedation with intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine and ketamine were applied. In the aspect of not only minimal injection of local anesthetics but also enhanced visualization of the thoracic structures, the non-intubated single port thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia with sedation was a good option for performing a simple thoracoscopic procedure in this 5-year-old patient.
PMCID: PMC4120185  PMID: 25093102
Thoracoscopy; non-intubated; single port; local anesthesia; sedation; bispectral index (BIS)
10.  How Does Chronic Back Pain Influence Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Asian Spine Journal  2014;8(3):346-352.
Study Design
A cross-sectional study.
To explore the impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP) on individuals' quality of life; to understand current treatment practices and level of satisfaction with treatment in patients with CLBP.
Overview of Literature
Assessing subjective, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life is essential to health care research.
Influences of the CLBP were analyzed via a questionnaire, which contained the character of CLBP, effect of pain management, Korean version Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI) and Korean version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2).
Of 3,121 subjects who responded, 67.3% had moderate to severe pain; 43.5% presented prolonged CLBP of more than two years; and 32.4% had suffered from sleep disturbance due to pain. 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. The mean K-ODI score was 37.63; and it was positively correlated with the mean pain intensity (r=0.6, p<0.001). The SF-12v2 result was negatively correlated with mean pain intensity (PCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.4, p<0.001) and also negatively correlated with the K-ODI score (PCS: r=-0.75, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001). The conformity between patients and doctors in pain assessment was fair (κ=0.2463).
CLBP negatively affects quality of life. Of total 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. Such needs to be taken more seriously by doctors for improvement of satisfaction and quality of life in patients with CLBP.
PMCID: PMC4068855  PMID: 24967049
Chronic low back pain; Assessment; Quality of life
11.  Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94189.
We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes.
Research Design and Methods
Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III.
The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract.
According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults.
PMCID: PMC3981769  PMID: 24718421
12.  Plasma Glucose Regulation and Mortality in Korea: A Pooled Analysis of Three Community-Based Cohort Studies 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2014;38(1):44-50.
Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor for death, its impact on cancer death is not clearly understood. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with increased risk of mortality. We investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose tolerance categories on all cause and cause-specific mortality.
Mortality analysis was conducted in three population-based cohort studies of 3,801 participants, divided according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (normal; stage 1 IFG [5.6≤FPG<6.1 mmol/L]; stage 2 IFG [6.1≤FPG<7.0 mmol/L]; diabetes mellitus [DM]-FPG); or 2-hour glucose after 75 g glucose loading (2hPG) (normal; IGT; DM-2hPG), or a combination of FPG and 2hPG criteria.
During a median follow-up of 11.0 years, 474 subjects died from all causes. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all cause death were higher in those with diabetes as defined by either FPG or 2hPG criteria than their normal counterparts (HR, 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 2.9 for DM-FPG; HR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.7 for DM-2hPG). Similarly, diabetes defined by either FPG or 2hPG was associated with cancer death (HR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.0; and HR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.9, respectively). Although neither IFG nor IGT conferred higher risk for death, when combining stage 2 IFG and/or IGT, the risk of all cause death was higher than in subjects with normal glucose regulation (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6).
Diabetes is associated with higher risk of death from all causes and cancer. In subjects without diabetes, stage 2 IFG and/or IGT confers increased risk for mortality.
PMCID: PMC3950194  PMID: 24627827
Diabetes mellitus; Glucose intolerance; Mortality
13.  Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Albuminuria in the Korean Adult Population: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83273.
Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of renal disease and cardiovascular diseases even in non-diabetic subjects. High incidence rates of microalbuminuria have been found in a number of population-based studies. However, the prevalence and risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in the general population in Korea are unclear.
The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and investigate the associated risk factors in the general adult population using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2) data from 2011.
A total of 5,202 participants (mean age, 45.6 years; men, 2,337; women, 2,865) were included in the analysis. Microalbuminuria was evaluated in participants of KNHANES V-2 based on the urine albumin–creatinine ratio. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation.
The weighted prevalence of microalbuminuria was 5.2% (95% CI, 4.4–6.1) in the general population. The prevalence of albuminuria is increased with age. After adjustment for age and sex, the presence of albuminuria was associated with increased waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes. In logistic regression analyses, older age, female sex, diabetes, hypertension, and serum aspartate aminotransferase were independently associated with the presence of albuminuria.
The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.2%, and conventional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are closely related to the presence of microalbuminuria in Korea. Microalbuminuria may be a useful marker to identify individuals with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC3873941  PMID: 24386169
14.  Low Pulmonary Function in Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose: The 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e76244.
To investigate the association between fasting plasma glucose level and pulmonary function.
Research Design and Methods
Nutritional information, pulmonary function data, and laboratory test data from 9,223 subjects from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The participants were divided into five groups according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level: normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG <90 mg/dl; NFG2, FPG 90-99 mg/dl; impaired fasting glucose (IFG)1: FPG 100-109 mg/dl; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dl; and diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dl and/or current anti-diabetes medications.
After adjustment for several variables, the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity(FVC%) decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose level in both sexes[men: (mean ± SEM) 92.0±0.3 in NFG1; 91.9±0.3 in NFG2; 92.0±0.4 in IFG1; 90.2±0.7 in IFG2; and 89.9±0.5 in diabetes, P = 0.004; women: 93.7±0.3 in NFG1; 93.7±0.3 in NFG2; 93.1±0.5 in IFG1; 91.1±0.9 in IFG2; and 90.7±0.6 in diabetes, P<0.001]. A logistic regression analysis found that IFG2 and diabetes were independently associated with the lowest quintile of predicted FVC% (IFG2: odds ratio [95%CI], 1.50 [1.18-1.89], P = 0.001; diabetes: 1.56 [1.30-1.88], P<0.001) using NFG1 as a control.
The current data suggest that forced vital capacity may begin to decrease in the higher range of IFG.
PMCID: PMC3785444  PMID: 24086719
15.  Effects of patient‐tailored atorvastatin therapy on ameliorating the levels of atherogenic lipids and inflammation beyond lowering low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Recently, patient‐tailored statin therapy was proven effective for achieving target low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. It is unclear, however, whether this therapeutic modality would be effective for atherogenic lipid profiles and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods
The present study was an 8‐week, multicenter, single‐step titration trial of patient‐tailored atorvastatin therapy (10, 20 and 40 mg) according to baseline LDL cholesterol levels in 440 patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured the LDL particle size by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and used high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hsCRP) and adiponectin as surrogate markers of inflammation.
In the intention‐to‐treat analysis, 91% of the patients achieved their LDL cholesterol targets (<2.6 mmol/L) at week 8. There were significant reductions at week 8 in total cholesterol, triglycerides, non‐high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol, and the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio compared with the baseline values for all of the doses. The mean LDL particle size was significantly increased, and the small, dense LDL cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose‐dependent manner over the study period. In addition, the hsCRP levels were decreased in those high‐risk patients with baseline hsCRP levels over 3 mg/L (P < 0.001), and the adiponectin levels tended to increase with all of the doses (P = 0.004) at 8 weeks.
Patient‐tailored atorvastatin therapy based on LDL cholesterol at baseline was effective in ameliorating atherogenic LDL particle size and inflammation, in addition to achieving the target LDL cholesterol level without an undesirable effect on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered with (no. NCT01239849).
PMCID: PMC4025110  PMID: 24843697
Atorvastatin; Low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
16.  Chronic pure radiculopathy in patient with organizing epidural hematoma around C8 nerve root 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(Suppl 4):450-452.
Spontaneously occurring spinal epidural hematomas are uncommon clinical findings, and the chronic form is the rarest and its most frequent location is the lumbar spine. Pure radicular involvement is far less frequent than myelopathy. We report a case of progressive radiculopathy in a 52-year-old man with spontaneously occurring cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH). The patient had left hand weakness and numbness for 4 months. MRI scan showed small space-occupying lesion around left 8th cervical nerve root. After surgery we confirmed chronic organizing epidural hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the worldwide literature of pure radiculopathy in a patient with chronic SCEH.
PMCID: PMC3369032  PMID: 22249307
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Radiculopathy; Chronic
17.  Safety and Efficacy of Modern Insulin Analogues 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(3):181-189.
A1chieve® was a noninterventional study evaluating the clinical safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin detemir, and insulin aspart.
Korean type 2 diabetes patients who have not been treated with the study insulin or have started it within 4 weeks before enrollment were eligible for the study. The patient selection and the choice of regimen were at the discretion of the physician. The safety and efficacy information was collected from the subjects at baseline, week 12, and week 24. The number of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) was the primary endpoint. The changes of clinical diabetic markers at week 12 and/or at week 24 compared to baseline were the secondary endpoints.
Out of 4,058 exposed patients, 3,003 completed the study. During the study period, three SADRs were reported in three patients (0.1%). No major hypoglycemic episodes were observed and the rate of minor hypoglycemic episodes marginally decreased during 24 weeks (from 2.77 to 2.42 events per patient-year). The overall quality of life score improved (from 66.7±15.9 to 72.5±13.5) while the mean body weight was slightly increased (0.6±3.0 kg). The 24-week reductions in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were 1.6%±2.2%, 2.5±4.7 mmol/L, and 4.0±6.4 mmol/L, respectively.
The studied regimens showed improvements in glycemic control with low incidence of SADRs, including no incidence of major hypoglycemic episodes in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3689015  PMID: 23807921
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Insulin; Republic of Korea; Safety; Treatment outcome
18.  Factors affecting the accurate placement of percutaneous pedicle screws during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion 
European Spine Journal  2011;20(10):1635-1643.
We retrospectively evaluated 488 percutaneous pedicle screws in 110 consecutive patients that had undergone minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) to determine the incidence of pedicle screw misplacement and its relevant risk factors. Screw placements were classified based on postoperative computed tomographic findings as “correct”, “cortical encroachment” or as “frank penetration”. Age, gender, body mass index, bone mineral density, diagnosis, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), level of fusion, surgeon’s position, spinal alignment, quality/quantity of multifidus muscle, and depth to screw entry point were considered to be demographic and anatomical variables capable of affecting pedicle screw placement. Pedicle dimensions, facet joint arthritis, screw location (ipsilateral or contralateral), screw length, screw diameter, and screw trajectory angle were regarded as screw-related variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine relations between these variables and the correctness of screw placement. The incidence of cortical encroachment was 12.5% (61 screws), and frank penetration was found for 54 (11.1%) screws. Two patients (0.4%) with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain and foot drop, respectively. The odds ratios of significant risk factors for pedicle screw misplacement were 3.373 (95% CI 1.095–10.391) for obesity, 1.141 (95% CI 1.024–1.271) for pedicle convergent angle, 1.013 (95% CI 1.006–1.065) for EBL >400 cc, and 1.003 (95% CI 1.000–1.006) for cross-sectional area of multifidus muscle. Although percutaneous insertion of pedicle screws was performed safely during MITLIF, several risk factors should be considered to improve placement accuracy.
PMCID: PMC3175862  PMID: 21720727
Risk factor; Percutaneous; Pedicle screw; Minimally invasive; TLIF
19.  Relationship between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis Beyond Metabolic Disorders in Non-Diabetic Patients 
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and carotid artery atherosclerosis beyond metabolic disorders.
We studied 320 non-diabetic patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD and 313 non-diabetic patients without NAFLD who have less than 40 g alcohol/week drinking history. Carotid atherosclerotic burden was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. All subjects were divided to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to International Diabetes Federation criteria.
NAFLD patients had a significantly increased mean carotid IMT (0.79 ± 0.18 vs. 0.73 ± 0.13 mm; p < 0.001) than those without the condition. The prevalence of increased IMT, defined as IMT ≥ 1 mm, and carotid plaque were 52.5% and 34.1% in the patients with NAFLD vs. 35.8% and 18.8% in the patients without this condition (p < 0.001). The difference in IMT and prevalence of plaque was also significant even in patients without MetS as well as those with MetS (all p < 0.05). NAFLD-associated adjusted odds ratio for increased IMT was 1.236 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.023-1.467, p = 0.016] without MetS and 1.178 (95% CI, 1.059-1.311, p = 0.003) with MetS. NAFLD-associated adjusted odds ratio of carotid plaque was 1.583 (95% CI, 1.309-1.857, p = 0.024) without MetS and 1.536 (95% CI, 0.512-4.604, p = 0.444) with MetS.
NAFLD is significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in non-diabetic outpatients even without MetS. Carotid screening for NAFLD might be beneficial for assessment of future atherosclerotic complications.
PMCID: PMC3498309  PMID: 23185655
Fatty liver; Carotid intima media thickness; Metabolic syndrome
20.  Perforated Mitral Valve Aneurysm in the Posterior Leaflet without Infective Endocarditis 
Aneurysm of the mitral valve, although uncommon, occurs most commonly in association with infective endocarditis of the aortic valve and true mitral valve aneurysm is a rare cause of mitral regurgitation. We report a case with perforated mitral valve aneurysm in the posterior leaflet without concurrent infective endocarditis initially mistaken diagnosis of cystic mass, which was confirmed at operation with successful mitral valve annuloplasty.
PMCID: PMC3391625  PMID: 22787528
Mitral valve; Heart aneurysm; Mitral valve annuloplasty; Echocardiography
21.  Effects of interscalene brachial plexus block to intra-operative hemodynamics and postoperative pain for arthroscopic shoulder surgery 
Although arthroscopic shoulder surgery is less invasive and painful than open shoulder surgery, it can often cause intra-operative hemodynamic instability and severe post-operative pain. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) on intra-operative hemodynamic changes and post-operative pain during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.
After institutional review board approval, 50 consecutive patients that had undergone arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of two groups to evaluate intra-operative hemodynamic changes and post-operative pain control. Group 1 patients received an IBPB with 10 ml of normal saline guided by a nerve stimulator before induction, and Group 2 patients received 10 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine hydrochloride with the same technique. The heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded before the incision and 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 minutes after the incision. Pre-operative and post-operative pain was evaluated with a visual analog scale 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. The patients were given tramadol as a rescue medication option. The total volume of tramadol that was injected was also evaluated over the same intervals.
Group 2 showed significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates intra-operatively compared to Group 1 (P < 0.05). The visual analog scale pain scores, except at 24 hours after surgery, were significantly lower in Group 2 (P < 0.05). The total tramadol consumption significantly reduced in Group 2 (P < 0.05).
IBPB effectively controlled the hemodynamic changes that occurred during arthroscopic shoulder surgery as well as post-operative pain.
PMCID: PMC3272526  PMID: 22323951
Arthroscopy; Brachial plexus; Hemodynamics; Nerve block; Pain; Shoulder
22.  The Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Single Level Fusion 
Asian Spine Journal  2011;5(2):111-116.
Study Design
This is a retrospective study that was done according to clinical and radiological evaluation.
We analyzed the clinical and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody single level fusion.
Overview of Literature
Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is effective surgical method for treating degenerative lumbar disease.
The study was conducted on 56 patients who were available for longer than 2 years (range, 24 to 45 months) follow-up after undergoing minimally invasive transforminal lumbar interbody single level fusion. Clinical evaluation was performed by the analysis of the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Kirkaldy-Willis score. For the radiological evaluation, the disc space height, the segmental lumbar lordotic angle and the whole lumbar lordotic angle were analyzed. At the final follow-up after operation, the fusion rate was analyzed according to Bridwell's anterior fusion grade.
For the evaluation of clinical outcomes, the VAS score was reduced from an average of 6.7 prior to surgery to an average of 1.8 at the final follow-up. The ODI was decreased from an average of 36.5 prior to surgery to an average of 12.8 at the final follow-up. In regard to the clinical outcomes evaluated by the Kirkaldy-Willis score, better than good results were obtained in 52 cases (92.9%). For the radiological evaluation, the disc space height (p = 0.002), and the whole lumbar lordotic angle (p = 0.001) were increased at the final follow-up. At the final follow-up, regarding the interbody fusion, radiological union was obtained in 54 cases (95.4%).
We think that if surgeons become familiar with the surgical techniques, this is a useful method for minimally invasive spinal surgery.
PMCID: PMC3095800  PMID: 21629486
Minimally invasive; Transformainal; Lumbar interbody; Single level fusion
23.  Factors Affecting the Improvement of the Initial Peak Urinary Flow Rate after Transurethral Resection of the Prostate or Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate for Treating Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
We evaluated the factors that affect the improvement of the initial peak flow rate after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients by using noninvasive tools.
One hundred and twenty seven BPH patients who had undergone TURP or PVP between January 2005 and May 2009 were evaluated. They were divided into 2 groups: the postoperative initial peak urinary flow rate (Qmax) was less than 10 mL/sec (Group 1; n=37, TURP=11, PVP=26) and more than 10 mL/sec (Group 2; n=90, TURP=41, PVP=49). We confirmed the patients' preoperative check lists. The check list were the international prostate symptom score (IPSS), the quality of life score, a past history of acute urinary retention (AUR), body mass index and/or pyuria, the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and the prostate volume, the prostate transitional zone volume and prostatic calcification. The initial Qmax was measured at the outpatient clinic one week after discharge.
The improvement rate was not significant difference between the TURP group (78.8%) and the PVP group (65.3%). The efficacy parameters were the IPSS-storage symptom score, the prostate volume, the PSA level and a past history of AUR. The IPSS-storage symptom scores of Group 1 (12.3±3.3) was higher than those of Group 2 (10.5±1.7). The prostate volume of Group 2 (42.3±16.6 g) was bigger than that of Group 1 (36.6±7.8 g). The PSA level of Group 2 (3.8±2.6 ng/mL) was higher than that of Group 1 (2.6±2.6 ng/mL). A past history of AUR in Group 1 (35.1%) was more prevalent than that of Group 2 (15.6%).
The non-invasive factors affecting the initial Qmax after TURP or PVP were the IPSS-storage symptom score, the prostate volume and a past history of AUR. Accordingly, in patients who have a higher IPSS-storage symptom score, a smaller prostate volume and a history of AUR, there might be a detrimental effect on the initial Qmax after TURP or PVP. These factors might also be used as long-term prognostic factors.
PMCID: PMC3070224  PMID: 21468285
Transurethral resection of the prostate; Laser therapy; Prostatic hyperplasia
24.  Reliability and Validity of Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) 
Asian Spine Journal  2010;4(2):109-117.
Study Design
A new classification system for throacolumbar spine injury, Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) was evaluated retrospectively.
To evaluate intrarater and interrater reliability of newly proposed TLICS schemes and to estimate validity of TLICS's final treatment recommendation.
Overview of Literature
Despite numerous literature about thoracolumbar spine injury classifications, there is no consensus regarding the optimal system.
Using plain radiographs, computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and medical records, 3 clssifiers, consisting of 2 spine surgeons and 1 senior orthopaedic surgery resident, reviewed 114 clinical thoracolumbar spine injury cases retrospectively to classify and calculate injury severity score according to TLICS. This process were repeated on 4 weeks intervals and the scores were then compared with type of treatment that patient ultimately received.
The intrarater reliability of TLICS was substantial agreement on total score and injury morphology, almost perfect agreement on integrity of the posterior ligament complex (PLC) and neurologic status. The interrater reliability was substantial agreement on injury morphology and integrity of the PLC, moderate agreement on total score, almost perfect agreement on neurologic status. The TLICS schems exhibited satisfactory overall validity in terms of clinical decision making.
The TLICS was demonstrated acceptable intrarater and interrater reliability and satisfactory validity in terms of treatment recommendation.
PMCID: PMC2996622  PMID: 21165314
Thoracolumbar spine injury; Classification; TLICS; Reliability; Validity
25.  Successful Carotid Stenting for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(6):288-291.
A 64-year-old man complaining of pulsatile headache was admitted. Imaging studies revealed a near-total occlusion of the right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) with slow antegrade flow into the distal ICA. Right cerebral flow was supplied by collateral flow through the posterior communicating and ophthalmic arteries. He was successfully treated by carotid artery stenting. No new neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack occurred after treatment.
PMCID: PMC2893370  PMID: 20589202
Thrombosis, internal carotid artery; Stents

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