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1.  One-stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through for late presented Hirschsprung’s disease—Case series 
Highlights
•The operation of Hirschsprung’s disease in children older than 3 years is traditionally staged operation with enterostomy because of severe dilated bowel.•We did one stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through with short segment Hirschsprung’s disease for late presented children.•One stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through is safe with excellent cosmetic benefit.•Constipation is still concerning problem for late presented HD, but it is comparable with staged operation.
Introduction
Children with late-presenting Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) are classically treated by a staged operation with enterostomy. An alternative may be one-stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through, which has cosmetic advantages. This case-series report describes the outcomes of children with late-presenting HD who underwent this procedure.
Presentation of cases
Eight older (>3 years) children (five males, three females) underwent one-stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through in 2010–2012. A retrospective review revealed their median age was 9.9 (range, 3.4–14) years. The transitional zone was rectosigmoid junction in 4 patients, and was rectum in 4 patients. For bowel preparation, five patients required rectal irrigation under general anesthesia. The median operating time was 263 min. There were no intraoperative or early post-operative complications. Patients started a diet a median of 5 days after the operation and were discharged a median of 11.5 days. During the median follow-up period of 37 months, seven (87.5%) had acquired voluntary bowel movements and 12.5% had grade 1 soiling. However, five (62.5%) of the patients still had constipation. The constipation was manageable with diet or laxatives in four patients but one patient continued to require regular enemas.
Discussion
One-stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through in late-presenting HD was feasible, even in patients with large fecaloma with obstruction. Rectal irrigation under general anesthesia and the use of laparoscopy and a bipolar coagulator help to overcome the technical difficulties of this procedure.
Conclusion
One-stage laparoscopy-assisted endorectal pull-through in children with late-presenting short segment HD is feasible and safe.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.09.005
PMCID: PMC4643354  PMID: 26476054
Hirschsprung’s disease; Children; Laparoscopy
2.  Minimally invasive surgery for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations - early experience 
Purpose
The aim of this study is to present our experience with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs).
Methods
The medical records of infants under 2 years of age who underwent operation for a CCAM from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed.
Results
MIS (9 of thoracoscopy and 1 of laparoscopy) was performed for 10 infants (male:female = 7:3) with CCAM. CCAM were discovered prenatally around gestational age of 24.7 weeks. The median gestational age was 38.6 weeks, and the median body weight was 2,817.5 g. None had respiratory distress after birth. The median age at the time of operation was 0.94 years (range: 8 days–1.66 years). Two underwent the operation during the neonatal period; one because of a coexisting large esophageal duplication cyst and the other due to diagnostic uncertainty. While awaiting operation, 5 of CCAM had grown without respiratory symptoms, and 2 infants had experienced pneumonia. The mean operative time was 98 minutes (range: 70–227 minutes), and there were no conversions or perioperative complications. The infants resumed enteral feeding within 2 days and were discharged within 7 days, except for 1 infant who underwent esophageal duplication cyst excision. During the follow-up period, there were no cases of either remnant lesions or respiratory symptoms.
Conclusion
MIS for CCAMs is safe and feasible, with excellent cosmesis and short hospital stays. Increasing experience with various MIS procedures will widen the indications for MIS in lung pathology.
doi:10.4174/astr.2016.90.2.101
PMCID: PMC4751143  PMID: 26878018
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of lung; Thoracoscopy; Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Bronchopulmonary sequestration
3.  Cholangiographic characteristics of common bile duct dilatation in children 
AIM: To investigate whether children with congenital common bile duct dilatation (CBDD) differ from children with obstructive CBDD in cholangiographic characteristics.
METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the baseline data and the results of imaging analyses were reviewed among children who had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) due to CBDD. ERCP was performed on all pediatric patients by experienced pediatric endoscopists. The maximal transverse diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) was measured on ERCP. To assess whether age-adjusted CBDD could be used for differential diagnosis, a CBDD severity index (SI) was calculated by dividing the measured CBD diameter by the age-corrected maximal diameter of a normal CBD.
RESULTS: A retrospective medical chart review revealed that 85 consecutive children under 16 years of age with hepatobiliary disease and CBDD were referred to Seoul Asan Medical Center. Fifty-five (64.7%) children had congenital CBDD and 30 (35.3%) had obstructive CBDD. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of clinical characteristics except for sex. The congenital and obstructive CBDD groups did not differ significantly in terms of mean CBD diameter (19.3 ± 9.6 mm vs 12.2 ± 4.1 mm, P > 0.05). However, congenital CBDD cases had a significantly higher mean SI than obstructive CBDD cases (3.62 ± 1.64 vs 1.98 ± 0.71, P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, an SI value ≥ 2.32 and comorbidity with anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct (APBDU) in ERCP independently predicted congenital CBDD.
CONCLUSION: Measuring the CBD may aid the differential diagnosis of both CBDD and APBDU in children.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i20.6229
PMCID: PMC4445099  PMID: 26034357
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Common bile duct; Choledochal cyst; Choledolithiasis; Children
4.  Hiatal hernia in pediatric patients: laparoscopic versus open approaches 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic approach for hiatal hernia (HH) in pediatric patients.
Methods
This was a retrospective study of 33 patients younger than 18 years who underwent an operation for HH between January 1999 and December 2012.
Results
The HH symptoms were various and included regurgitation, vomiting, weight loss, cough, hoarseness, and cyanosis. Among the 33 patients, there were 25 sliding types, 1 paraesophageal type, and 7 mixed types. Open surgery (OS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS) were used in 16 and 17 patients, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age, or body weight between the groups. The median operating time was longer in the LS group (150 minutes; range, 90-250 minutes vs. 125 minutes; range, 66-194 minutes; P = 0.028). Time to oral intake was shorter in the LS group than in the OS group (1 day; range, 1-3 days vs. 2 days; range, 1-7 days; P = 0.001) and time to full feeding was shorter in the LS group than in the OS group (6 days; range, 3-16 days vs. 10 days; range, 3-33 days; P = 0.048). There were no differences in length of hospital stay and complications between the two groups. There was no perioperative mortality or recurrence of HH.
Conclusion
A good surgical outcome for laparoscopic correction of HH was seen in pediatric patients.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.5.264
PMCID: PMC4024937  PMID: 24851228
Hiatal hernia; Child; Laparoscopy; Fundoplication; Minimal invasive surgical procedures
5.  Adrenocortical tumors in children 18 years old and younger 
Purpose
Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are rare. We reviewed findings in 8 children, 18 years of age or younger, diagnosed with ACT in our institution over the past 15 years.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 8 children with ACTs treated between 1996 and 2010.
Results
Three girls and 5 boys were treated for ACTs; their median age at presentation was 144 months (range, 28 months to 18 years). Seven patients showed signs of endocrine dysfunction, 4 with Cushing syndrome, 2 with virilization, and 1 with hyperaldosteronism. One patient, with symptoms of hematuria, underwent a computed tomography scan, which showed an adrenal mass. The median duration of symptoms prior to resection was 6 months (range, 1 to 24 months). Five patients had adenomas and 3 had carcinomas. All underwent complete resection of the tumor, with laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed on 3 patients with adenoma and 1 with carcinoma. The median tumor weight was 12.5 g (range, 1 to 130 g) and the median tumor volume was 18.3 cm3 (range, 2.2 to 299.2 cm3). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 4 months to 15 years), all 8 patients remain alive with no recurrence of disease.
Conclusion
The characteristics of pediatric ACTs vary considerably. Laboratory findings, clinical hormonal features, and tumor size could not distinguish adenomas from carcinomas before surgery. Complete tumor resection was successful, with no tumor recurrence. However, the small number of patients and short follow-up period limit assessments of prognosis.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.4.246
PMCID: PMC3319779  PMID: 22493766
Adrenocortical adenoma; Carcinoma; Child
6.  Postoperative acute renal failure in patients with gynecologic malignancies: analysis of 10 cases and review of the literature 
Objective
Postoperative acute renal failure (PO-ARF) is an important cause of mortality among surgical patients. Although there have been many reports on PO-ARF after cardiac surgery and liver transplantation, less is known about the risk of PO-ARF after gynecologic operations. We aimed to investigate the risk of PO-ARF on gynecologic malignancy operations.
Methods
1,155 patients' medical charts were reviewed who underwent therapeutic surgery for gynecologic malignancies from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007, at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Results
Of these, 10 patients, comprising 0.89% of those who underwent radical hysterectomies and 0.86% of those who underwent debulking operations, were diagnosed with PO-ARF. Their mean age was 61.9±10.1 years. Five patients had preoperative risk factors. Mean operating time was 360.8±96.2 minutes. Five patients experienced intra-operative hypotension and all patients were given blood transfusions during surgery. Eight patients underwent hemodialysis, with two continuing on dialysis to date. Only two patients fully recovered.
Conclusion
Patients undergoing surgery for gynecologic malignancies may be at high risk for PO-ARF, because of old age, long operation times, and profuse bleeding. It is necessary to monitor these patients for postoperative renal function and urine output. If a postoperative oliguric state is detected, aggressive volume expansion should be started immediately, followed by hemodialysis.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2009.20.1.55
PMCID: PMC2676502  PMID: 19471672
Postoperative acute renal failure; Gynecologic malignancy
8.  Clinical Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Radical Hysterectomy for FIGO Stage IB-IIA Cervical Cancer: Comparison with Adjuvant RT/CCRT Using Inverse-Probability-of-Treatment Weighting 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0132298.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical role of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients.
Study Design
A cohort of 262 patients with cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy (RH) and adjuvant therapy at Asan Medical Center between 1992 and 2012 was enrolled. In this cohort, 85 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), and 177 received adjuvant radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (AR). Oncologic outcomes and adverse events in both treatment arms were compared using weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) to reduce the impact of treatment selection bias and potential confounding factors.
Results
During a 46.8-month median follow-up duration, 39 patients (14.9%) had recurrences, and 18 patients (6.9%) died of disease. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence and death was not significantly different in patients in either treatment arm (p=0.62 and 0.12, respectively). Also, after IPTW matching, the HR for recurrence did not significantly differ between the arms (HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.68-3.62, p=0.29). Similarly, disease-free survival and overall survival were not significantly different between the arms (p=0.47 and 0.13, respectively). In addition, patients with AC had a much lower prevalence of long-term complications (lymphedema: n=8 (9.4%) vs. 46 (26.0%), p=0.03; ureteral stricture: n=0 vs. 9 (6.2%), p=0.05).
Conclusion
Patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer can benefit from AC after RH with fewer long-term complications and non-inferior therapeutic effect to AR. Chemotherapy may therefore be an alternative adjuvant treatment option for cervical cancer, particularly in younger patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132298
PMCID: PMC4503636  PMID: 26176626
9.  Laparoendoscopic single-site versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for ovarian mature cystic teratoma 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2015;58(4):294-301.
Objective
To compare the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery in women with ovarian mature cystic teratoma.
Methods
A retrospective review of 303 women who underwent LESS (n=139) or conventional laparoscopic surgery (n=164) due to ovarian mature cystic teratoma was performed. Intra- and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.
Results
There was no intergroup difference in age, body weight, height, body mass index, comorbidities, tumor size, bilaterality of tumor, or the type of surgery. However, more patients in the LESS group had a history of previous abdominal surgery (19.4% vs. 6.7%, P=0.001). Surgical outcomes including operating time (89 vs. 87.8 minutes, P=0.734), estimated blood loss (69.4 vs. 68.4 mL, P=0.842), transfusion requirement (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.336), perioperative hemoglobin level change (1.3 vs. 1.2 g/dL, P=0.593), postoperative hospital stay (2.0 vs. 2.1 days, P=0.119), and complication rate (1.4% vs. 1.8%, P=0.999) did not differ between LESS and conventional groups. Postoperative pain scores measured using a visual analogue scale were significantly lower in the LESS group at 8 hours (P=0.021), 16 hours (P=0.034), and 32 hours (P=0.004) after surgery, and 32 of 139 patients (23%) in the LESS group and 78 of 164 patients (47.6%) in the conventional group required at least one additional analgesic (P<0.001).
Conclusion
LESS was feasible and showed comparable surgical outcomes with conventional laparoscopic surgery for women with ovarian mature cystic teratoma. LESS was associated with less postoperative pain and required less analgesia.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2015.58.4.294
PMCID: PMC4515479  PMID: 26217600
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery; Laparoscopes; Mature cystic teratoma; Ovary; Single-port
10.  Long (27-nucleotides) small inhibitory RNAs targeting E6 protein eradicate effectively the cervical cancer cells harboring human papilloma virus 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2015;58(3):210-216.
Objective
This study was to identify small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) that are effective in inhibiting growth of cervical cancer cell lines harboring human papilloma virus (HPV) and to examine how siRNAs interact with interferon beta (IFN-β) and thimerosal.
Methods
The HPV18-positive HeLa and C-4I cell lines were used. Four types of siRNAs were designed according to their target (both E6 and E7 vs. E6 only) and sizes (21- vs. 27-nucleotides); Ex-18E6/21, Ex-18E6/27, Sp-18E6/21, and Sp-18E6/27. Each siRNA-transfected cells were cultured with or without IFN-b and thimerosal and their viability was measured.
Results
The viabilities of HPV18-positive tumor cells were reduced by 21- and 27-nucleotide siRNAs in proportion to the siRNA concentrations. Of the two types of siRNAs, the 27-nucleotide siRNA constructs showed greater inhibitory efficacy. Sp-18E6 siRNAs, which selectively downregulates E6 protein only, were more effective than the E6- and E7-targeting Ex-18E6 siRNAs. siRNAs and IFN-β showed the synergistic effect to inhibit HeLa cell survival and the effect was proportional to both siRNA and IFN-β concentrations. Thimerosal in the presence of siRNA exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of C-4I cell survival. Finally, co-treatment with siRNA, IFN-β, and thimerosal induced the most profound decrease in the viability of both cell lines.
Conclusion
Long (27-nucleotides) siRNAs targeting E6-E7 mRNAs effectively reduce the viability of HPV18-positive cervical cancer cells and show the synergistic effect in combination with IFN-b and thimerosal. It is necessary to find the rational design of siRNAs and effective co-factors to eradicate particular cervical cancer.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2015.58.3.210
PMCID: PMC4444517  PMID: 26023670
E6 protein; E7 protein; Human papilloma virus type 18; Small inhibitory RNA; Uterine cervical neoplasms
11.  Liver Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease: Experience at a Living Donor Dominant Liver Transplantation Center 
Purpose
Metabolic liver disease (MLD) often progresses to life-threatening conditions. This study intends to describe the outcomes of liver transplantation (LTx) for MLD at a living donor-dominant transplantation center where potentially heterozygous carrier grafts are employed.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 54 patients with MLD who underwent LTx between November 1995 and February 2012 at Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. The cumulative graft and patient survival rates were analyzed according to patient age, and living or deceased donor LTx. Recurrence of the original disease was also investigated.
Results
The post-transplant cumulative patient survival rates at one, five, and 10 years were 90.7%, 87.5% and 87.5%, and the graft survival rates were 88.8%, 85.5%, and 85.5%, respectively. There were no differences in the patient survival rates according to the recipient age, human leukocyte antigen matching, and living or deceased donor LTx. There were also no differences in the patient survival rates between the MLD and the non-MLD groups for children. Recurrence of the original metabolic disease was not observed in any patient during the follow-up period.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the living donor-dominant transplantation program is well-tolerated in MLD without recurrence of the original MLD using all types of transplantation.
doi:10.5223/pghn.2015.18.1.48
PMCID: PMC4392000  PMID: 25866733
Metabolic diseases; Liver transplantation; Adult; Child
12.  Evaluation of Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin G Responses in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients and Contacts 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2015;53(3):904-909.
This study aimed to evaluate the serodiagnostic potential of immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, recent TB contacts with latent TB infection (LTBI), and healthy subjects. Infections were assessed using tuberculin skin tests, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests, drug susceptibility testing, and molecular genotyping of clinical isolates. Serum IgG responses to selective M. tuberculosis antigens, including the 38-kDa and 16-kDa antigens, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), and recombinant early secreted antigen target 6 kDa (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP-10), were determined. We found that the serum IgG responses to all antigens might differentiate between active TB and LTBI, with LAM having the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.7756, P < 0.001). Recurrent TB cases showed significantly higher IgG responses to 38 kDa, CFP-10 (P < 0.01), and LAM (P < 0.05) than new cases, and male patients had higher levels of antigen-specific IgG than females (P < 0.05). Conversely, drug resistance and patient body mass index did not affect IgG responses (P > 0.05). LAM-specific IgG responses differentiated between acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive and -negative patients (P < 0.01), whereas antigen-specific IgG responses did not vary with the M. tuberculosis genotype (P > 0.05). Significantly higher IgG responses to 38 kDa and 16 kDa were observed in AFB smear-negative patients than in controls. These results suggest that assessment of serum IgG responses to selective purified M. tuberculosis antigens may help improve the diagnosis of active TB, particularly for sputum smear-negative patients or recurrent cases, and these may also help to differentiate between active TB and LTBI.
doi:10.1128/JCM.03050-14
PMCID: PMC4390664  PMID: 25588651
13.  Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2014 
The Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2014 on gynecologic oncology was held in Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea on the 23rd to 24th August 2014. A total of 179 participants from 17 countries participated in the workshop, and the up-to-date findings on the management of gynecologic cancers were presented and discussed. This meeting focused on the new trends in the management of cervical cancer, fertility-sparing management of gynecologic cancers, surgical management of gynecologic cancers, and recent advances in translational research on gynecologic cancers.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2015.26.1.68
PMCID: PMC4302288  PMID: 25609163
Endometrial Neoplasms; Fertility Preservation; Laparoscopy; Ovarian Neoplasms; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
14.  A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Potential Susceptibility Loci for Hirschsprung Disease 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110292.
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the absence of intramural nervous plexuses along variable lengths of the hindgut. Although RET is a well-established risk factor, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HSCR has identified NRG1 as an additional susceptibility locus. To discover additional risk loci, we performed a GWAS of 123 sporadic HSCR patients and 432 unaffected controls using a large-scale platform with coverage of over 1 million polymorphic markers. The result was that our study replicated the findings of RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region (rawP = 5.69×10−19 before a Bonferroni correction; corrP = 4.31×10−13 after a Bonferroni correction) and NRG1 as susceptibility loci. In addition, this study identified SLC6A20 (adjP = 2.71×10−6), RORA (adjP = 1.26×10−5), and ABCC9 (adjP = 1.86×10−5) as new potential susceptibility loci under adjusting the already known loci on the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A and NRG1 regions, although none of the SNPs in these genes passed the Bonferroni correction. In further subgroup analysis, the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region was observed to have different significance levels among subgroups: short-segment (S-HSCR, corrP = 1.71×10−5), long-segment (L-HSCR, corrP = 6.66×10−4), and total colonic aganglionosis (TCA, corrP>0.05). This differential pattern in the significance level suggests that other genomic loci or mechanisms may affect the length of aganglionosis in HSCR subgroups during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. Although functional evaluations are needed, our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanisms of HSCR pathogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110292
PMCID: PMC4195606  PMID: 25310821
15.  Analysis and Comparison of Somatic Mutations in Paired Primary and Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Samples 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99451.
The TP53 mutations have been proved to be predominated in ovarian cancer in a study from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). However, the molecular characteristics of recurrent ovarian cancers following initial treatment have been poorly estimated. This study was to investigate the pattern of somatic point mutations in matched paired samples of primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers, using the OncoMap mutation detection protocol. We have adapted a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of a large panel of known cancer genes. OncoMap v.4.4 was used to evaluate genomic DNA isolated from a set of 92 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, consisting of matched paired samples of initially diagnosed and recurrent tumors from 46 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Mutations were observed in 33.7% of the samples, with 29.3% of these samples having a single mutation and the remaining 4.3% having two or more mutations. Among the 41 genes analyzed, 35 mutations were found in four genes, namely, CDKN2A (2.2%), KRAS (6.5%), MLH1 (8.2%) and TP53 (20.7%). TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene, but there was no correlation between the presence of mutation in any gene and clinical prognosis. Furthermore, somatic mutations did not differ between primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas. Every mutation present in recurrent samples was detected in the corresponding primary sample. In conclusion, these OncoMap data of Korean EOC samples provide that somatic mutations were found in CDKN2A, KRAS, MLH1, and TP53. No differences in mutational status between primary and recurrent samples were detected. To understand the biology of tumor recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer, more studies are necessary, including epigenetic modifications or additional mutations in other genes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099451
PMCID: PMC4060993  PMID: 24936796
16.  Impact of body mass index on the prognosis of Korean women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: A cohort study 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(2):115-120.
Objective
To analyze how pretreatment body mass index relates to known endometrial cancer prognostic factors and how it impacts the disease-free survival and cause-specific survival of Korean women with endometrial cancer.
Methods
The patients were divided into the non-obese (<25 kg/m2) and obese groups (≥25 kg/m2) according to their pretreatment body mass index. The 25 kg/m2 body mass index cut-off was based on the World Health Organization criteria for Asian people. The two groups were compared in terms of their clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes.
Results
A total of 213 consecutive patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus met the eligibility criteria of this study and were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 105 patients had a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2 (non-obese group) and 108 patients had a body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2 (obese group). The two groups did not differ in terms of age, menopause, parity, height, FIGO (International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) stage, tumor grade, tumor size, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, cytology, and lymph node metastasis. Body mass index was not a significant factor for disease-free and cause-specific survival in univariate analysis, and after adjusting for all prognostic factors that were significant in univariate analysis, it did not associate significantly with disease-free and cause-specific survival.
Conclusion
In Korean women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, a high pretreatment body mass index did not associate with other prognostic factors and had little impact on the disease-free survival and cause-specific survival of these women.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2014.57.2.115
PMCID: PMC3965694  PMID: 24678484
Body mass index; Endometrial neoplasms; Obesity; Prognosis
17.  Reproductive outcomes after laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer 
Objective
The objective of this study was to estimate the reproductive outcome of young women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing laparoscopic radical trachelectomy (LRT).
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent LRT. Clinicopathological data were obtained from patient medical records, and reproductive outcome data were obtained from patient medical records and telephone interviews.
Results
Fifty-five patients who underwent successful LRT were included in this study. The median age of patients was 32 years (range, 22 to 40 years), and the median follow-up time after LRT was 37 months (range, 3 to 105 months). Menstruation resumed in all patients after LRT, with fifty patients (90.9%) and five patients (9.1%) reporting regular and irregular menstruation, respectively. Six patients (10.9%) presented with cervical stenosis, which was manifested by regular but decreased menstrual flow and newly-developed dysmenorrhea. These patients underwent cervical cannulation and dilatation. Eighteen patients (32.7%) attempted to conceive, with six out of 18 patients receiving fertility treatments. Fourteen pregnancies (i.e., four missed abortions, six preterm births and four full-term births) occurred in 10 patients after LRT. Nine out of 10 patients gave birth to 10 healthy babies. The pregnancy rate after LRT was 55.6% (10/18). The spontaneous abortion rate and live birth rate were 28.6% (4/14) and 71.4% (10/14), respectively. The preterm birth rate was 60% (6/10).
Conclusion
Pregnancy and live birth rates after LRT were promising; however, the preterm birth rate was relatively high. Cervical stenosis also occurred in a small percentage of patients.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2014.25.1.9
PMCID: PMC3893680  PMID: 24459575
Cervical cancer; Fertility; Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy; Pregnancy outcome; Reproductive outcome
18.  A case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis 
Renal failure caused by scrub typhus is known to be reversible. In most cases, renal function is almost fully restored after appropriate antibiotic treatment. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus complicated by renal failure. A renal biopsy revealed histopathologic findings consistent with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal function did not improve 18 months after discharge and the patient required continuous hemodialysis. Although severe renal failure requiring dialysis is a rare complication of scrub typhus, we describe a case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report.
doi:10.1016/j.krcp.2013.09.003
PMCID: PMC4714168  PMID: 26877941
End-stage renal disease; Hemodialysis; Scrub typhus; Tubulointerstitial nephritis
19.  Liver transplantation in a child with acute liver failure resulting from drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(5):224-226.
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by a severe idiosyncratic reaction including rash and fever, often with associated hepatitis, arthralgias, lymph node enlargement, or hematologic abnormalities. The mortality rate is approximately 10%, primarily owing to liver failure with massive or multiple disseminated focal necrosis. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl treated with vancomycin because of a wound infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, who presented with non-specific symptoms, which progressed to acute liver failure, displaying the hallmarks of DRESS syndrome. With the presence of aggravated hepatic encephalopathy and azotemia, the patient was refractory to medical treatments, she received a living-donor liver transplantation, and a cure was achieved without any sign of recurrence. Vancomycin can be a cause of DRESS syndrome. A high index of suspicion and rapid diagnosis are necessary not to miss this potentially lethal disease.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.5.224
PMCID: PMC3668204  PMID: 23741237
DRESS syndrome; Vancomycin; Acute liver failure; Liver transplantation
20.  Comparison of outcomes between radical hysterectomy followed by tailored adjuvant therapy versus primary chemoradiation therapy in IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2012;23(4):226-234.
Objective
To compare survival outcomes and treatment-related morbidities between radical hysterectomy (RH) and primary chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with bulky early-stage cervical cancer.
Methods
We selected 215 patients with stage IB2 and IIA2 cervical cancer (tumor diameter > 4 cm on magnetic resonance imaging) who underwent RH followed by tailored adjuvant therapy (n=147) or primary CRT (n=68) at two tertiary referral centers between 2001 and 2010.
Results
About twenty nine percent of patients were cured by RH alone and these patients experienced the best survival outcomes with the lowest morbidity rates. After the median follow-up times of 40 months, 27 RH (18.4%) and 20 CRT (29.4%) patients had recurrence (p=0.068) and 23 (15.6%) and 17 (25%) patients died of disease (p=0.101). The 5-year progression-free survival were 77% and 66% (p=0.047), and the 5-year overall survival were 78% and 67% (p=0.048) after RH and primary CRT, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients who received primary CRT was at higher risk for tumor recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.14; p=0.008) and death (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.53 to 5.98; p=0.001) than those who received RH. Grade 3-4, early (17% vs. 30.9%, p=0.021) and late (1.4% vs. 8.8%, p=0.007) complications were significantly less frequent after RH than primary CRT.
Conclusion
Thirty percent of patients were cured by RH alone. A treatment outcome was better in this retrospective study in terms of morbidity and survival. Randomized trials are needed to confirm this result.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2012.23.4.226
PMCID: PMC3469857  PMID: 23094125
Bulky early-stage cervical cancer; Chemoradiation therapy; Radical hysterectomy; Stage IB2; Stage IIA2
21.  The surgical experience for retroperitoneal, mesenteric and omental cyst in children 
Purpose
Intra-abdominal cystic masses originating from the retroperitoneum, mesentery or omentum are very rare and mostly benign tumors, but sometimes present as a complicated cyst encasing the major organs.
Methods
We analyzed the clinical findings, histologic diagnosis, and surgical outcomes in children who underwent operation for retroperitoneal, omental, and mesenteric cyst from 1998 to 2010, retrospectively.
Results
Twenty-three patients (male, 12; female, 11) underwent the operation at a median age of 46 months (range, 9 days to 16 years). Among them, 17 cysts presented one or two symptoms such as abdominal mass, abdominal pain or abdominal distension. The median duration of symptoms was 7 days (range, 1 day to 365 days). Five were detected prenatally. Ten cysts were found in retroperitoneum, 8 in the omentum and 5 in the mesentery. The median diameter was 13 cm (range, 3 to 30 cm). Twenty cysts were completely removed. Five mesenteric cysts required bowel resection and anastomosis. Three of retroperitoneal cysts were impossible to complete excise because of location and extensiveness. Pathologically, 20 cysts were lymphangioma and 3 were pseudocyst. The morbidity was one of adhesive ileus and the mortality was one who had extensive retroperitoneal cyst with mesenteric cyst. He died from sepsis. During follow-up period, there was no recurrence.
Conclusion
Preoperative diagnosis and localization for these cysts are very difficult. Complete excision was possible in almost all cases despite the size, bringing a favorable outcome. The possibility of this disease entity should be considered as the cause of acute abdomen.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.2.102
PMCID: PMC3412181  PMID: 22880185
Retroperitoneal cyst; Mesenteric cyst; Omental cyst; Lymphangioma; Pseudocyst
22.  Clinical experience with persistent cloaca 
Purpose
Persistent cloaca is one of the most severe types of anorectal malformation. Appropriate initial drainage is difficult due to their various malformations and hydrocolpos or dilated urinary bladder. Corrective surgery also differs among individual patients. We describe our experiences with the surgical management of children with persistent cloaca.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 16 children diagnosed with persistent cloaca at Asan Medical Center.
Results
Sixteen patients were managed in their neonatal period. Twelve patients had enlarged bladder or vagina at birth. Three patients, who did not undergo cystostomy or vaginostomy at first operation, had earlier complications after surgery or required drainage tube insertion. One patient who did not undergo hydrocolpos drainage died of sepsis and complications. Nine patients underwent corrective surgery; posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty using the Pena method. Three patients required additional operations due to complications after surgery.
Conclusion
Patients found to have anatomical malformations before colostomy, as well as hydrocolpos and bladder enlargement, require a vaginostomy with or without a cystostomy to reduce complications. Follow-up is required in patients with hydrocolpos and bladder enlargement to determine whether vaginal drainage improves dilated bladder. Continuous long-term follow-up examination is required to determine the long-term results of corrective surgery.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.6.431
PMCID: PMC3204684  PMID: 22066071
Persistent cloaca; Anorectal malformation; Hydrocolpos; Posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty
23.  An 18-year experience of tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(6):705-710.
Purpose
To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of patients with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) and esophageal atresia (EA) born at a single neonatal intensive care unit.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted for 97 patients with confirmed TEF and EA who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 1990 and 2007.
Results
The rate of prenatal diagnosis was 12%. The average gestational age and birth weight were 37+2 weeks and 2.5±0.7 kg, respectively. Thirty-one infants were born prematurely (32%). Type C was the most common. The mean gap between the proximal and distal esophagus was 2 cm. Esophago-esophagostomy was performed in 72 patients at a mean age of 4 days after birth; gastrostomy or duodenostomy were performed in 8 patients. Forty patients exhibited vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb (VACTERL) association with at least 2 combined anomalies, and cardiac anomaly was the most common. The most common post-operative complications were esophageal stricture followed by gastroesophageal reflux. Balloon dilatation was performed for 1.3 times in 26 patients at a mean age of 3 months. The mortality and morbidity rates were 24% and 67%, respectively, and the most common cause of death was sepsis. The weight of approximately 40% patients was below the 10th percentile at 2 years of age.
Conclusion
Mortality and morbidity rates of patients with TEF and EA are high as compared to those of infants with other neonatal surgical diseases. Further efforts must be taken to reduce mortality and morbidity and improve growth retardation.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.6.705
PMCID: PMC2994136  PMID: 21189942
Tracheoesophageal fistula; Esophageal atresia; VACTERL association; Mortality; Morbidity; Growth
24.  Necessity of Radical Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer Patients with Cervical Invasion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(4):552-556.
To determine whether radical hysterectomy is necessary in the treatment of endometrial cancer patients with cervical involvement, we reviewed the medical records of women who underwent primary surgical treatment for endometrial carcinoma and selected patients with pathologically proven cervical invasion. Among 133 patients, 62 patients underwent extrafascial hysterectomy (EH) and 71 radical or modified radical hysterectomy (RH). The decision regarding EH or RH was made at the discretion of the attending surgeon. The sensitivity of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging for cervical invasion was 44.7% (38/85). In RH patients, 10/71 (14.1%) patients had frankly histologic parametrial involvement (PMI). All were stage III or over. Eight of 10 patients had pelvic/paraaortic node metastasis and two showed extrauterine spread. In 74 patients with stage II cancer, RH was performed in 41 and PMI was not seen. Sixty-six (89.2%) patients had adjuvant radiation therapy and there were 3 patients who had developed recurrent disease in the RH group and none in the EH group (Mean follow-up: 51 months). Although these findings cannot conclusively refute or support the necessity of radical hysterectomy in patients with cervical extension, it is noteworthy that the risk of PMI seems to be minimal in patients with a tumor confined to the uterus without evidence of extrauterine spread.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.4.552
PMCID: PMC2844596  PMID: 20357997
Endometrial Neoplasms; Radical Hysterectomy; Cervical Invasion
25.  Infections after Living Donor Liver Transplantation in Children 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(4):527-531.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in children. We enrolled 95 children (38 boys and 57 girls) who underwent LDLT from 1994 to 2004. The median age was 22 months (range, 6 months to 15 yr). We retrospectively investigated the proven episodes of bacterial, viral, and fungal infection. There occurred 150 infections in 67 (70%) of 95 patients (1.49 infections/patient); 74 in 43 patients were bacterial, 2 in 2 were fungal, and 74 in 42 were viral. The most common sites of bacterial infection were the bloodstream (33%) and abdomen (25%). Most of the bacterial infections occurred within the first month after LDLT. Bacterial and fungal infections did not result in any deaths. The most common causes of viral infection were Epstein-Barr virus in 37 patients and cytomegalovirus in 18. Seven of the 14 deaths after LDLT were associated with viral infection. Our study suggests that infection is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality after LDLT. Especially careful monitoring and management of viral infections is crucial for improving the outcome of LDLT in children.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.4.527
PMCID: PMC2844587  PMID: 20357992
Infection; Liver Transplantation; Living Donors; Child

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