Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign tumors that may develop in the lymph node tissue throughout the body. Castleman's disease associated with myasthenia gravis is an especially rare disease. Only less than 10 cases have been reported in the world literature. The cause of Castleman's disease is associated with immune mediated reaction, and myasthenia gravis also develops due to an antibody-mediated process. The cause of myasthenia gravis is the immune activity of Castleman's disease, which may be the promoter of the antibody-mediated process. We report here a case of Castleman's disease, which was incidentally found in a patient diagnosed with myasthenia gravis.
Myasthenia gravis; Thymectomy; Retroperitoneal neoplasms
A 70-year-old male visited urgent care due to coughing for 1 month and left chest pain. He had no history of trauma. The initial chest computed tomography (CT) showed the 7th left intercostal lung herniation. A follow-up CT showed an intercostal lung herniation combined with a bowl herniation, which had developed due to a Morgagni's hernia. An emergency operation was performed due to the incarceration of the bowl and lung. The primary repair of the diaphragm was performed and the direct approximation of the 7th intercostal space was determined. We concluded that the defect of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscle was a congenital lesion, and the recurrent coughing was the aggravating factor of herniation.
Morgagni's hernia; Hernia, lung
ULK1 (Unc51-like kinase, hATG1) is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays a key role in inducing autophagy in response to starvation. ULK1 is phosphorylated and negatively regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Previous studies have shown that ULK1 is not only a downstream effector of mTORC1 but also a negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling.1–3 Here, we investigated how ULK1 regulates mTORC1 signaling, and found that ULK1 inhibits the kinase activity of mTORC1 and cell proliferation. Deficiency or knockdown of ULK1 or its homolog ULK2 enhanced mTORC1 signaling, cell proliferation rates and accumulation of cell mass, whereas overexpression of ULK1 had the opposite effect. Knockdown of Atg13, the binding partner of ULK1 and ULK2, mimicked the effects of ULK1 or ULK2 deficiency or knockdown. Both insulin and leucine stimulated mTORC1 signaling to a greater extent when ULK1 or ULK2 was deficient or knocked down. In contrast, Atg5 deficiency did not have a significant effect on mTORC1 signaling and cell proliferation. The stimulatory effect of ULK1 knockdown on mTORC1 signaling occurred even in the absence of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), the negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling. In addition, ULK1 was found to bind raptor, induce its phosphorylation, and inhibit the kinase activity of mTORC1. These results demonstrate that ULK1 negatively regulates the kinase activity of mTORC1 and cell proliferation in a manner independent of Atg5 and TSC2. The inhibition of mTORC1 by ULK1 may be important to coordinately regulate cell growth and autophagy with optimized utilization of cellular energy.
ULK1; ULK2; Atg5; raptor; mTOR
Nutrient starvation induces autophagy in eukaryotic cells through inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved protein kinase. TOR, as a central regulator of cell growth, plays a key role at the interface of the pathways that coordinately regulate the balance between cell growth and autophagy in response to nutritional status, growth factor and stress signals. Although TOR has been known as a key regulator of autophagy for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This review discusses the recent advances in understanding of the mechanism by which TOR regulates autophagy with focus on mammalian TOR (mTOR) and its regulation of the autophagy machinery.
mTOR; Atg1; ULK1; ULK2; Atg13
Autophagy, the starvation-induced degradation of bulky cytosolic components, is up-regulated in mammalian cells when nutrient supplies are limited. Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is known as the key regulator of autophagy induction, the mechanism by which mTOR regulates autophagy has remained elusive. Here, we identify that mTOR phosphorylates a mammalian homologue of Atg13 and the mammalian Atg1 homologues ULK1 and ULK2. The mammalian Atg13 binds both ULK1 and ULK2 and mediates the interaction of the ULK proteins with FIP200. The binding of Atg13 stabilizes and activates ULK and facilitates the phosphorylation of FIP200 by ULK, whereas knockdown of Atg13 inhibits autophagosome formation. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin or leucine deprivation, the conditions that induce autophagy, leads to dephosphorylation of ULK1, ULK2, and Atg13 and activates ULK to phosphorylate FIP200. These findings demonstrate that the ULK-Atg13-FIP200 complexes are direct targets of mTOR and important regulators of autophagy in response to mTOR signaling.
Background and Purpose
Dopamine agonists are first-line drugs for treating the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, few studies have investigated the effect of dopamine agonists on the quality of life (QoL) in RLS patients. We conducted a study to determine whether ropinirole exerts positive effects on the QoL in RLS patients and to analyze the underlying factors.
Primary RLS patients from eight medical centers were recruited in the study. They were evaluated in the baseline phase using various questionnaires including the Korean versions of the International Restless Legs Scale (K-IRLS), RLS QoL questionnaire (K-RLSQoL), and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). After taking ropinirole for 8 weeks the same questionnaires were again completed as a re-evaluation. We analyzed the statistical difference using a paired t-test, a Pearson's correlation, and a stepwise multiple regression in order to identify the factors associated with the QoL change.
A total of 107 subjects, including 65 (60.7%) females, completed this study. They were aged 51.68±14.80 years (mean±SD) and had a symptom duration of 8.8±9.0 months. After treatment with ropinirole, there were significant improvements on the K-RLSQoL, SF-36, and K-IRLS. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the improvement of QoL in RLS patients was significantly correlated with the severity of RLS (r=0.236, p<0.014) at baseline.
The results from this study suggest that treatment with ropinirole can improve the QoL in RLS patients. The improvement in the QoL is more related with the improvement of RLS symptoms.
restless legs syndrome; dopamine agonists; quality of life; sleep
Autophagy, the primary recycling pathway of cells, plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control under normal growth conditions and in the response to cellular stress. The Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone complex coordinately regulates the activity of select kinases to orchestrate many facets of the stress response. Although both maintain mitochondrial integrity, the relationship between Hsp90-Cdc37 and autophagy has not been well characterized. Ulk1, one of the mammalian homologues of yeast Atg1, is a serine-threonine kinase required for mitophagy. Here we show that the interaction between Ulk1 and Hsp90-Cdc37 stabilizes and activates Ulk1, which in turn is required for the phosphorylation and release of Atg13 from Ulk1, and for the recruitment of Atg13 to damaged mitochondria. Hsp90-Cdc37, Ulk1 and Atg13 phosphorylation are all required for efficient mitochondrial clearance. These findings establish a direct pathway that integrates Ulk1- and Atg13- directed mitophagy with the stress response coordinated by Hsp90 and Cdc37.
Oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the inflamed joint have been indicated as being involved as inflammatory mediators in the induction of arthritis. Correlations between extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and inflammatory arthritis have been shown in several animal models of RA. However, there is a question whether the over-expression of EC-SOD on arthritic joint also could suppress the progression of disease or not. In the present study, the effect on the synovial tissue of experimental arthritis was investigated using EC-SOD over-expressing transgenic mice. The over-expression of EC-SOD in joint tissue was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The degree of the inflammation in EC-SOD transgenic mice was suppressed in the collagen-induced arthritis model. In a cytokine assay, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, IL-1β, TNFα, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was decreased in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) but not in peripheral blood. Histological examination also showed repressed cartilage destruction and bone in EC-SOD transgenic mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that the over-expression of EC-SOD in FLS contributes to the activation of FLS and protection from joint destruction by depressing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs. These results provide EC-SOD transgenic mice with a useful animal model for inflammatory arthritis research.
arthritis, experimental; reactive oxygen species; rheumatoid arthritis; superoxide dismutase; synovial membrane
High normal values of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) have been reported to have predictive values for hypertension, incident stroke, and higher mortality in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the association between normal ranges of UACR and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in adult population.
We performed a cross-sectional study in adults aged 45 to 74 years who were living in Namwon City, South Korea. Both common CIMTs were measured, and mean values were calculated. Normal values of UACR were defined as <30mg/g and categorized into quintiles; less than 6.50, 6.51-9.79, 9.80-13.49, 13.50-18.89, and more than 18.90 mg/g. The association between the quintiles of UACR and common CIMT was analyzed and stratified by sex.
A total of 7555 participants (3084 men and 4471 women) with normal UACR were enrolled in the present study. Common CIMT was positively and independently associated with increasing quintiles of UACR in men and women, even after adjusting for potential confounders including age and cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to the first quintile, the fifth quintile showed odds ratios of 1.80 (95% confidence intervals, 1.26-2.55) and 1.97 (1.28-3.04) for increased CIMT (>0.9mm) in men and women, respectively.
Higher UACR values within normal ranges (<30 mg/g) were positively and independently associated with CIMT in a Korean general population, suggesting that higher normal values of UACR might be a risk marker of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.
Albuminuria; Atherosclerosis; Carotid intima-media thickness; Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio
Endoscopic thoracic sympathetic surgery is effective for treating palmar hyperhidrosis, although compensatory sweating (CS) is a significant and annoying side effect. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of limited resection at two different locations.
From May 2004 to June 2009, T3 sympathicotomy (group I) was performed in 46 patients and T3,4 ramicotomy (group II) was performed in 43 patients during the same period. T3 sympathicotomy (group I) and T3,4 ramicotomy (group II) were performed during the same period. Using questionnaires, completed by the patients, the satisfaction rates and grades of CS were analyzed.
No significant differences in age distribution or sex ratios were observed between the two groups. The satisfaction rate was 91.3 % in group I and 79.1 % in group II. The operation time was 19.8 (±6.6) min in group I, and 51.6 (±18.8) min in group II, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.002). The incidence of persistent hand sweating in group II (16.3 %) was higher than that observed in group I (2.2 %). The incidence of compensatory sweating on the lower extremities was higher in group II (37.2 %) than in group I (10.9 %).
Although ramicotomy is considered to be an effective method for treating hyperhidrosis and has a theoretical advantage of allowing greater anatomical resection, it requires longer operation time and induces more severe compensatory sweating in the lower limbs resulting in reduced satisfaction rates.
Palmar hyperhidrosis; Compensatory sweating
Protein tyrosine phosphatases act as key regulators in differentiation-associated signaling pathways. It is proposed that RPTPμ acts as a positive regulator of adipogenesis by modulating the cytoplasmic p120 catenin level.
Adipocyte differentiation can be regulated by the combined activity of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). In particular, PTPs act as key regulators in differentiation-associated signaling pathways. We recently found that receptor-type PTPμ (RPTPμ) expression is markedly increased during the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we investigate the functional roles of RPTPμ and the mechanism of its involvement in the regulation of signal transduction during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Depletion of endogenous RPTPμ by RNA interference significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation, whereas RPTPμ overexpression led to an increase in adipogenic differentiation. Ectopic expression of p120 catenin suppressed adipocyte differentiation, and the decrease in adipogenesis by p120 catenin was recovered by introducing RPTPμ. Moreover, RPTPμ induced a decrease in the cytoplasmic p120 catenin expression by reducing its tyrosine phosphorylation level, consequently leading to enhanced translocation of Glut-4 to the plasma membrane. On the basis of these results, we propose that RPTPμ acts as a positive regulator of adipogenesis by modulating the cytoplasmic p120 catenin level. Our data conclusively demonstrate that differentiation into adipocytes is controlled by RPTPμ, supporting the utility of RPTPμ and p120 catenin as novel target proteins for the treatment of obesity.
Sorafenib-incoporated nanoparticles were prepared using a block copolymer that is composed of dextran and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) [DexbLG] for antitumor drug delivery. Sorafenib-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared by a nanoprecipitation-dialysis method. Sorafenib-incorporated DexbLG nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in an aqueous solution regardless of the content of sorafenib. Transmission electron microscopy of the sorafenib-incorporated DexbLG nanoparticles revealed a spherical shape with a diameter < 300 nm. Sorafenib-incorporated DexbLG nanoparticles at a polymer/drug weight ratio of 40:5 showed a relatively uniform size and morphology. Higher initial drug feeding was associated with increased drug content in nanoparticles and in nanoparticle size. A drug release study revealed a decreased drug release rate with increasing drug content. In an in vitro anti-proliferation assay using human cholangiocarcinoma cells, sorafenib-incorporated DexbLG nanoparticles showed a similar antitumor activity as sorafenib. Sorafenib-incorporated DexbLG nanoparticles are promising candidates as vehicles for antitumor drug targeting.
sorafenib; polymeric micelle; dextran; poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)
Polymeric micelles using amphiphilic macromolecules are promising vehicles for antitumor targeting. In this study, we prepared anticancer agent-incorporated polymeric micelles using novel block copolymer.
We synthesized a block copolymer composed of dextran and poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (DexbLG) for antitumor drug delivery. Doxorubicin was selected as the anticancer drug, and was incorporated into polymeric micelles by dialysis. Polymeric micelles were observed by transmission electron microscopy to be spherical and smaller than 100 nm, with a narrow size distribution. The particle size of doxorubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles increased with increasing drug content. Higher initial drug feeding also increased the drug content.
During the drug-release study, an initial burst release of doxorubicin was observed for 10 hours, and doxorubicin was continuously released over 4 days. To investigate the in vitro anticancer effects of the polymeric micelles, doxorubicin-resistant HuCC-T1 cells were treated with a very high concentration of doxorubicin. In an antiproliferation study, the polymeric micelles showed higher cytotoxicity to doxorubicin-resistant HuCC-T1 cells than free doxorubicin, indicating that the polymeric micelles were effectively engulfed by tumor cells, while free doxorubicin hardly penetrated the tumor cell membrane. On confocal laser scanning microscopy, free doxorubicin expressed very weak fluorescence intensity, while the polymeric micelles expressed strong red fluorescence. Furthermore, in flow cytometric analysis, fluorescence intensity of polymeric micelles was almost twice as high than with free doxorubicin.
DexbLG polymeric micelles incorporating doxorubicin are promising vehicles for antitumor drug targeting.
dextran; polymeric micelle; block copolymer; poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)
Cancer cells have been reported to exhibit an enhanced capacity for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis facilitated by the administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). We investigated the effect of ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) on human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCC-T1). Since protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a metabolite of ALA, can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under irradiation and then induce phototoxicity, ALA-based PDT is a promising candidate for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. When various concentrations of ALA (0.05–2 mM) were used to treat HuCC-T1 cells for 6 or 24 hours, the intracellular PpIX level increased according to the ALA concentration and treatment time. Furthermore, an increased amount of PpIX in HuCC-T1 cells induced increased production of ROS by irradiation, resulting in increased phototoxicity.
ALA-based photodynamic therapy; HuCC-T1; protoporphyrin IX; ROS
The preoperative detection of emphysema like changes (ELCs) is necessary for the successful treatment of pneumothorax. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been used for the preoperative detection of ELCs. However, the traditional HRCT method uses only the axial view, which is perpendicular to the distribution of ELCs. This is not an ideal diagnostic method for the evaluation of ELCs.
Forty-eight patients with pneumothorax had multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) reconstruction using the coronal view. ELCs were evaluated in the axial and coronal view by a radiologist. A surgeon performed intra-operative examinations of the ELCs. The sensitivity of the different views was compared.
The detection sensitivity was 74.4% (70/94) for the axial view and 91.5% (86/94) for the axial-coronal combined view. The intra-operative detection rate was 95.7% (90/94). The preoperative detection of ELCs on the axial-coronal combined view was significantly higher than on the conventional axial view alone (p < 0.01).
Evaluation of ELCs on the axial and coronal combined HRCT improved the sensitivity of preoperative detection of ELCs compared to the conventional single axial HRCT. This increased sensitivity will help decrease the recurrence with VATS.
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a molecular hub that regulates protein synthesis in response to a number of extracellular stimuli. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is considered to be an important second messenger that controls mTOR; however, the signaling components of this pathway have not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify cAMP phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a binding partner of Rheb that acts as a cAMP-specific negative regulator of mTORC1. Under basal conditions, PDE4D binds Rheb in a noncatalytic manner that does not require its cAMP-hydrolyzing activity and thereby inhibits the ability of Rheb to activate mTORC1. However, elevated cAMP levels disrupt the interaction of PDE4D with Rheb and increase the interaction between Rheb and mTOR. This enhanced Rheb-mTOR interaction induces the activation of mTORC1 and cap-dependent translation, a cellular function of mTORC1. Taken together, our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for mTORC1 in which the cAMP-determined dynamic interaction between Rheb and PDE4D provides a key, unique regulatory event. We also propose a new role for PDE4 as a molecular transducer for cAMP signaling.
Inflammatory cells are known to be associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. However, the relation to inflammatory cells and apolipoproteins on the progression of atherosclerosis is unknown. This study was aimed at examining the different expressions of inflammatory cells and evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein (APO) C1 and APO E during the progression of atherosclerosis.
Ten atherosclerotic tissues were compared with five non-atherosclerotic tissues. The presence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), macrophages, T-cells, APO C1, and APO E were identified by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies. The senescence was analyzed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase.
The protein expression and senescence of macrophages, APO C1 and APO E were significantly higher in the main atherosclerotic lesion than the non-atherosclerotic lesion. A high concentration of inflammatory cells and the paucity of VSMCs were present in the shoulder area. In addition, macrophage and T-cells are expressed in the early stage of atherosclerotic development and more expanded in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. APO C1 was expressed mainly within the necrotic core, and APO E existed mostly around the necrotic core and the fibrous cap in advanced atherosclerotic plaques.
Our study indicated that the expression and the senescence of macrophage and T-cells may be closelyrelated to induction and deposition of APO C1 and APO E. This contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaque by expanding the necrotic core.
Atherosclerosis; Inflammatory cells; Apolipoproteins; Senescence
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland. It involves several molecular mechanisms. The BRAF V600E mutation has been identified as the most common genetic abnormality in PTC. Moreover, it is known to be more prevalent in Korean PTC patients than in patients from other countries. We investigated distinct genetic profiles in Korean PTC through cDNA microarray analysis.
Transcriptional profiles of five PTC samples and five paired normal thyroid tissue samples were generated using cDNA microarrays. The tumors were genotyped for BRAF mutations. The results of the cDNA microarray gene expression analysis were confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of 35 PTC patients.
Four of the five patients whose PTC tissues were subjected to microarray analysis were found to carry the BRAF V600E mutation. Microarrays analysis of the five PTC tissue samples showed the expression of 96 genes to be increased and that of 16 genes decreased. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed increased expression of SLC34A2, TM7SF4, COMP, KLK7, and KCNJ2 and decreased expression of FOXA2, SLC4A4, LYVE-1, and TFCP2L1 in PTC compared with normal tissue. Of these genes, TFCP2L1, LYVE-1, and KLK7 were previously unidentified in PTC microarray analysis. Notably, Foxa2 activity in PTC was reduced, as shown by its cytoplasmic localization, in immunohistochemical analyses.
These findings demonstrate both similarities and differences between our results and previous reports. In Korean cases of PTC, Foxa2 activity was reduced with its cytoplasmic accumulation. Further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between FOXA2 and BRAF mutations in Korean cases of PTC.
BRAF mutation; Oligonucleotide array sequence analysis; FOXA2 protein, human; Thyroid cancer
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) interacts with raptor to form the protein complex mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1), which plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth in response to environmental cues. Given that glucose is a primary fuel source and a biosynthetic precursor, how mTORC1 signaling is coordinated with glucose metabolism has been an important question. Here, we found that the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) binds Rheb and inhibits mTORC1 signaling. Under low-glucose conditions, GAPDH prevents Rheb from binding to mTOR and thereby inhibits mTORC1 signaling. High glycolytic flux suppresses the interaction between GAPDH and Rheb and thus allows Rheb to activate mTORC1. Silencing of GAPDH or blocking of the Rheb-GAPDH interaction desensitizes mTORC1 signaling to changes in the level of glucose. The GAPDH-dependent regulation of mTORC1 in response to glucose availability occurred even in TSC1-deficient cells and AMPK-silenced cells, supporting the idea that the GAPDH-Rheb pathway functions independently of the AMPK axis. Furthermore, we show that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate that binds GAPDH, destabilizes the Rheb-GAPDH interaction even under low-glucose conditions, explaining how high-glucose flux suppresses the interaction and activates mTORC1 signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that the glycolytic flux regulates mTOR's access to Rheb by regulating the Rheb-GAPDH interaction, thereby allowing mTORC1 to coordinate cell growth with glucose availability.
The non-essential VTS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly conserved in eukaryotes and encodes a sequence- and structure-specific RNA-binding protein. The Vts1 protein has been implicated in post-transcriptional regulation of a specific set of mRNAs that contains its-binding site at their 3′-untranslated region. In this study, we identified VTS1 as a multi-copy suppressor of dna2-K1080E, a lethal mutant allele of DNA2 that lacks DNA helicase activity. The suppression was allele-specific, since overexpression of Vts1 did not suppress the temperature-dependent growth defects of dna2Δ405N devoid of the N-terminal 405-amino-acid residues. Purified recombinant Vts1 stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild-type Dna2, but not the endonuclease activity of Dna2Δ405N, indicating that the activation requires the N-terminal domain of Dna2. Stimulation of Dna2 endonuclease activity by Vts1 appeared to be the direct cause of suppression, since the multi-copy expression of Dna2-K1080E suppressed the lethality observed with its single-copy expression. We found that vts1Δ dna2Δ405N and vts1Δdna2-7 double mutant cells displayed synergistic growth defects, in support of a functional interaction between two genes. Our results provide both in vivo and in vitro evidence that Vts1 is involved in lagging strand synthesis by modulating the Dna2 endonuclease activity that plays an essential role in Okazaki fragment processing.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder that is both uncomfortable and distressing to patients, and its prevalence has been steadily increasing. It is obvious that the identification of efficient markers of AD in plasma would offer the possibility of effective diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strategies. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze plasma glycoproteins from both children with AD and healthy child donors. Several protein spots showing significant quantitative changes in the AD patients were identified. Through sequential studies, it was confirmed that CD5L and ApoE were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively, in the plasma from AD patients compared with that from healthy donors. In addition, we suggest that the up-regulated CD5L in AD patients causes eosinophilia by inhibiting apoptosis or promoting the proliferation of eosinophils either in combination with or without IL-5. The glycoproteomic data in this study provides clues to understanding the mechanism of atopic alterations in plasma and suggests AD-related proteins can be used as candidate markers for AD.
apolipoproteins E; CD5L protein, human; dermatitis, atopic; glycoproteins; plasma; proteomics
Formation of cerebral de novo aneurysms (CDNA) is rare, and the pathogenesis remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the factors that contribute to the formation of CDNA and suggest guidelines for following patients treated for cerebral aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed 2,887 patients treated for intracranial aneurysm at our institute from January of 1976 to December of 2005. Of those patients, 12 were readmitted due to recurrent rupture of CDNA, which was demonstrated by cerebral angiography. We assessed clinical characteristics, such as gender, size and site of rupture, past history, and the time to CDNA rupture. Of the 12 patients, 11 were female and 1 was male, with a mean age at rupture of the first aneurysm of 44.7 years (range: 30-69 years). The mean time between the first episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the second was 8.9 years (range: 1.0-16.7 years). The most common site of ruptured CDNA was the internal carotid artery (5 patients, 41.7%), followed by basilar artery bifurcation (3 patients, 25.0%). In the remaining 4 patients, rupture occurred in the anterior communicating, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral (A1), or posterior cerebral (P1) arteries. In 5 cases (41.7%), the CDNA occurred contralateral to the initial aneurysm. Eleven patients (91.7%) had a past history of arterial hypertension. There was no history of habitual smoking or alcohol abuse in any of the patients. Eight patients underwent clipping for CDNA and three patients were treated with coiling. One patient who had multiple aneurysms was treated with clipping following intra-aneurysmal coiling. Assessment according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of the patients after the treatment was good in 10 cases (83.3%) and fair in 2 cases (16.7%). Although formation of CDNA after successful treatment of initial aneurysm is rare, several factors may contribute to recurrence. In our study, female patients with a history of arterial hypertension were at higher risk for ruptured CDNA. We recommend follow-up imaging studies every five years after treatment of the initial aneurysm, especially in women and those with a history of arterial hypertension.
Cerebral de novo aneurysm; ruptured cerebral aneurysm
In eukaryotes, the creation of ligatable nicks in DNA from flap structures generated by DNA polymerase δ-catalyzed displacement DNA synthesis during Okazaki fragment processing depends on the combined action of Fen1 and Dna2. These two enzymes contain partially overlapping but distinct endonuclease activities. Dna2 is well-suited to process long flaps, which are converted to nicks by the subsequent action of Fen1. In this report, we purified human Dna2 as a recombinant protein from human cells transfected with the cDNA of the human homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2. We demonstrated that the purified human Dna2 enzyme contains intrinsic endonuclease and DNA-dependent ATPase activities, but is devoid of detectable DNA helicase activity. We determined a number of enzymatic properties of human Dna2 including its substrate specificity. When both 5′ and 3′ tailed ssDNAs were present in a substrate, such as a forked-structured one, both single-stranded regions were cleaved by human Dna2 (hDna2) with equal efficiency. Based on this and other properties of hDna2, it is likely that this enzyme facilitates the removal of 5′ and 3′ regions in equilibrating flaps that are likely to arise during the processing of Okazaki fragments in human cells.
The non-essential MGS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly conserved in eukaryotes and encodes an enzyme containing both DNA-dependent ATPase and DNA annealing activities. MGS1 appears to function in post-replicational repair processes that contribute to genome stability. In this study, we identified MGS1 as a multicopy suppressor of the temperature-sensitive dna2Δ405N mutation, a DNA2 allele lacking the N-terminal 405 amino acid residues. Mgs1 stimulates the structure-specific nuclease activity of Rad27 (yeast Fen1 or yFen1) in an ATP-dependent manner. ATP binding but not hydrolysis was sufficient for the stimulatory effect of Mgs1, since non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs are as effective as ATP. Suppression of the temperature-sensitive growth defect of dna2Δ405N required the presence of a functional copy of RAD27, indicating that Mgs1 suppressed the dna2Δ405N mutation by increasing the activity of yFen1 (Rad27) in vivo. Our results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that Mgs1 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing by modulating Fen1 activity. The data presented raise the possibility that the absence of MGS1 may impair the processing of Okazaki fragments, leading to genomic instability.
In both budding and fission yeasts, a null mutation of the DNA2 gene is lethal. In contrast, a null mutation of Caenorhabditis elegans dna2+ causes a delayed lethality, allowing survival of some mutant C.elegans adults to F2 generation. In order to understand reasons for this difference in requirement of Dna2 between these organisms, we examined the enzymatic properties of the recombinant C.elegans Dna2 (CeDna2) and its interaction with replication-protein A (RPA) from various sources. Like budding yeast Dna2, CeDna2 possesses DNA-dependent ATPase, helicase and endonuclease activities. The specific activities of both ATPase and endonuclease activities of the CeDna2 were considerably higher than the yeast Dna2 (∼10- and 20-fold, respectively). CeDna2 endonuclease efficiently degraded a short 5′ single-stranded DNA tail (<10 nt) that was hardly cleaved by ScDna2. Both endonuclease and helicase activities of CeDna2 were stimulated by CeRPA, but not by human or yeast RPA, demonstrating a species-specific interaction between Dna2 and RPA. These and other enzymatic properties of CeDna2 described in this paper may shed light on the observation that C.elegans is less stringently dependent on Dna2 for its viability than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We propose that flaps generated by DNA polymerase δ-mediated displacement DNA synthesis are mostly short in C.elegans eukaryotes, and hence less dependent on Dna2 for viability.