The Indian hedgehog (Ihh) pathway plays an essential role in facilitating chondrocyte hypertrophy and bone formation during skeletal development. Nkx3.2 is initially induced in chondrocyte precursor cells, maintained in early-stage chondrocytes, and down-regulated in terminal-stage chondrocytes. Consistent with these expression patterns, Nkx3.2 has been shown to enhance chondrocyte differentiation and cell survival, while inhibiting chondrocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Thus, in this work, we investigate whether Nkx3.2, an early stage chondrogenic factor, can be regulated by Ihh, a key regulator for chondrocyte hypertrophy. Here, we show that Ihh signaling can induce proteasomal degradation of Nkx3.2. In addition, we found that Ihh can suppress levels of Lrp (Wnt co-receptor) and Sfrp (Wnt antagonist) expression, which, in turn, may selectively enhance Lrp-independent non-canonical Wnt pathways in chondrocyte. In agreement with these findings, Ihh-induced Nkx3.2 degradation requires Wnt5a, which is capable of triggering Nkx3.2 degradation. Finally, we found that Nkx3.2 protein levels in chondrocytes are remarkably elevated in mice defective in Ihh signaling by deletion of either Ihh or Smoothened. Thus, these results suggest that Ihh/Wnt5a signaling may play a role in negative regulation of Nkx3.2 for appropriate progression of chondrocyte hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.
In order to clarify the optimal timing for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, PBSC collection records of 323 children who were scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation from two study periods differing in the timing of PBSC collection were analyzed. In the early study period (March 1998 to August 2007, n=198), PBSC collection was initiated when the peripheral WBC count exceeded 1,000/µL during recovery from chemotherapy. Findings in this study period indicated that initiation of PBSC collection at a higher WBC count might result in a greater CD34+ cell yield. Therefore, during the late study period (September 2007 to December 2012, n=125), PBSC collection was initiated when the WBC count exceeded 4,000/µL. Results in the late study period validated our conclusion from the early study period. Collection of a higher number of CD34+ cells was associated with a faster hematologic recovery after transplant in the late study period. Initiation of PBSC collection at WBC count > 4,000/µL was an independent factor for a greater CD34+ cell yield. In conclusion, PBSC collection at a higher WBC count is associated with a greater CD34+ cell yield, and consequently a faster hematologic recovery after transplant.
High-Dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection
computational genomics; translational bioinformatics; systems biology for human genetics; next-generation sequencing (NGS); personalized medicine
Distal embolization resulting from carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) occurs mainly in the cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of ophthalmic artery occlusion after carotid revascularization. A 75-year old man received emergency CAS for cervical internal carotid artery occlusion. Two months later, the patient was readmitted for decreased visual acuity. We found ophthalmic artery occlusion that was not noticed soon after CAS. Although ophthalmic artery occlusion after CAS is rare, endovascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
Carotid angioplasty and stenting; Embolization; Ophthalmic artery occlusion
The -D- phenotype is a rare Rh phenotype that strongly expresses D antigen without C, c, E, or e antigens. In -D- phenotype individuals, anti-Rh17 (Hro) is commonly found if there is a history of pregnancy or transfusion with red blood cells (RBCs) that express C, c, E, or e antigens. We report the first case of a -D- phenotype patient with multiple Rh antibodies including anti-Rh17 who had a history of two occasions of transfusion with eight random donor platelet concentrates two and six years ago. We found that a trivial amount of RBCs in the platelet components was able to trigger sensitization to RBC antigens, especially the highly immunogenic and clinically significant Rh antigens, including C, c, E, e or CcEe polypeptides. To avoid unnecessary sensitization and to minimize the risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions in patients with this rare Rh phenotype, a modified strategy for pretransfusion screenings needs to be discussed in the field of transfusion medicine.
Rh-Hr blood group system; Rh isoimmunization; Platelet transfusion
The limitations of medical management of symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICS) have prompted development of new strategies, including endovascular treatment. However, stenting of symptomatic ICS remains investigational. Here, we have reported and analyzed a series of 19 endovascular procedures involving placement of a Wingspan stent.
We conducted a retrospective review of a series of ICS in which patients were treated with percutaneous transarterial balloon angioplasty and stent placement (PTAS). Patients included in the study were diagnosed as symptomatic ICS between May 2010 and September 2011.
Nineteen patients (median age, 65 years; 12 males, seven women) were treated with the Wingspan stent system for symptomatic ICS ranging from 50% to 99%. The technical success rate was 100%. The location of ICS included the internal carotid (n = 5; 1 petrous, 3 cavernous, and 1 clinoid segments), vertebral (n = 1; V4 segment), basilar (n = 1), and middle cerebral (n = 12; 9 M1, 3 M2) arteries. There was no occurrence of procedure-related mortality. Periprocedural morbidity occurred in two cases (10.5%), including carotid-cavernous fistula (n = 1) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1). No ipsilateral stroke was recorded beyond 30 days during a mean follow-up period of 13.2 months (range 9-19 months). Restenosis (> 50%) was observed in one patient (6.3%), who was asymptomatic, on follow-up imaging.
Wingspan stent for symptomatic ICS can be performed with a high rate of technical success and acceptable periprocedural morbidity rates. Our initial experience indicates that this procedure represents a viable treatment option for this patient population.
Intracranial stenosis; Angioplasty; Stent implantation; Wingspan stent
Dual origin and fenestration of the vertebral artery (VA) are very rare anomalies. Understanding of these variations, however, is important because they can be misdiagnosed as a VA dissection. A 42-year-old woman presented with motor weakness and sensory disturbance of the right upper extremity. Radiologic evaluations showed ectatic change in the right VA and an arteriovenous fistula between the right VA and the vertebral vein. We decided on endovascular occlusion of the proximal right VA and its fistulous portion. During the endovascular procedure, we had misunderstood the dual origin and fenestration of the VA as a dissection. Thus, failure to recognize these anomalies might result in unnecessary anticoagulation or therapeutic intervention. Clinicians should be alert to such VA variations when making a diagnosis and when planning any intervention or surgery involving the proximal VA.
Dissection; Dual origin; Fenestration; Vertebral artery
The purpose of this report is to describe our surgical experiences in the treatment of cerebral decompression with in situ floating resin cranioplasty. We included in this retrospective study 7 patients who underwent in situ floating resin cranioplasty for cerebral decompression between December 2006 and March 2008. Of these patients, 3 patients had traumatic brain injury, 3 cerebral infarction, and one subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture. In situ floating resin cranioplasty for cerebral decompression can reduce complications related to the absence of a bone flap and allow reconstruction by secondary cranioplasty without difficulty. Furthermore, it provides cerebral protection and selectively eliminates the need for secondary cranioplasty in elderly patients or patients who have experienced unfavorable outcome.
Decompressive craniectomy; Floating; Resin cranioplasty
We report here the genome sequence of Borrelia garinii strain 935T isolated from Ixodes persulcatus in South Korea. The 1,176,739 bp (G+C content, 27.73%) genome consists of 1,194 coding regions, 4 rRNA genes, and 33 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. This is the first whole-genome report of a Korean Borrelia species isolate.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades heme to carbon dioxide, biliverdin, and Fe2+, which play important roles in various biochemical processes. In this study, we examined the protective function of HO-1 against oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells and in a Parkinson’s disease mouse model. Western blot and fluorescence microscopy analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1, fused with a PEP-1 peptide can cross the cellular membranes of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). In contrast, HO-1, which has no ability to transduce into SH-SY5Y cells, failed to reduce MPP+-induced cellular toxicity and ROS production. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injected PEP-1-HO-1 crossed the blood-brain barrier in mouse brains. In a PD mouse model, PEP-1-HO-1 significantly protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced toxicity and dopaminergic neuronal death. Therefore, PEP-1-HO-1 could be a useful agent in treating oxidative stress induced ailments including PD. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(10): 569-574]
Dopaminergic neuron; Heme oxygenase-1; MPTP; Parkinson’s disease; Protein transduction domain
Aging negatively affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and exercise attenuates the age-related reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we used senescent mice induced by D-galactose to examine neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation with or without exercise treatment. D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was injected to six-week-old C57BL/6 J mice for 6 weeks to induce the senescent model. During these periods, the animals were placed on a treadmill and acclimated to exercise for 1 week. Then treadmill running was conducted for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 10-12 m/min for 5 weeks.
Body weight and food intake did not change significantly after D-galactose administration with/without treadmill exercise, although body weight and food intake was highest after treadmill exercise in adult animals and lowest after treadmill exercise in D-galactose-induced senescent model animals. D-galactose treatment significantly decreased the number of nestin (a neural stem cell marker), Ki67 (a cell proliferation marker), and doublecortin (DCX, a differentiating neuroblast marker) positive cells compared to those in the control group. In contrast, treadmill exercise significantly increased Ki67- and DCX-positive cell numbers in both the vehicle- and D-galactose treated groups. In addition, phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly decreased in the D-galactose treated group, whereas exercise increased their expression in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in both the vehicle- and D-galactose-treated groups.
These results suggest that treadmill exercise attenuates the D-galactose-induced reduction in neural stem cells, cell proliferation, and neuronal differentiation by enhancing the expression of pCREB and BDNF in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12868-014-0116-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
D-galactose; Treadmill exercise; Hippocampus; Adult neurogenesis; Phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein; Brain derived neurotrophic factor; Mice
Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is used in herbal medicine as a cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of Dendropanax morbifera stem extract (DMS) on cadmium (Cd) excretion from the blood and kidney and brain tissues of rats exposed to cadmium, as well as the effects of DMS on oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in the hippocampus after Cd exposure.
Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2 mg/kg of cadmium by intragastric gavage and were orally administered 100 mg/kg of DMS for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and Cd determination was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, the effects of Cd and/or DMS on oxidative stress were assayed by measuring reactive oxygen species production, protein carbonyl modification, lipid peroxidation levels, and antioxidant levels in hippocampal homogenates.
Exposure to Cd significantly increased Cd content in the blood, kidneys, and hippocampi. DMS treatment significantly reduced Cd content in the blood and kidneys, but not in the hippocampi. Exposure to Cd significantly increased reactive oxygen species production, protein carbonyl modification, lipid peroxidation, total sulfhydryl content, reduced glutathione content, and glutathione reductase activity. In contrast, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the hippocampus were significantly decreased after exposure to Cd, and administration of DMS significantly inhibited these Cd-induced changes.
These results indicate that DMS facilitates cadmium excretion from the kidneys, reduces cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus, and modulates SOD1, CAT, GPx, and glutathione-S-transferase activities.
Dendropanax morbifera extract; Cadmium; Hippocampus; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants
Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Indigenous (Native) Breeds; Database; Pig; Chicken; Conservation
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a critical oncogenic driver signal in a number of malignancies. The discovery of activating mutations in the MAPK pathway has led to the development of MAPK pathway inhibitors. Selumetinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, which are essential downstream molecules in the MAPK pathway. Several preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the promising antitumor activity of selumetinib. In this review, we discuss the MAPK pathway in melanoma and summarized data from preclinical and clinical studies of selumetinib for advanced melanoma.
selumetinib; MEK inhibitor; melanoma; uveal melanoma
Although spargana, which are the plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei, are of biological and clinical importance, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from this parasite have not been explored. To understand molecular and biological features of this parasite, sparganum ESTs were examined by large-scale EST sequencing and multiple bioinformatics tools.
Total RNA was isolated from spargana and then ESTs were generated, assembled and sequenced. Many biological aspects of spargana were investigated using multi-step bioinformatics tools.
A total of 5,634 ESTs were collected from spargana. After clustering and assembly, the functions of 1,794 Sparganum Assembled ESTs (SpAEs) including 934 contigs and 860 singletons were analyzed. A total of 1,351 (75%) SpAEs were annotated using a hybrid of BLASTX and InterProScan. Of these genes, 1,041 (58%) SpAEs had high similarity to tapeworms. In the context of the biology of sparganum, our analyses reveal: (i) a highly expressed fibronectin 1, a ubiquitous and abundant glycoprotein; (ii) up-regulation of enzymes related with glycolysis pathway; (iii) most frequent domains of protein kinase and RNA recognition motif domain; (iv) a set of helminth-parasitic and spargana-specific genes that may offer a number of antigen candidates.
Our transcriptomic analysis of S. erinacei spargana demonstrates biological aspects of a parasite that invades and travels through subcutaneous tissue in intermediate hosts. Future studies should include comparative analyses using combinations of transcriptome and proteome data collected from the entire life cycle of S. erinacei.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-368) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Spirometra erinacei; Sparganum; Plerocercoids; Transcriptome; Sequencing
Mucosal melanomas represent about 1% of all melanoma cases and classically have a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas. Due to the rarity of mucosal melanomas, only limited clinical studies with metastatic mucosal melanoma are available. Mucosal melanomas most commonly contain mutations in the gene CKIT, and treatments have been investigated using targeted therapy for this gene. Mutations in mucosal melanoma are less common than in cutaneous or uveal melanomas and occur in descending order of frequency as: CKIT (20%), NRAS (5%) or BRAF (3%). Mutations in G-alpha proteins, which are associated with activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, have not been reported in mucosal melanomas. These G-alpha protein mutations occur in the genes GNAQ and GNA11 and are seen at a high frequency in uveal melanomas, those melanomas that begin in the eye.
A 59-year old Caucasian male was diagnosed with a mucosal melanoma after evaluation for what was thought to be a hemorrhoid. Molecular analysis of the tumor revealed a GNAQ mutation. Ophthalmologic exam did not disclose a uveal melanoma.
Here we report, to our knowledge, the first known case of GNAQ mutation in a patient with metastatic mucosal melanoma.
GNAQ; Mucosal melanoma; Mutation
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms from the primary injury that can become aggravated over time because of secondary cell death. In the present in vivo study, we examined the beneficial effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in a controlled cortical impact model of mild TBI using young (6 months) and aged (20 months) F344 rats. Animals were transplanted intravenously with 4 × 106 hADSCs (Tx), conditioned media (CM), or vehicle (unconditioned media) at 3 h after TBI. Significant amelioration of motor and cognitive functions was revealed in young, but not aged, Tx and CM groups. Fluorescent imaging in vivo and ex vivo revealed 1,1′ dioactadecyl-3-3-3′,3′-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide-labeled hADSCs in peripheral organs and brain after TBI. Spatiotemporal deposition of hADSCs differed between young and aged rats, most notably reduced migration to the aged spleen. Significant reduction in cortical damage and hippocampal cell loss was observed in both Tx and CM groups in young rats, whereas less neuroprotection was detected in the aged rats and mainly in the Tx group but not the CM group. CM harvested from hADSCs with silencing of either NEAT1 (nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1) or MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) known to play a role in gene expression, lost the efficacy in our model. Altogether, hADSCs are promising therapeutic cells for TBI, and lncRNAs in the secretome is an important mechanism of cell therapy. Furthermore, hADSCs showed reduced efficacy in aged rats, which may in part result from decreased homing of the cells to the spleen.
aging; brain injury; stem cell
Clonorchiasis, which is primarily caused by liver fluke (Platyhelminthes), is a fatal infectious disease that is mainly associated with bile duct malignancy and the subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. Thus, a genomic approach now represents an important step to further our knowledge of biology and the pathology of these parasites. The results of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing need to be well organized into databases to provide an integrated set of tools and functional information.
Here, the ClonorESTdb database represents a collection of Clonorchis sinensis ESTs that is intended as a resource for parasite functional genomics. A total of 55,736 successful EST sequences, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant 13,305 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences (6,497 clusters and 6,808 singletons), were obtained from three in-house prepared cDNA libraries of C. sinensis at different developmental stages. The assembled consensus sequences were annotated using the BLAST algorithm or/and hmm against NCBI NR, UniProt, KEGG and InterProScan. The ClonorESTdb database provides functional annotation, their expression profiles, tandem repeats and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms with utility tools such as local BLAST search and text retrieval.
This resource enables the researcher to identify and compare expression signatures under different biological stages and promotes ongoing parasite drug and vaccine development and biological research.
Clonorchis sinensis; Expressed sequence tags (ESTs); Transcriptome; Database
We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM.
Inoscavin A; Korean native mushroom; Lipoxygenase inhibitor; Phellinus baumii
High-dose IL-2 (HDIL2) is approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but its use is limited in part by toxicity related to the development of vascular leak syndrome (VLS). Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of HDIL2-induced increases in endothelial cell (EC) permeability leading to VLS are of clinical importance.
We established a novel ex vivo approach utilizing primary human pulmonary microvascular ECs to evaluate EC barrier dysfunction in response to IL-2.
Complementary in vitro studies using exogenous IL-2 and ex vivo studies using serum from patients treated with IL-2 demonstrate that HDIL2 induces VLS through CD144 (vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin) redistribution.
These findings provide new insight into how IL-2 induces VLS and identifies VE-cadherin as a potential target for preventing IL-2-related VLS.
CD144; Interleukin-2; VE-cadherin; Vascular leak syndrome
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from abnormal cellular process lead to various human diseases such as inflammation, ischemia, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), a RING-FINGER protein, has anti-apoptotic activity and anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigate whether Tat-SAG, fused with a Tat domain, could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that, unlike SAG, Tat-SAG transduced efficiently into SH-SY5Y cells and into the brain, respectively. Tat-SAG remarkably suppressed ROS generation, DNA damage, and the progression of apoptosis, caused by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, immunohistochemical data using a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and cresyl violet staining demonstrated that Tat-SAG obviously protected DA neurons in the SN against MPTP toxicity in a PD mouse model. Tat-SAG-treated mice showed significant enhanced motor activities, compared to SAG- or Tat-treated mice. Therefore, our results suggest that Tat-SAG has potential as a therapeutic agent against ROS-related diseases such as PD.
dopaminergic neuron; Parkinson’s disease; protein transduction domain; reactive oxygen species; sensitive to apoptosis gene
In this study, we determined how rosiglitazone (RSG) differentially affected hippocampal neurogenesis in mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat). LFD and HFD were given to the mice for 8 weeks. Four weeks after initiating the LFD and HFD feeding, vehicle or RSG was administered orally once a day to both groups of mice. We measured cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, as markers. In addition, we monitored the effects of RSG on the levels of DCX and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal homogenates. At 8 weeks after the LFD feeding, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells as well as hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF were significantly decreased in the RSG-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells along with hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF in the HFD fed mice were significantly increased in the RSG-treated mice compared to the vehicle-treated group. Our data demonstrate that RSG can modulate the levels of BDNF, which could play a pivotal role in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
brain-derived neurotrophic factor; dentate gyrus; high-fat diet; rosiglitazone
Oncolytic viruses represent a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. Vaccinia viruses encoding human T cell co-stimulatory molecules have demonstrated clinical activity in phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced melanoma. However, predictive biomarkers of therapeutic response have not yet been identified.
A customized microarray was performed to identify changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression upon exposure to recombinant oncolytic vaccinia viruses. Up-regulated and down-regulated genes were identified and selected for further analysis using PBMC samples from normal donors and oncolytic virus-treated patients before and after viral injection. Quantitative PCR and flow cytometry of defined T cell subsets was performed to evaluate expression patterns and clinical correlations.
The microarray identified 301 genes that were up-regulated and 960 genes that were down-regulated in T cells after exposure to oncolytic vaccinia virus. The B7.1 gene was highly up-regulated and the immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2) gene was highly down-regulated by vaccinia-B7.1, which was consistent with the known inverse regulation of these two genes. We observed an inverse association between ILT2 expression in the tumor microenvironment and clinical response and further identified ILT2 as a marker of regulatory CD4+ and suppressor CD8+ T cell responses and whose down-regulation was predictive of therapeutic responses in patients treated with oncolytic virus immunotherapy.
ILT2 is a new putative biomarker of T cell and clinical response in patients treated with oncolytic vaccinia virus immunotherapy. Further confirmation of ILT2 as a biomarker requires prospective validation in a larger series of clinical trials.
Immunoglobulin-like transcript 2; Biomarker; Vaccinia; Oncolytic virus; Immunotherapy; T cells; Cancer vaccines
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme which plays a central role in various diseases. However, the mechanism and function of PON1 protein in inflammation are poorly understood. Since PON1 protein alone cannot be delivered into cells, we generated a cell permeable PEP-1-PON1 protein using protein transduction domains, and examined whether it can protect against cell death in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated Raw 264.7 cells as well as mice with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation. We demonstrated that PEP-1-PON1 protein transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and markedly protected against LPS or H2O2-induced cell death by inhibiting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the inflammatory mediator’s expression, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, topically applied PEP-1-PON1 protein ameliorates TPA-treated mice skin inflammation via a reduction of inflammatory response. Our results indicate that PEP-1-PON1 protein plays a key role in inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we suggest that PEP-1-PON1 protein may provide a potential protein therapy against oxidative stress and inflammation.