Choledochal cysts are congenital anomalies of the biliary tract manifested by cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Choledochal cyst is not rare in far-East Asian countries. Type II choledochal cysts account for 2% of all such cysts. They are true diverticula of the extrahepatic bile duct and communicate with the bile duct through a narrow stalk. This condition is associated with significant complications, such as ductal strictures, stone formation, cholangitis, rupture and secondary biliary cirrhosis. We describe a case of a huge impacted stone in a diverticular choledochal cyst which masqueraded as an unusual cystic duct stone causing Mirizzi's syndrome.
Choledochal cyst; Mirizzi's syndrome; Cholangitis
Reported herein is an adult case of Fisher syndrome (FS) that occurred as a complication during the course of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A 38-yr-old man who had been treated with antibiotics for serologically proven M. pneumoniae pneumonia presented with a sudden onset of diplopia, ataxic gait, and areflexia. A thorough evaluation including brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, a nerve conduction study, and detection of serum anti-ganglioside GQ1b antibody titers led to the diagnosis of FS. Antibiotic treatment of the underlying M. pneumoniae pneumonia was maintained without additional immunomodulatory agents. A complete and spontaneous resolution of neurologic abnormalities was observed within 1 month, accompanied by resolution of lung lesions.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Fisher Syndrome; Anti-GQ1b Antibody
A genome-wide association study has identified the 15q25 region as being associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Caucasians. This study intended as a confirmatory assessment of this association in a Korean population. The rs6495309C > T polymorphism in the promoter of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit 3 (CHRNA3) gene was investigated in a case-control study that consisted of 406 patients with COPD and 394 healthy control subjects. The rs6495309 CT or TT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the rs6495309 CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.95, P = 0.023). The effect of the rs6495309C > T on the risk of COPD was more evident in moderate to very severe COPD than in mild COPD under a dominant model for the variant T allele (P = 0.024 for homogeneity). The CHRNA3 rs6495309C > T polymorphism on chromosome 15q25 is associated with the risk of COPD in a Korean population.
CHRNA3; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Polymorphism
A fusion gene between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been identified in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Although a few studies have evaluated EML4-ALK fusion genes in Korean NSCLCs, the prevalence of different EML4-ALK fusion variants has yet to be clearly assessed. Herein, we have examined the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLCs. EML4-ALK fusion genes have been detected in 10 (6.0%) of 167 patients of NSCLCs and in 9 (7.4%) of 121 patients of adenocarcinoma. Of the 10 patients with fusion genes identified, 8 (80%) were E13;A20 (variant 1) and 2 (20%) were E6;A20, with an additional 33-bp sequence derived from intron 6 of EML4 (variant 3b). These results indicate that the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLC may differ from those in other ethnic populations. Herein, we describe for the first time the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion variants of Korean patients with NSCLCs.
ALK; EML4; Carcinoma; Non-Small-Cell Lung
Although stromal-cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α is suggested to be involved in tumorigenicity and tumor angiogenesis, the clinicopathological significance of its expression in colorectal cancers is not fully understood. We examined SDF-1α expression in colorectal cancers and investigated its relationship to clinicopathological features such as tumor staging, lymph-node metastasis, vascular invasion (VI), lymphatic invasion (LI) and neural invasion (NI).
Specimens of 83 primary colorectal cancers were examined immunohistochemically, and the relationships between clinicopathological features and SDF-1α expression were analyzed. To compare the expressions between the normal colon tissue and colorectal cancer tissues, we performed Western blot analyses.
According to the Western blot analyses, SDF-1α was more highly expressed in colorectal carcinoma tissues than in normal colonic mucosa (20/21). According to the immunohistochemical stain, SDF-1α was associated with nodal status, distant metastasis, tumor staging, VI and LI. SDF-1α expression had a significant prognostic value for overall survival. Kaplan-Meier plots of survival in patients with high SDF-1α showed that high SDF-1α expression was associated with a shorter overall survival. However, no association was found between SDF-1α expression and other pathologic or clinical variables, including age, gender, degree of differentiation, and presence of perineural invasion.
The expression of SDF-1α might be associated with tumor progression in colorectal cancer. Inhibition of SDF-1α could be a therapeutic option in colorectal cancer patients.
Colorectal neoplasms; Survival; Prognostic factor; SDF-1α; Chemokine CXCL12
Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been associated with metastasis promotion. However, clinical applications of this association have not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the relation of PRL-3 mRNA level in primary colorectal cancer to the corresponding stage and to other clinicopathologic factors.
Two hundred forty-five patients with histologically-proven colorectal cancer underwent surgery between January 2004 and December 2006. RNA was extracted and cDNA was prepared by using reverse transcription. Quantification of PRL-3 was done using a real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Eighty-six cases with well-preserved specimens were enrolled: 53 males and 33 females. The mean age was 63.4 years. According to tumour node metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), stage I was 11 cases, stage II was 38 cases, stage III was 23 cases, and stage IV was 14 cases. Among stage IV cases, one case was combined with liver and lung metastases, and one case was combined with liver metastases and peritoneal dissemination. The remaining stage IV patients were combined with only liver metastases. There was a significant correlation in PRL-3 mRNA expression between primary colorectal cancer and corresponding tumor stage. PRL-3 mRNA expression was increased in the liver metastases cases. Lymphatic and vascular invasion were significantly related with PRL-3 mRNA levels.
Advanced stage prediction may be obtained by measuring the level of PRL-3 mRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer. Especially, the risk of liver metastases may be predicted by measuring the level of PRL-3 mRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer. Further study is required to confirm these preliminary results.
PTP4A3 protein, human; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Colorectal neoplasms; Neoplasm Metastasis
A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Whipple's operation; Bile leak; Drain tube; Intestinal penetration
Although TP53 mutations have been widely studied in lung cancer, the majority of studies have focused on exons 5-8 of the gene. In addition, TP53 mutations in Korean patients with lung cancers have not been investigated. We searched for mutations in the entire coding exons, including splice sites of the gene, in Korean patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mutations of the gene were determined by direct sequencing in 176 NSCLCs. Sixty-nine mutations (62 different mutations) were identified in 65 tumors. Of the 62 mutations, 12 were novel mutations. TP53 mutations were more frequent in males, ever-smokers and squamous cell carcinomas than in females, never-smokers and adenocarcinomas, respectively (all comparisons, P<0.001). Missense mutations were most common (52.2%), but frameshift, nonsense, and splice-site mutations were frequently observed at frequencies of 18.8%, 15.9% and 10.1%, respectively. Of the 69 mutations, 9 (13.0%) were found in the oligomerization domain. In addition, the proportion of mutations in the oligomerization domain was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas (23.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.01). Our study provides clinical and molecular characteristics of TP53 mutations in Korean patients with NSCLCs.
Lung Neoplasms; Mutation; Genes, p53
In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, data of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are lacking as studied by computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography and indirect CT venography (CTPA-CTV). A prospective observational study was performed for 363 Korean patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially proximal DVT and PE. The incidence of VTE was 16.3% (n=59). Of them, 8 patients (2.2%) were symptomatic. The rate of VTE was the highest in patients who underwent total knee replacement (40.4%), followed by hip fracture surgery (16.4%), and total hip replacement (8.7%; P<0.001). The incidence of PE was 6.6% (n=24). Of them, 4 patients (1.1%) were symptomatic. Forty-one patients (11.3%) were in the proximal DVT or PE group. Based on multivariate analysis, total knee replacement and age ≥65 yr were significant risk factors for proximal DVT or PE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.1; P=0.025; and OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.4; P=0.046, respectively). Taken together, the overall incidence of PE was 6.6% and rate of symptomatic PE rate was 1.1%. Knee joint replacement and age ≥65 yr were significant risk factors for proximal DVT or PE.
Orthopedics; Venous Thromboembolism; Pulmonary Embolism; Computed Tomography
A number of genome-wide linkage analyses have identified the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region as most likely to contain the genes that contribute to the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was hypothesized that the SERPINE2 gene, which is one of the genes located at the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region, may act as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for COPD. To test this hypothesis, the association of four SERPINE2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs16865421A>G, rs7583463A>C, rs729631C>G, and rs6734100C>G) with the risk of COPD was investigated in a case-control study of 311 COPD patients and 386 controls. The SNP rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD in a dominant model for the polymorphic allele (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.45-0.97, P=0.03). In haplotype analysis, the GACC haplotype carrying the polymorphic allele at the rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the AACC haplotype (adjusted OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.38-0.89, P=0.01), and this effect was evident in younger individuals (adjusted OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.14-0.64, P=0.002). This study suggests that the SERPINE2 gene contributes to the susceptibility to COPD.
Serpine2; Polymorphism; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
A 1D point-prevalence study was performed to describe the characteristics of conventional mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs). In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the characteristics of ICUs. A prospective, multicenter study was performed in ICUs at 24 university hospitals. The study population consisted of 223 patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation or had been weaned off mechanical ventilation within the past 24 hr. Common indications for the initiation of mechanical ventilation included acute respiratory failure (66%), acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure (15%) (including tuberculosis-destroyed lung [5%]), coma (13%), and neuromuscular disorders (6%). Mechanical ventilation was delivered via an endotracheal tube in 68% of the patients, tracheostomy in 28% and facial mask with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in 4%. NIV was used in 2 centers. In patients who had undergone tracheostomy, the procedure had been performed 16.9±8.1 days after intubation. Intensivists treated 29% of the patients. A need for additional educational programs regarding clinical practice in the ICU was expressed by 62% of the staff and 42% of the nurses. Tuberculosis-destroyed lung is a common indication for mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure, and noninvasive ventilation was used in a limited number of ICUs.
Respiration, Artificial; Intensive Care Units; Respiratory Insufficiency; Tuberculosis-Destroyed Lung
We report here on an extremely rare case of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts that was associated with choledocholithiasis, and this malady was visualized by employing the minimum intensity projection images with using multi-detector row CT. The presence of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts with a proximal communication, and the ducts were joined distally and they subsequently formed a single common bile duct, has not been previously reported.
Bile ducts, abnormalities; Bile ducts, calculi; Computed tomography (CT), minimum intensity projection
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) leads to residual pleural opacity (RPO) in a significant proportion of cases. The aim of this study was to investigate which TPE patients would have RPO following the treatment. This study was performed prospectively for a total of 60 TPE patients, who underwent pleural fluid analysis on the initial visit and chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans before and after the administration of antituberculous medication. At the end of antituberculous medication, the incidence of RPO was 68.3% (41/60) on CT with a range of 2-50 mm. Compared with the non-RPO group, the RPO group had a longer symptom duration and lower pleural fluid glucose level. On initial CT, loculation, extrapleural fat proliferation, increased attenuation of extrapleural fat, and pleura-adjacent atelectasis were more frequent, and parietal pleura was thicker in the RPO group compared with the non-RPO group. By multivariate analysis, extrapleural fat proliferation, loculated effusion, and symptom duration were found to be predictors of RPO in TPE. In conclusion, RPO in TPE may be predicted by the clinico-radiologic parameters related to the chronicity of the effusion, such as symptom duration and extrapleural fat proliferation and loculated effusion on CT.
Computed Tomography; Pleural Effusion; Residual Thickening; Tuberculosis
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. DNA sequence variations in the COX-2 gene may lead to altered COX-2 production and/or activity, and so they cause inter-individual differences in the susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association between the 8473T>C polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the COX-2 gene and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population.
The COX-2 genotypes were determined using PCR-based primer-introduced restriction analysis in 582 lung cancer patients and in 582 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age and gender.
The distribution of the COX-2 8473T>C genotypes was not significantly different between the overall lung cancer cases and the controls. However, when the cases were categorized by the tumor histology, the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of adenocarcinoma as compared with the 8473 TT genotype (adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46–0.90, P = 0.01). On the stratification analysis, the protective effect of the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype against adenocarcinoma was statistically significant in the males, older individuals and ever-smokers (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39–0.91, P = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.33–0.93, P = 0.03; and adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37–0.87, P = 0.01, respectively).
These findings suggest that the COX-2 8473T>C polymorphism could be used as a marker for the genetic susceptibility to adenocarcinoma of the lung.
Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is often required for rapid and confirmative diagnosis in patients with suspected pleural tuberculosis (PL-TB). However, this method is more invasive and costly than its alternatives. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical utility of the chest computed tomography (CT)-based bronchial aspirate (BA) TB-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in such patients.
Bronchoscopic evaluation was performed in 54 patients with presumptive PL-TB through diagnostic thoracentesis but without a positive result of sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, pleural fluid AFB smear, or pleural fluid TB-PCR test. Diagnostic yields of BA were evaluated according to the characteristics of parenchymal lesions on chest CT.
Chest radiograph and CT revealed parenchymal lesions in 25 (46%) and 40 (74%) of 54 patients, respectively. In cases with an absence of parenchymal lesions on chest CT, the bronchoscopic approach had no diagnostic benefit. BA TB-PCR test was positive in 21 out of 22 (95%) patients with early-positive results. Among BA results from 20 (37%) patients with patchy consolidative CT findings, eight (40%) were AFB smear-positive, 18 (90%) were TB-PCR-positive, and 19 (95%) were culture-positive.
The BA TB-PCR test seems to be a satisfactory diagnostic modality in patients with suspected PL-TB and patchy consolidative CT findings. For rapid and confirmative diagnosis in these patients, the bronchoscopic approach with TB-PCR may be preferable to the thoracoscopy.
Tuberculosis, Pleural; Bronchoscopy; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Thoracoscopy
This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay in inpatients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with pulmonary infiltrates who required a differential diagnosis with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).
The patients with pulmonary infiltrates who received a QuantiFERON (QFT) test in the ED were included as an inpatient group and were divided into TB and non-TB group based on the final diagnosis. Patients with pulmonary TB who were tested in the outpatient department served as a control group.
In total, 377 QFT tests were analyzed. Of the 284 inpatient QFT tests, 29.6% had an indeterminate result (35.2% in the 196 patients with non-TB and 17.0% in the 88 patients with TB). In contrast, only 1.1% of the 93 outpatients with TB returned an indeterminate result (p < 0.001). The indeterminate QFT results in the inpatient group were independently associated with lymphocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and high C-reactive protein levels. Non-positive QFT results in inpatients with TB were associated with lymphocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, while non-positive QFT results in outpatients with TB were associated with high erythrocyte sedimentation rates and radiographically more severe diseases.
QFT tests in ED-based inpatients with pulmonary infiltrate return indeterminate results relatively frequently. In addition, inpatients and outpatients with pulmonary TB may differ in terms of the risk factors on non-positive QFT results.