Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates whether higher lactation intensity is related to more favorable blood lipids, lipoproteins and adipokines after GDM pregnancy independent of obesity, socio-demographics and insulin resistance.
The Study of Women, Infant Feeding, and Type 2 Diabetes (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study that recruited 1,035 women diagnosed with GDM by the 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) after delivery of a live birth in 2008–2011. Research staff conducted 2-hour 75 gram OGTTs, and assessed lactation intensity, anthropometry, lifestyle behaviors and socio-demographics at 6–9 weeks postpartum (baseline). We assayed fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin from stored samples obtained at 6–9 weeks postpartum for in 1,007 of the SWIFT participants who were free of diabetes at baseline. Mean biomarker concentrations were compared among lactation intensity groups using multivariable linear regression models.
Increasing lactation intensity showed graded monotonic associations with fully adjusted mean biomarkers: 5–8% higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), 20–28% lower fasting triglycerides, 15–21% lower leptin (all trend P-values<0.01), and with 6% lower adiponectin, but only after adjustment for insulin resistance (trend P-value=0.04).
Higher lactation intensity was associated with more favorable biomarkers for type 2 diabetes, except for lower plasma adiponectin, after GDM delivery. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess whether these effects of lactation persist to predict progression to glucose intolerance.
Adipokines; Insulin Resistance; Diabetes Mellitus; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM); Breastfeeding; Postpartum; Metabolism
Persons with diabetes have accelerated muscle loss. The association of fasting and postchallenge glucose levels per se to grip strength, a clinical marker of poor physical function, and potential sex differences in this relationship has not been previously described.
Participants were community-dwelling older adults (mean age 71.3 years) without self-reported diabetes and/or use of diabetes medication with glucose measured at baseline (1992–1996).
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured in 1019 women and 636 men. Two-hour glucose (2HG) levels after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were also available (women, n=870; men, n=559). Dominant hand grip strength was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer at 3.0±1.6 visits over a median 7.0 years. Mixed linear models examined the association of baseline glucose levels with grip strength, accounting for repeated visits, and adjusting for covariates.
Sex-specific FPG quartiles were associated with unadjusted differences in grip strength among women (p=0.03) but not men (p=0.50). However, in men, adjusting for age, education, height, weight, peripheral neuropathy, physical activity, and comorbidities, each SD (SD=17 mg/dL) higher FPG was associated with persistently lower grip strength (−0.44±0.22 kg, p=0.049); 2HG (SD=50 mg/dL) was unrelated to grip strength (−0.39±0.25 kg, p=0.13). In women, neither FPG (SD=16 mg/dL) nor 2HG (SD=45 mg/dL) was associated with grip strength (0.02±0.12 kg, p=0.90; and −0.20±0.14 kg, p=0.14; respectively) after adjustment. The rate of change in grip strength did not differ across FPG or 2HG quartiles in either sex.
In age-adjusted analyses, elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with persistently lower grip strength in older men, but not women. Future studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex differences and may provide further insight into accelerated loss of muscle function as a complication of diabetes in older adults.
Elderly; Sex Difference; Muscle Weakness; Epidemiology
To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women.
We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined.
Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy.
Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use.
lifestyle change; hypertension; postmenopausal hormone therapy
Lower levels of sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) have been associated with increased risk of diabetes among postmenopausal women; however, it is unclear whether they are associated with glucose intolerance in younger women. We examined whether SHBG concentrations, measured before pregnancy, are associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a nested case-control study among women who participated in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Multiphasic Health Check-up examination (1984–1996) and had a subsequent pregnancy (1984–2009). Eligible women were free of recognized diabetes. Case patients were 256 women in whom GDM developed. Two control subjects were selected for each case patient and were matched for year of blood draw, age at examination, age at pregnancy, and number of intervening pregnancies.
Compared with the highest quartile of SHBG concentrations, the odds of GDM increased with decreasing quartile (odds ratio 1.06 [95% CI 0.44–2.52]; 2.33 [1.07–5.09]; 4.06 [1.90–8.65]; P for trend < 0.001), after adjusting for family history of diabetes, prepregnancy BMI, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, prepregnancy weight changes, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Having SHBG levels below the median (<64.5 nmol/L) and a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 was associated with fivefold increased odds of GDM compared with normal-weight women with SHBG levels at or above the median (5.34 [3.00–9.49]).
Low prepregnancy SHBG concentrations were associated with increased risk of GDM and might be useful in identifying women at risk for GDM for early prevention strategies.
Based on their higher risk of type 2 diabetes, non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) would be expected to have higher gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). However, previous studies have reported lower GDM risk in NHBs versus NHWs. We examined whether GDM risk was lower in NHBs and NHWs, and whether this disparity differed by age group. The cohort consisted of 462,296 live singleton births linked by birth certificate and hospital discharge data from 2004 to 2007 in Florida. Using multivariable regression models, we examined GDM risk stratified by age and adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and other covariates. Overall, NHBs had a lower prevalence of GDM (2.5 vs. 3.1 %, p < 0.01) and a higher proportion of preconception DM births (0.5 vs. 0.3 %, p ≤ 0.01) than NHWs. Among women in their teens (risk ratio 0.56, p < 0.01) and 20–29 years of age (risk ratio 0.85, p < 0.01), GDM risk was lower in NHBs than NHWs. These patterns did not change with adjustment for BMI and other covariates. Among women 30–39 years (risk ratio 1.18, p < 0.01) and ≥40 years (risk ratio 1.22, p < 0.01), GDM risk was higher in NHBs than NHWs, but risk was higher in NHWs after adjustment for BMI. Associations between BMI and GDM risk did not vary by race/ethnicity or age group. NHBs have lower risk of GDM than NHWs at younger ages, regardless of BMI. NHBs had higher risk than NHWs at older ages, largely due to racial/ethnic disparities in overweight/obesity at older ages.
Race; Ethnicity; Birth certificates; Prenatal; Gestational diabetes; Diabetes mellitus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial investigated rates of progression to diabetes among adults with prediabetes randomized to treatment with placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention. Among women in the DPP, diabetes risk reduction with metformin was greater in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with women without GDM but with one or more previous live births.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We asked if genetic variability could account for these differences by comparing β-cell function and genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated from 34 diabetes-associated loci, between women with and without histories of GDM.
β-Cell function was reduced in women with GDM. The GRS was positively associated with a history of GDM; however, the GRS did not predict progression to diabetes or modulate response to intervention.
These data suggest that a diabetes-associated GRS is associated with development of GDM and may characterize women at risk for development of diabetes due to β-cell dysfunction.
Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, while lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs. older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation.
estradiol; testosterone; androgens; sex hormone binding globulin; metabolic syndrome; diabetes; endogenous sex hormones; men; women
Previous studies have demonstrated lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), paralleling the reported lower prevalence of prostate cancer among diabetic men. Data on PSA in men with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in whom insulin and obesity profiles differ from those in T2DM, are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between long-term glycemic control and PSA in men with T1DM.
MATERIALS & METHODS
Total PSA was measured at one time in 639 men in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow up of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). The relationship between DCCT/EDIC weighted mean HbA1c and log PSA was assessed using linear regression modeling after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), total testosterone, statin and thiazide medication use, diabetes duration, and DCCT randomization arm and cohort.
The subjects had a median age of 52 years, BMI of 28.4 kg/m2 and DCCT/EDIC time weighted HbA1c of 7.9%. Total median (interquartile range) for PSA levels was 0.64 (0.43, 1.05). PSA levels increased significantly with age (p<0.0001) and with lower time weighted HbA1c (p<0.0001). Each 10% increase in HbA1c was accompanied by an 11% reduction in PSA (p=0.0001).
PSA levels decrease as HbA1c increases in men with T1DM. This relationship is independent of age, BMI, androgen levels, medication use and measures of diabetes severity, which suggest that factors related to glycemia may be directly affecting PSA levels.
Glycemic Control; Diabetes; PSA
We examined the impact of intensive versus conventional diabetes treatment upon menopause among women with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a randomized controlled trial of intensive diabetes treatment, and its observational follow-up, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In a secondary analysis of women in the DCCT/EDIC (n = 657), outcomes were the cumulative incidences of natural menopause and surgical menopause. Cox regression analyses were used to examine associations with treatment group, time-varying estimates of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dosage, BMI, and microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy).
By EDIC year 18, after an average of 28 years of follow-up, 240 (38%) women had experienced natural menopause and 115 (18%) women had experienced surgical menopause. Age at natural menopause was similar in the intensive versus conventional groups (49.9 vs. 49.0 years; P = 0.28), and age at surgical menopause was similar in the intensive versus conventional groups (40.8 vs. 42.0 years; P = 0.31). In multivariable models, treatment group, HbA1c, and microvascular complications were not associated with risk of natural or surgical menopause. Each 10 unit/day increase in insulin dosage decreased risk of natural menopause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.75–0.98) and each kg/m2 increase in BMI increased risk of surgical menopause (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00–1.16).
In the DCCT/EDIC, intensive versus conventional treatment group and HbA1c level were not associated with menopause risk. Greater insulin dose was associated with lower menopause risk.
To examine the associations between fasting serum glucose, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance and BPH in a population-based cohort of African-American men.
Using the Flint Men’s Health Study (FMHS), we examined how fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and calculated HOMA-IR related to burden and progression of clinical markers of BPH in African-American men aged 40–79.
Among 369 men at baseline, mean age was 56.6 years and approximately 70% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2). 148 men (34.4%) reported moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (AUASI≥8). There were no significant trends of metabolic disturbances as measured by serum glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR in men with indications of BPH compared to those without.
In this population-based study of African-American men aged 40–79, we did not observe any significant associations between hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and burden and progression of BPH after adjustment for age and BMI. This may be due in part to the single measurement and glucose and insulin which may not adequately reflect average glucose metabolism. Further studies examining measures of long-term glycemic control and BPH in racially diverse populations are warranted.
diabetes; BPH; LUTS; diabetes; men; aging
Obesity is a growing worldwide epidemic among women of reproductive age, including pregnant women. The increased prevalence of obesity has been accompanied by an increase in gestational weight gain. Maternal obesity has deleterious consequences for both mother and child.
To review the recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the Institute of Medicine regarding gestational weight gain and interventions to treat obesity during pregnancy.
Guidelines on gestational weight gain from these organizations, as well as reports of gestational weight gain in the published literature, are summarized.
Many normal and overweight parturients exceed the recommendations in the guidelines, which may contribute to postpartum obesity.
Lifestyle changes, including dieting and increased activity, may help to limit excessive gestational weight gain but the optimal strategy remains unclear.
Gestational weight gain; Maternal nutrition; Obesity; Pregnancy
To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen.
Design and Methods
The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysis, we examined sex steroid levels and reductions in weight and waist circumference (WC) among postmenopausal women using (n=324) and not using (n=382) oral estrogen.
Estrogen users and non-users randomized to lifestyle change and metformin both lost significant amounts of weight compared to placebo. Reductions in weight and WC over 1 year associated with randomization arm were not associated with baseline sex steroid levels among estrogen users or non-users.
Among estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC, suggesting that exogenous estrogen does not potentiate weight loss by altering sex steroids. Among non-estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC.
sex steroids; waist circumference; weight loss
It is unclear how lipids change in response to lifestyle modification or metformin among postmenopausal glucose intolerant women using and not using hormone therapy (HT). We examined the one-year changes in lipids among postmenopausal, prediabetic women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and whether changes were mediated by sex hormones.
We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 342 women who used HT at baseline and year 1 and 382 women who did not use HT at either time point. Interventions included intensive lifestyle (ILS) with goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg up to twice a day. Women were not randomized to HT. Main outcome measures were changes between baseline and study year 1 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides.
Compared to placebo, both ILS and metformin significantly reduced LDL-C and raised HDL-C among HT users, changes partially explained by change in estradiol and testosterone but independent of changes in waist circumference and 1/fasting insulin. In contrast, DPP interventions had no effect on LDL-C and HDL-C among non-HT users. ILS significantly lowered triglycerides among non-users but did not significantly change triglycerides among HT users. Metformin did not significantly change triglycerides among non-users but increased triglycerides among HT users.
The beneficial effects of ILS and metformin on lowering LDL-C and raising HDL-C differ depending upon concurrent HT use.
sex hormones; lifestyle intervention; hormone therapy; lipids; women
To determine if health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health are associated with mortality in persons with diabetes.
Survey and medical record data were obtained from 7,892 patients with diabetes in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Vital status at follow-up was determined from the National Death Index. Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to determine if a generic measure of health-related quality-of-life (EQ-5D) and self-rated health measured at baseline were associated with 4-year all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality.
At baseline, the mean EQ-5D score for decedents was 0.73 (SD=0.20) and for survivors was 0.81 (SD=0.18) (p<0.0001). Fifty-five percent of decedents and 36% of survivors (p<0.0001) rated their health as fair or poor. Lower EQ-5D scores and fair or poor self-rated health were associated with higher rates of mortality after adjusting for the demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical risk factors for mortality.
Health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health predict mortality in persons with diabetes. Health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health may provide additional information on patient risk independent of demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical risk factors for mortality.
diabetes; mortality; QoL
To examine the associations between 2 potential facilitators of healthy behaviors (self-efficacy and social support), and both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
We surveyed 228 women with histories of GDM enrolled in a managed care plan. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed the association between women’s social support from family and friends for physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity with women’s physical activity levels. We also examined the association between women’s social support from family and friends for healthy diet and self-efficacy for not overeating and their dietary habits. Finally, we assessed the association between all of these psychosocial constructs and body mass index (BMI) before and after adjustment for covariates.
Participants reported low to moderate social support and self-efficacy scores, suboptimal performance of physical activity, suboptimal dietary scores, and high BMIs. Self-efficacy and social support from family and friends for physical activity were associated with physical activity. Social support from family and friends for a healthy diet was associated with better dietary scores and the association between self-efficacy for not overeating and healthy diet bordered on significance. No significant associations existed between psychosocial constructs and BMI.
Psychosocial constructs such as social support and self-efficacy are associated with physical activity and dietary habits. However, associations with BMI are weak. Further exploration of constructs associated with BMI may be needed to design effective weight-loss interventions in this population.
Guidelines for management of women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the postpregnancy period have lagged behind the recognition that this is an important time for medical intervention. However, in the past decade, the evidence-base for screening algorithms, contraceptive management, diabetes prevention strategies and implications for offspring has expanded. In this review, we discuss current recommendations for managing women with GDM in the postnatal period, with particular attention to postpartum diabetes screening, prevention of future glucose intolerance and family planning.
gestational diabetes; postpartum; women
Among postmenopausal women who do not use estrogen hormone therapy (HT) we have previously reported that intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) leads to increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and such increases were associated with reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2HG). Oral HT decreases FPG and increases 2HG, while increasing both SHBG and estradiol (E2). It is unknown if ILS reduces glucose among HT users, if changes in SHBG and E2 might mediate any glucose decreases in HT users, and if these patterns differ from non-HT users.
We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal women in the Diabetes Prevention Program who used HT at baseline and 1 year follow-up (n=324) and who did not use HT at either time point (n=382). Participants were randomized to ILS, metformin, or placebo administered 850 mg twice a day.
HT users were younger, more often white, and more likely to have had bilateral oophorectomy than non-HT users. Among HT users, ILS reduced FPG (p<0.01) and 2HG (p<0.01), and metformin reduced FPG (p<0.01) but not 2HG (p=0.56), compared to placebo. Associations between SHBG and total E2 with FPG and 2HG were not significant among women randomized to ILS or to metformin. These patterns differed from those observed among women who did not use HT.
We conclude that among glucose intolerant HT users, interventions to reduce glucose are effective but possibly mediated through different pathways than among women who did not use HT.
menopause; estrogen; progestogen; hormone therapy; glucose
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM.
Diabetes, gestational; Epidemiology; Postpartum period; Pregnancy
To examine the association between physicians’ reimbursement perceptions and outpatient test performance. Previous studies have documented an association between reimbursement perceptions and electrocardiogram performance, but not for other common outpatient procedures.
Participants were physicians (n = 766) and their managed care patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 2758) enrolled in 6 plans in 2003. Procedures measured included electrocardiograms, radiographs or x-rays, urine microalbumin measures, hemoglobin A1cs, and Pap smears for women. Hierarchical logistic regression models were adjusted for health plan and physician level clustering and for physician and patient covariates. To minimize confounding by unmeasured health plan variables, we adjusted for plan as a fixed effect. Thus, we estimated variation between physicians using only the variance within health plans.
Patients of physicians who reported reimbursement for electrocardiograms were more likely to receive electrocardiograms than patients of physicians who did not perceive reimbursement (unadjusted mean difference 4.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.1% to 8.9%)) and adjusted mean difference 3.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.21% to 7.8%)). For the other tests examined, no significant differences in procedure performance were found between patients of physicians who perceived reimbursement and patients of physicians who did not perceive reimbursement.
Our findings suggest that reimbursement perception was associated with electrocardiograms, but not with other commonly performed outpatient procedures. Future research should investigate how associations change with perceived amount of reimbursement and interactions with other influences upon test-ordering behavior such as perceived appropriateness.
managed care; reimbursement; outpatient
No longitudinal studies have examined how iron measures change over menopause. Our objectives were to examine iron measures in individual women at premenopause and at postmenopause and, secondarily, to determine if any changes contributed to insulin resistance.
In a subset of participants (n=70) in a longitudinal study of menopause, we measured ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) once in the premenopause and once in the postmenopause. We also examined associations between menopausal status and change in iron markers after adjustment for age at menopause, race/ethnicity, and waist circumference. In linear regression models, we examined associations between premenopause iron measures and changes in iron markers over menopause with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) changes over menopause, before and after adjustment for age at menopause, race/ethnicity, changes in waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels.
Women had lower ferritin (p<0.01), higher sTfR:ferritin levels (p<0.01), lower HOMA-IR (p=0.022), and lower glucose (p=0.05) in premenopause compared to postmenopause. After adjustment, lower premenopausal iron levels (sTfR:ferritin levels β=11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.017-22.0) and larger increases in iron over menopause (changes in sTfR:ferritin β=13.6, 95% CI 0.93-26.3) were associated with larger increases in HOMA-IR.
From premenopause to postmenopause, women on average have increases in measures of iron stores. Women who had the greatest changes in iron over menopause (lower measures of premenopausal iron and greater increases in iron measures over the menopause) had the strongest associations between changes in iron and changes in insulin resistance.
To determine whether, among women with gestational diabetes (GDM), referral to a telephonic nurse management program was associated with lower risk of macrosomia and increased postpartum glucose testing.
There was medical center-level variation in the percent of patients referred to a telephonic nurse management program at 12 Kaiser Permanente medical centers, allowing to examine in a quasi-experimental design the associations between referral and outcomes.
Compared with women from centers where the annual proportion of referral nurse management was <30%, women who delivered from centers with an annual referral proportion >70% were less likely to have a macrosomic infant and more likely to have postpartum glucose testing [multiple-adjusted OR (95%CI): 0.75 (0.57–0.98) and 22.96 (2.56–3.42), respectively].
Receiving care at the centers with higher referral frequency to a telephonic nurse management for GDM was associated with decreased risk of macrosomic infant and increased postpartum glucose testing.
gestational diabetes; macrosomia; nurse management; postpartum glucose screening
The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions.
The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use.
After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55).
Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk.
diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance; menopause; oophorectomy; women
Postpartum testing with a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone is often not performed among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Use of hemoglobin A1c (A1C) might increase testing. The association between A1C and glucose has not been examined in women with histories of GDM.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed the association of A1C ≥5.7% with FPG ≥100 mg/dL and 2-h glucose ≥140 mg/dL among 54 women with histories of GDM between 6 weeks and 36 months postpartum.
A1C ≥5.7% had 65% sensitivity and 68% specificity for identifying elevated FPG or 2-h glucose and 75% sensitivity and 62% specificity for elevated FPG alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for A1C was 0.76 for elevated FPG or 2-h glucose and 0.77 for elevated FPG alone.
The agreement between A1C and glucose levels is fair for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance among women with histories of GDM.
We examined cross-sectional associations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with glucose among women recent GDM (n=55). SHBG was associated with fasting glucose levels before and after adjustment for covariates (p=0.015), but not with 2-hour glucose. We conclude SHBG should be explored in prospective studies in GDM women.
gestational diabetes; postpartum; sex hormone binding globulin