The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the duration-dependence of the one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation, stress, and central fatigue in rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: the non-exercise group, 1-h exercise group, 2-h exercise group, 4-h exercise group, and 6-h exercise group. The exercise load consisted of running at speed of 13 meters/min with the 0° inclination. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased in response to one bout moderate treadmill exercise in all exercise groups. But there was no statistical significance between the exercise duration and cell proliferation. The optical density of glucocorticoid (GR)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was not changed by treadmill exercise at any exercise duration. Expressions of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and tryptophan hyroxylase (TPH) were increased by treadmill exercise only at 6 h duration. It seemed like that there was no additional benefits on cell proliferation over 2 h exercise due to stressful factors with over exercise dose, and there was no change of GR expression due to early assessment point of time. It can be suggested that the one-bout of moderate treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation, but treadmill exercise prolonged to 6 h induced central fatigue in rats.
Treadmill exercise; Exercise duration; Cell proliferation; Glucocorticoid receptor; 5-hydroxytryptamine; Tryptophan hyroxylase
Substantia nigra and striatum are vulnerable to hypoxic ischemia brain injury. Physical exercise promotes cell survival and functional recovery after brain injury. However, the effects of treadmill exercise on nigro-striatal dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by hypoxic ischemia brain injury in neonatal stage are largely unknown. We determined the effects of treadmill exercise on survival of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fibers in the striatum after hypoxic ischemia brain injury. On postnatal 7 day, left common carotid artery of the neonatal rats ligated for two hours and the neonatal rats were exposed to hypoxia conditions for one hour. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 12 weeks, starting 22 days after induction of hypoxic ischemia brain injury. Spatial learning ability in rat pups was determined by Morris water maze test after last treadmill exercise. The viability of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and dopamine fibers in the striatum were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In this study, hypoxic ischemia injury caused loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fibers in the striatum. Induction of hypoxic ischemia deteriorated spatial learning ability. Treadmill exercise ameliorated nigro-striatal dopaminergic neuronal loss, resulting in the improvement of spatial learning ability. The present study suggests the possibility that treadmill exercise in early adolescent period may provide a useful strategy for the recovery after neonatal hypoxic ischemia brain injury.
Hypoxic ischemia; Substantia nigra; Striatum; Dopamine; Treadmill exercise
Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups.
The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth.
Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex.
Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.
Music; Noise; Neurogenesis; Motor cortex; Somatosensory cortex
Stress has a deteriorating effect on hippocampal function. It also contributes to symptom exacerbation in many disease states, including overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. We investigated the effects of various types of stresses (restraint, noise, and cold) on short-term memory and apoptosis in relation with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression.
Rats in the restraint stress group were restrained in a transparent Plexiglas cylinder for 60 minutes twice daily. Rats in the noise stress group were exposed to the 120 dB supersonic machine sound for 60 minutes twice daily. Rats in the cold stress group were placed in a cold chamber at 4℃ for 60 minutes twice daily. Each stress was applied for 10 days. A step-down avoidance test for short-term memory, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 expression, and western blot analysis for Bax and Bcl-2 expressions were conducted.
Latency time was decreased and CRF expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus were increased in all of the stress groups. The number of caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased and the expressions of Bax and Bcl2 in the hippocampus were decreased in all of the stress groups.
All of the stress groups experienced short-term memory impairment induced by apoptosis in the hippocampus. The present results suggest the possibility that these stresses affecting the impairment of short-term memory may also induce functional lower urinary tract disorders.
Restrain stress; Noise stress; Cold stress; Short-term memory; Apoptosis
Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. Parkinson’s rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OHDA injection, the rats in the 6-OHDA-injection group exhibited significant rotational asymmetry following apomorphine challenge. The rats in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 min once a day for 14 consecutive days starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In the present results, extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum were produced in the rats without treadmill running, which resulted in short-term memory impairment. However, the rats performing treadmill running for 2 weeks alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and alleviated short-term memory impairment with increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s rats; 6-Hydroxydopamine; Treadmill exercise; Cell proliferation; Apoptosis
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disability with impairments of social interaction and communication, and repetitive behavior. Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein that is essential for neuronal migration and brain development. Neuroprotective effects of exercise on various brain insults are well documented, however, the effects of exercise on autism in relation with reelin expression are not clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the functional recovery and on the expressions of reelin and its downstream molecules, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2), using autistic rats. For the induction of autism-like animal model, 400 mg/kg valproic acid was subcutaneously injected into the rats on the postnatal day 14. The rat in the treadmill exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks, starting postnatal day 28. To investigate autism-like behaviors and memory deficit, open field, social interaction, and radial 8-arm maze were performed. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were conducted. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated aggressive tendency and improved correct decision in the spatial learning memory in the autistic rats. Treadmill exercise increased neurogenesis and the expressions of reelin and its down-stream molecules, PI3K, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2, in the hippocampus of the autistic rats. The present study showed that treadmill exercise ameliorated aggressive behavior and improved spatial learning memory through activation of reeling signaling pathway in the valproic acid-induced autistic rats.
Autism; Valproic acid; Treadmill exercise; Reelin; Hippocampus; Neurogenesis
Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD).
We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis.
DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced.
Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis.
Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) is a major problem in liver surgery, and splenectomy has been used to prevent SFSS. However, it is unknown whether splenectomy has the same effect on liver regeneration in both standard and marginal hepatectomy. The aim of this study is to see a difference in effect of splenectomy on liver regeneration according to the amount of liver resection.
Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (220 to 260 g) were divided into the following five groups: control (n = 6), 70% hepatectomy (n = 6), 70% hepatectomy with splenectomy (n = 6), 90% hepatectomy (n = 6), and 90% hepatectomy with splenectomy (n = 6). The animals were euthanized 24 hours after surgery and liver specimens were obtained. To assess liver regeneration, we performed immunohistochemistry of liver tissue using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and Western blot analysis of hepatic growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the liver tissue.
The splenectomized subgroup had a higher BrdU-positive cell count in the 90% hepatectomy group, but not in the 70% hepatectomy group (P < 0.001). Splenectomy significantly decreased TGF-β expression (P = 0.005) and increased the HGF to TGF-β ratio (P = 0.002) in the 90% hepatectomy group, but not in the 70% hepatectomy group.
The positive effect of splenectomy on liver regeneration was greater in the group with the larger liver resection. This phenomenon may be related to the relative balance between HGF and TGF-β in the liver.
Liver regeneration; Splenectomy; Hepatectomy; HGF; Transforming growth factor beta
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats
During neurosurgical procedures, patients are often exposed to hypoxic and ischemic brain damage. Cerebral ischemia leads to neuronal cell death and eventually causes neurological impairments. Remifentanil is a new ultra-short acting phenylpiperidine opioid analgesic. In this study, we evaluated remifentanil to determine if it exerts an anti-apoptotic effect in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils.
Step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 were performed.
The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were increased by ransient global ischemia. Latency in the step-down avoidance task was increased by transient global ischemia. Results revealed that apoptotic cell death in the dentate gyrus was increased significantly following transient global ischemia, resulting in memory impairment. However, treatment with remifentanil suppressed ischemia-induced apoptosis in the dentate gyrus, thereby alleviating the memory impairment that was induced by ischemic cerebral injury.
These results indicate that remifentanil may exert a neuroprotective effect on ischemic brain damage during surgery.
Apoptosis; Memory deficit; Remifenanil; Transient cerebral ischemia
Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that harmonize a variety of physiological processes within the body. Although many urinary functions exhibit clear daily or circadian variation in diurnal humans and nocturnal rodents, the precise mechanisms of these variations are as yet unclear. In this review, we briefly introduce circadian clocks and their organization in mammals. We then summarize known daily or circadian variations in urinary function. Importantly, recent findings by others as well as results obtained by us suggest an active role of circadian clock genes in various urinary functions. Finally, we discuss possible research avenues for the circadian control of urinary function.
Circadian clocks; Urinary bladder; Urination; Urinary function
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) commonly occurs in women, and it has an enormous impact on quality of life. Surgery, drugs, and exercise have been recommended for the treatment of this disease. Among these, exercise is known to be effective for the relief of symptoms of SUI; however, the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of the effect of exercise on SUI are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of swimming the symptom of SUI in relation to the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rats.
Transabdominal urethrolysis was used to induce SUI, in Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental groups were divided into the following three groups: sham-operation group, transabdominal urethrolysis-induced group, and transabdominal urethrolysis-induced and swimming group. The rats in the swimming group were forced to swim for 30 minutes once daily starting 2 weeks after SUI induction and continuing for 4 weeks. For this study, determination of abdominal leak point pressure and immunohistochemistry for NGF in the urethra and in the neuronal voiding centers (medial preoptic nucleus [MPA], ventrolateral periaqueductal gray [vlPAG], pontine micturition center [PMC], and spinal cord [L4-L5]) were performed.
Transabdominal urethrolysis significantly reduced the abdominal leak point pressure, thereby contributing to the induction of SUI. Abdominal leak point pressure, however, was significantly improved by swimming. The expression of NGF in the urethra and in the neuronal voiding centers (MPA, vlPAG, PMC, and L4-L5) relating to micturition was enhanced by the induction of SUI. Swimming, however, significantly suppressed SUI-induced NGF expression.
Swimming alleviated symptoms of transabdominal urethrolysis-induced SUI, as assessed by an increase in abdominal leak point pressure. The underlying mechanisms of these effects of swimming might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of swimming on NGF expression.
Urinary incontinence; Swimming; Nerve growth factor; Rats
Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical and a messenger molecule in many physiological functions. However, excessive NO is believed to be a mediator of neurotoxicity. The medicinal plant Coriolus versicolor is known to possess anti-tumor and immune-potentiating activities. In this study, we investigated whether Coriolus versicolor possesses a protective effect against NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. We utilized 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and caspase-3 enzyme activity assay in SK-N-MC cells. MTT assay showed that SNP treatment significantly reduces the viability of cells, and the viabilities of cells pre-treated with the aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in citrus extract (CVEcitrus) was increased. However, aqueous extract of Coriolus versicolor cultivated in synthetic medium (CVEsynthetic) showed no protective effect and aqueous citrus extract (CE) had a little protective effect. The cell treated with SNP exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated for 1 h with CVEcitrus prior to SNP expose showed reduced apoptotic features. The cells pre-treated for 1 h with CVEcitrus prior to SNP expose inhibited p53 and Bax expressions and caspase-3 enzyme activity up-regulated by SNP. We showed that CVEcitrus exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Our study suggests that CVEcitrus has therapeutic value in the treatment of a variety of NO-induced brain diseases.
Coriolus versicolor; nitric oxide; apoptosis; human neuroblastoma
Oxytocin is associated with the ability to form normal social attachments. c-Fos is an immediate early gene whose expression is used as a marker for stimulus-induced changes in neurons. The effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors on oxytocin activation in the brain without sexual stimuli has not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vardenafil on oxytocin and c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of conscious rats.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300±10 g were divided into 6 groups (n=5 in each group): the control group, the 1-day-0.5 mg/kg, the 1-day-1 mg/kg, the 1-day-2 mg/kg, the 3-day-1 mg/kg, and the 7-day-1 mg/kg vardenafil administration group. The experiment was conducted without sexual stimulation. Vardenafil was orally administered. The animals in the control group received an equivalent amount of distilled water orally. The expression of oxytocin and c-Fos in the PVN was detected by immunohistochemistry.
Oxytocin expression in the PVN was increased by 1 day administration of 2 mg/kg vardenafil, and this effect of vardenafil appeared in a duration-dependent manner. c-Fos in the oxytocin neurons of the PVN was increased by 1 day administration of 2 mg/kg vardenafil, and this effect of vardenafil also appeared in a duration-dependent manner. These results showed that vardenafil augments the expression of oxytocin with activation of oxytocin neurons in the PVN.
In this study, we showed that the PDE-5 inhibitor, vardenafil directly enhances oxytocin expression and also activates oxytocin neurons in the PVN, which indicates that vardenafil may exert positive effects on affiliation behavior and social interaction.
Vardenafil; Oxytocin; c-Fos; Paraventricular nucleus; Rats
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) commonly occurs in women, and it causes enormous impact on quality of life. Surgery, drugs, and exercise have been recommended for the treatment of this disease. Among these exercise is also known to be effective for relieving thesymptoms of SUI, however, the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of exercise on SUI are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on abdominal leak-point pressure and neuronal activity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPA), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and pontine micturition center (PMC) following urethrolysis in rats.
Materials and Methods
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. After having undergone transabdominal urethrolysis to induce SUI, the rats were divided into three groups (n=6 in each group): a sham operation group, an SUI-induced group, and an SUI-induced and treadmill exercise group. The rats in the exercise group performed treadmill running for 30 min once a day starting 2 weeks after the induction of SUI and continuing for 4 weeks after surgery. For this study, determination of abdominal leak point pressure and immunohistochemistry for c-Fos in the brain were performed.
Induction of transabdominal urethrolysis significantly reduced the abdominal leak point pressure, thereby contributing to the induction of SUI. In contrast, abdominal leak point pressure was significantly improved by treadmill exercise. The expression of c-Fosin the MPA, vlPAG, and PMC, the brain areas relating to micturition, was enhanced by the induction of SUI, whereas treadmill exercise significantly suppressed SUI-induced c-Fos expression, suggesting that neuronal activation in the micturition centers was suppressed by treadmill exercise.
The present results suggest that treadmill exercise may be an effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of SUI.
Urinary incontinence; Micturition; Treadmill test; c-Fos; Rats
Spinal cord ischemia with resulting paraplegia remains one of the most common complications after repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms or dissection. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in the central nervous system. We investigated the possible relationship between the effect of pre-ischemic isoflurane exposure on mild spinal cord ischemia and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by using iNOS-specific antibody and pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (PDTC), NF-κB inhibitor, in the ventral horn of spinal cord in rats.
The animals were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): sham group, control group, PDTC-treated group, isoflurane-treated group, and PDTC/ isoflurane-treated group. In the PDTC-treated groups, 2% 100 mg/kg PDTC was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before operation and at 24 h and 48 h after reperfusion. The rats in the isoflurane-treated groups received 30 min inhalation of 2.8% isoflurane at 24 h before spinal cord ischemia. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect iNOS expression in the motor neuron of the ventral horn in spinal cord.
Preconditioning with isoflurane increased the iNOS expression when compared to the control group (P < 0.05), whereas pre-treatment with both PDTC and isoflurane significantly decreased the iNOS expression compared to isoflurane-treated group (P < 0.05).
Pre-ischemic isoflurane exposure was related with increase of the iNOS expression via a pathway modulated by NF-κB. iNOS may act as an important mediator of delayed preconditioning with isoflurane for the protective effect against spinal cord ischemia.
Delayed preconditioning; iNOS; Isoflurane; Spinal cord ischemia
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vardenafil (Levitra), a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, on cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and on 5-hyroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5 in each group): a control group, a 0.5 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 1 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 2 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 1 mg/kg-3 day vardenafil-treated group, and a 1 mg/kg-7 day vardenafil-treated group. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry was then performed to evaluate cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, 5-HT and TPH immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe. The results revealed that treatment with vardenafil increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus and enhanced 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. The findings demonstrate that the increasing effect of vardenafil on cell proliferation is closely associated with the enhancing effect of vardenafil on serotonin expression under normal conditions.
Vardenafil; Dentate Gyrus; Cell Proliferation; Serotonin; Tryptophan Hydroxylase
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of alternative responses to low dose irradiation for neuronal cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of rats. To determine the effect of a single exposure to radiation, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 0.1, 1, 10 or 20 Gy. To determine the effect of the cumulative dose, the animals were irradiated daily with 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy from 1 to 4 days. The neuronal cell proliferation was evaluated using immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Four consecutive daily irradiations with a 0.01 Gy/fraction increased the number of BrdU-positive and Ki-67-positive cells in a dose dependent manner, but this did not affect the number of TUNEL-positive cells. However, there was not a dose dependent relationship for the 0.1 Gy/fraction irradiation with the number of BrdU, Ki-67 and TUNEL positive cells. Our data support the explanation that the adaptive response, induced by low-dose radiation, in the hippocampus of rats is more likely a reflection of the perturbations of cell cycle progression.
Adaptive Response; Radiation Effects; Hippocampus Neurons
We investigated the effect of low dose radiation on diabetes induced suppression of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat. After 0.01 Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and 10 Gy radiation was delivered, the dentate gyrus of hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), caspase-3, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. The number of BrdU positive cells in the non-diabetic rats, diabetic rats without radiation, diabetic rats with 0.01 Gy radiation, diabetic rats with 0.1 Gy radiation, diabetic rats with 1 Gy radiation and diabetic rats with 10 Gy radiation were 55.4±8.5/mm2, 33.3±6.4/mm2, 67.7±10.5/mm2, 66.6±10.0/mm2, 23.5±6.3/mm2and 14.3±7.2/mm2, respectively. The number of caspase-3 positive cells was 132.6±37.4/mm2, 378.6±99.1/mm2, 15.0±2.8/mm2, 57.1±16.9/mm2, 191.8±44.8/mm2and 450.4±58.3/mm2, respectively. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was 24.5±2.0/mm2, 21.7±4.0/mm2, 20.4±2.0/mm2, 18.96±2.1/mm2, 58.3±7.9/mm2, and 106.0±9.8/mm2, respectively. These results suggest low doses of radiation paradoxically improved diabetes induced neuronal cell suppression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat.
Radiation; Hippocampus; Diabetes Mellitus
Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed neuroactive drugs, coming mostly from everyday beverages such as coffee and tea. To investigate whether caffeine induces apoptosis in the central nervous system, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, flow cytometric analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Cells treated with caffeine at concentrations as high as 10 mM exhibited several characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, caffeine was shown to increase the caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that high-dose of caffeine induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells, probably by increasing the caspase-3 enzyme activity.
In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA), body temperature (BT), blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42%) of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.